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I I t 

1 * r 

/ ^ 





^lot. e. 





I • 






J. Nichols, Sod, and Bentley, Printers, 
YU<I Lion Passage, Fleei Street, Loijdon. 






°0F THB 











1812. H R> . ^^ ~ 


XN presenting a new Edition of the Biographical 
DicTiONARV, more voluminous than any' of the forr 
mer^ it may be necessary to premise a general sketch 
of the additions and improvements to be introduced* 
It appears to have been th^^^prigihal plan of this Dic- 
tionary to comprise an acobunt of persons of all na- 
tions^ ejninent for geniw/.learaing, public spirit, and 
virtue, with a preference, as. tpexteat of narrative, to 
those of our own country. Alid this plan it is in^ 
tended to follow in all its parts, with the exception of 
«ome articles confessedly iiiiproper for a work of this 
kind, but with the addition of many inore, collected 
from various sources, foreign and domestic. 

Many of the years which have elapsed since th^ 
publication of the last edition, have been employed in 
collecting, materials for the improved state in which, it 
is hc^>ed, the Work will now iappear ; and n^uch pains 
have been' taken to remove the objections, whether ctf 
redundancy or defect, v^hich bave been made to all 
|he: preceding editions. During the same ^pa^je^ ^ 



very great accession has been made to our biographi- 
cal stock, not only by the demise of many eminent 
characters in the literary world, but by the additional 
ardour given to the spirit of literary curiosity. It is 
to this that we owe oiany valuable memoirs of authors 
and writings unjustly consigned to oblivion, but re- 
covered by the industry of those who, without being 
insensible to the merit of their own times, are impar^ 
tial enough to do justice to the talents of remote ages. 

Of the lives retained from the last edition, besides 
An attempt to restore < uniformity of style, there are 
very few which are not,^ either in whole or in part, 
re^written, or to %vhich it has not been found neces** 
sary to make- very important additions. Nor ought 
this to be construed into a^ reflection on preceding 
Editors. Bwography was of later growth in this coun- 
try than ill aiiy other; and cfvery new work,; if per- 
formed with equal industry and accuracy, must exod 

the past in utility afid copiousness. 

, » «\ » 

' V ' T ' 

' As from i^orks of this description a superior degree 
bf judgment is ecs^peeted, which at the same time is 
acknowledged to-bie ranely founds it becomes necessary 
to advert to the insurmountable difficulty of making 
such a selection as shall give yniversal tetisfaction. 
'The f ule to admit important and reject ins^ifican^ 
lives, wt>uld b^ useful^^ were it practicable. But no 
individual. Of considemble number of individuai^ can 
be su{^sled capaUe of determining on the various 
merits that are allotted in biographical coUectioiisi; 
and^ten where We bate recourse to whicli 

ADVERTI6JSMS)9r^>. y^ 

the critical plan has been professedly adopted^ them 
is in very few cases that decisive poncurrence of opi- 
nion on which an Editor can rely. 

r ■ 

It has been acknowledged, however, that of the 
two grand errors, that of redundancy may he com- 
mitted with i|[iost impunity, not only because curiosity 
after the works of past ages has lately become more 
extensive, and is nourished by the superior attention 
bestowed on the contents of our great libraries, as well 
as by the formation of new and extensive libraries by 
opulent individuals ; but because tliere are few lives so 
insignificant as not to be useful in illustrating some 
point of literary history. And, what is more impor- 
tant, it has often been found, since the progress of 
learning became to be more accurately traced, that 
persons once considered as insignificant, proved to be 
so only because little known. Still, as there are some 
general opinions which may be followed, some general 
inscriptions of fame which are too distinctly legible to 
be mistaken, the most ample spaces will be filled by 
those whose names are most familiar to scholars of all 
ages and nations. 

In order, likewise, to obviate as much as possible 
the errors of selection, it is intended, in the present 
edition, to subjoin, throughout the whole series, very 
copious REFERENCES TO AUTHORITIES. Thcsc in some 
similar works, particularly on the Continent, have 
been either wholly omitted, or given at second-hand 
so incorrectly as to be useless. But if collected from 
an inspection of the works referred to, where that is 


pKicticable, they will always serve to point out to the 
curious reader where farther information may be found, 
and at the same time, in lives that are sufficiently co- 
pious, may justify the Editor, who must in a thousand 
instances be guided by opinions which he has it not 
in his power t6 appreciate. 

While references to authorities, however, are given^ 
it has not been thought necessary to extend them to a 
degree of ostentatious minuteness. In referring, for 
example, to such a work as the Biographia Britan- 
nica, it cannot, for any useful purpose, be necessary 
to strip the margins of that work^ of those minute re-' 
ferences to a variety of books, pamphlets, and records, 
from which small particulars are taken ; and the same 
remark may be applied to Moreri, the General Die- 
tionaiy including Bayle, and other elaborate compi- 
lations of a similar nature. At the same time, the 
reader has a right to expect that the original and lead-^ 
ing authorities should be carefully pointed out. 

Another improvement intended in the present Edi- 
tion, is that of a more copious list of each Author's 
Writings than has usually been thought neces- 
sary. Whatever may be the case with our con- 
temporaries, we have no more certain criterion of past 
reputation and value, than frequency of reprinting, 
and no more certain method of estimating the learn- 
ing and taste of past generations, thap by inspect- 
ing the works from which they deri^ved instruction. 
But in some cases over which oblivion seems to have 
cast her deepest shades, it may bq sufficient to refer 
to original lists, and avoid that minuteness of descrip^ 

tion which belongs mote stritftly ta the ^rotinee dT 

Ifi dftf fttt (}f Hm pt^^ent Hnd^rtaking, it ha» hk)^ 
#iie beeii raccAiifneikkd^ wkh gttat J>iK>priety, ttiM tfa^ 
titles of Books should generally be giveb kt tilcfif oftH 
GiNAL i^ANGUAGES. Much dlBScul ty has arisen to collec- 
hm of S«oks^ aM* well fl(8> to the x'^adeni ki ptf bli£ fibrttries^^ 
ift>m kKkPkig ^tfiiiskted tilfe 6t^ly^ tthich is Dtefl to 1S# 
feuntt ki cjMlcgtiesr^ noi^ ])ei^hdp», upon <93ftf deeofant^ 
eXMljr r^oU«eted by librarian^. It is hifeii^led, ther6^ 
fcrt, td feAor4 this necessiA^y info^mtttioR, Where i« 
tm he printed ; btrf the Editor firtefe « Aie^ to hfiiH 
8^ t4 acMv tllM be ha9 tiot Alwbysr b^n^ so Mcces^l 
iit 9de6V6rii|^ ttM^ prb^r titles^ of Wdrks^ aH cisuy hav^ 
Iteem wisfcttfc The bidgraqphei^s 6f thoiA nations- teWrtf 
khIlMffto bc^W ptnial fo ftMfslafedy tod frequeiiftfj;^ 
Afndpfi^iMiifi aiid wheelrei' bis insulted the French 
biographers^ in particular^ must be sensibte of th^ 
great inconveniencies attending this plan^ as well as 
that 4t tMttt^^\ng di^ «faM£9 of Authors, ithkh is 
fmfbiet&Af dom in Mcti a' it^t^er as to tMxU cdnx^ 

In ad^^rtitlg fb this la^t ^iKt^e of perplc^ify^ thd 
EdiOo^ of ewry niftW cottection of Kyes, must hope td 
fluid Ai^exotM^ ft^ these dlmost uriavoidialble errors td 
vv4ti€lPl)» Is'^S^^ided; aild particutarty to the dai^gei* of 
i^)iMfti^'th« stAn^ fife uii<S^r tw6 apparently different 
l»MM«. Evett itt die present v6luTiie, addn^otwith-* 
tfUfdit^ A# daVe that has' beeti tdkfeft t« avoi<t 
tttoA^ of tftis >kiiid^ ALESiifv Gabeas, is afferv^ardl* 

Vol. I* h 


riq)^ted under AlghIzi-Galeas^zo. The Editor is 
aware that he is pleading bad example, rather than ail 
excuse, when he adds, '|l|mt he was led into this err6r 
by the editors both of the Dictionnaihe HiSTORictUE, 
and of that, more accurate work the Biographie 

There are few respects in which works of this kind 
have been more encumbered, than in the admission 
of Emperors, Kings, Sultans, &c. whose lives are 
merely passages of history, unintelligible, if short, 
and if prolix, by no means biographical. Of these a 
few have been formerly admitted, and may be sup* 
posed sanctioned by repetition ; but as curiosity seh*, 
dom looks to biographical collections for such subjects, 
very little addition will be made to this series, . except 
in the case of some royal personages of our own couU'* 
try, whose private or public history continues to be 
interesting. < 

. It oiily remains to be noticed that, according to the 
oi^inft) plan^ a preference will be given to the Wor- 
thies of oiir own country; a prefer^Qce, however, nofc 
of selfish partiality, but of absolute necessity, as all 
foreign . cdlections are notoriously deficient in the 
f^ngHi^h series. For this it would be un&ir to aocQunt 
fither from want of learning or research. A more 
obvious res^on is^^^/that most of the foreign bipgraphi- 
cal coll^iops have been made by Coolies, . and iu. 
Catholic countries, where it would have been unsafe 
to ei^ter into the merits of Englishmen of reqowi^^. 
either in Church or State. We owe i^ ho^evei*, tft 

the illastrious founders of our Learning and Religion^ 
we owe it to ourselves and to posterity, that no name 
should perish that was once enroUed oQ the lists of 
just and honourable f^ni^* 
(~ , 
The Editor is aware that, with every degi*ee of cir- 
cumspection, and the most sedulous care that can be 
pfesarved in the conduct of this undertaking, it may 
9ot be possible ip ^ ^U cas^ to avoid the errors 'whick 
bave been pointed out, and to satisfy every expecta- 
tion as to the plan proposed. He can only hope that 
he may be able, by au adherence to the above rules, 
to improve upon the labours of his predecessors : and 
for the defects Unavoidable in a work of this ipagni- 
tude, he re|ieis with confidppc^ op the candpur pf th^ 

*^^* Communications respecting persons lately de^' 
ceased, or pointing out any other sources of informa-* 
don necessary to this work, may be addressed to the^ 
Editor, \inder cover to -the Printers, Messrs. Nichols,* 
Son, and BENTLEY,*Red Lion Passage, Fleet-street. ' 


^- * 

%» ADV: 

i^'Miif^j-i^ r«. 

The New Edition of the Bic^raphical IXctionaiy- 
will continue to be published in Monthly Volumes, 
of about 50a pages each, printed with a new type, in 
8 fiiH^sized Demy Odavo, Price 128. in boards. 


PHnted ftnr J. Nichoh and Son ; F. C. itnd J. RiVington ; 
T. Payne ; W. Otui^e and Sm»; G. sunI W. Nmia ; 
Wilkie and Robinson ; J. Walker ;. R. Lea^ W, Lowndes ;> 
White, Cochrane^ and Co. ; J. Deighton ; T. Egerton ;, 
Lackington, Allien, and Co.; Longmam, Hurst, Ree^, 
Onne^ and Brown ; Cadril and Davies ; C. Law ;: J«. 
Booker; Clarke and Sons ;. J. and A. Arch ; J. Hasris ^ 
Black, Parry, and Co.; J. Booth; J. Mawman; Gale 
' and Curtis; R*. H. Evans; J. Hatehard; J. Harding; J. 
Johnson and Co. ; £. Bentley ; and J. Faulder. 

Volume IL with an Index, pointing: out the new 
and re- written Live» contained in that Volume, will 
be published on the First o£ June, by Messrs. Wilkis 
and Robinson, 57, Paternoster-Row. 

^^^ Although it is impossible, in the present state 
of the work, to announce the exact number of Vo^ 
l^mes to which it will extend, it it calculated tha* 
they will not exceed Twxnty-ons. 



xxA (Peter Vander), an eminent bookseller, who began 
business at Leyden about the year 1682, and devoted hi» 
attention principally to geographical works and the. con-^ 
struction of maps. A catalogue appeared at Amsterdam iti 
1729 of his publications, which are very numerous. Those 
in highest esteem are : 1. " A collection of Travels in 
France, Italy, England, Holland, and Russia,'' Leyden^ 
1706, 30 vols. 12mo. 2. "A collection of Voyages in 
the two Indies,'' Leyden, 1706, 8 vols. fol. ; another edi* 
tion, 29 vols. 8vo, 1707-1710. This consists chiefly of an 
abridgment of De Bry's collection, with some additions* 
3. ** A collection of Voyages in the Indies by the Portu- 
guese, the English, the French, and t^e Italians," 4 ^vols. 
fol. Leyden, These three works are in Dutch. 4. An 
** Atlas of two hundred Maps," not in much estimation. 
5. ** A Gallery of the World," containing an immense 
quantity of maps, topographical and historical plates, but 
without letter-press, in 66 vols. foL which are usually 
bound in 35. He also continued Graevius' "Thesaurus," 
or, an account of the modern Italian writers, with the 
"Thesaurus Antiquitatum Siciliae." He died about 1730*. 
AA (Christian Charles H^nry Vander), a learned 
divine of the Lutheran persuasion, was born at ZwoUe, a 
town of Overyssel, in 1718, and was a preacher in the 
Lutheran church at Haerlem for- fifty-one years, where his 
public and private character entitled him to the highest 
esteem. His favourite motto, "God is love," was the 
constant rule of his pastoral conduct. In 1752, he had the 

1 Diet. Hist edit. 1810. 

Vol, L B 

f A A. 

chief hand in establishing the Haerlem Society of Sciences^ 
and in 1778 formed a separate branch for the study of 
CEconomics. In both he acted as secretary for many 
years; and, besides some Sermons, published, in th« 
Transactipi)s of tbat Society, a variety of scientific papers. 
He died at Haerlem in 1795*. 

AAGARD (Christian), a Danish poet, born at Wi- 
bourg in 161 6, was professor of poetry at Sora, and after- 
wards lecturer in theology at Ripen, in Jutland. Aqoug 
hi$ poems are : 1. *^De hommagio Frederici III. Daniae et 
Norw. Regis," Hafniae, 1660, fo^. ; and 2. " Threni Hy- 
perborei" on the death of Christian IV. All his pieces are 
inserted in the *^ Deliciae quorundam Poetarum Danorum, 
Frederici Rostgaard,'' Leyden, 1695, 2 vols. 12mo. H« 
died in February 1664, leaving ^ son, Severin Aagard, 
'who wrote his life in the above collection ^ 

AAGARD (Nicholas), bi-other of the above, was libra- 
rian and professor in the University of Sora, in Denmark^ 
where he died Jan. 22, 1657, aged forty-five years, said 
left several critical and philosophical works, written in 
Latin. The principal are: 1. "A treatise on Subterra* 
neous Fires." 2. "Dissertation on Tacitus." 3. "Ob- 
servations on Ammianus Marcelliniis." And 4. "A dis- 
putation on the Style of the New Testament," Sora, 4to, 
1655. He and his brother were both of the Lutheran 

AAGESEN (SuEND, in Latin Sueno Agonis), a Danish 
historian, flourished about the year 1186, and appears to 
have been secretary to the archbishop Absalon, by whose 
orders he wrote a history of Denmark, intituled, ** Con^- 

?endiosa historia regum Danise a Skioldo ad Canutum VI.** 
'his work is thought inferior in style to that of Saxo Gram- 
tnaticus; but, on some points, his opinions are in more 
strict conformity to what are now entertained by the lite- 
rati of the North. He was also author of " Historia leguia 
castrensium Regis Canuti magni," which is a translation 
into Latin of the law called^the law of Witherlag, enacted 
by Canute the Great, and re-published by Absalon in 
the reign of Canute VI. with ati introduction by Aagesea 
on the origin of that law. Both works are included in 
^^Suenonis Agonis ftlii, Christiemi nepotis, primi Danism 
gentis historici, qusD extant opuscula. Stephanus Johannis 

1 Diet Hist edit. 1810. « Moreri.--Di<t Hist. 1810. ' Ibid. 

A A G E SEN. i 

Stepj^^ius ex vetustissimo codice membraneo MS. regis 
biblL(>tj|jiecsB Hafniensis primus pubiici juris fecit. Sorae^ 
typ^s Henrici Crusii,'' 1642, 8vo. His history is also 
printed, with excellent notes, in Langebek's " Scriptores 
rerum Danicarum,'* vol. I. ; and the " Leges castrenses,** 
are in vol. III. » 

AARON, a presbyter of Alexandria, the author of 
^irty books on physic in the Syriac tongue, which he 
called the Pandects. They were supposed to be written 
before 620, and were translated out of the Syriac into 
Arabic, by Mas'erjawalh, a Syrian Jew, and a physician in 
the reign of the calif Merwan, about A. D. 683 ; for theu 
the Arabians began to cultivate the sciences and to study 
physic. In these he has clearly described the small-pox^ 
and the measles, with their pathognomonic symptoms, and 
is the first author that mentions those two remarkable dis- 
eases, which probably first appeared and were taken notice 
of at^ Alexandria in Egypt, soon afteir the Arabians made 
thentselves masters of that city, in A. D. 640, in the reign 
of Omar Ebnol Cbatab, the second successor to Moham•^ 
med. But both those original Pandects, and their transla- 
tion, are now lost ; and we have nothing of them remain- 
ing, but what Mohammed Rhazis collected from them, .And 
h^ left us in his Continens ; so that we. have no certain 
account where those two diseases first appeared ; but it is 
most probable that it was in Arabia Foslix, and that they 
were brought from thence to Alexandria oy the Arabians^ 
when they took that qity*. 

AARON (St.) a Briton, who suflfered martyrdom with 
another, St. Julius, dm'ing the persecution under the em- 
peror Dioclesian, in the year 303, and about the same 
time with St Alban, the protomartyr of Britain. What 
the British names of. Aaron and - Julius were, we are not 
told; Tior ha^fr;we. any. particulars of their death. They 
had eapha cbprch, erected to his memory in the city of 
Caer-Leon, the\antient metropolis of Wales, and their 
festival is placed, in the Roman Martyrology, on the first 
of July ^ " ■ [ 

. AARON-HARISCON, a celebrated Jewish rabbi, wf^ 
a physician at Constantinople towards the end of the 13 th 
centurj, and a man of extensive reputation. He wrote: 


1 Biographie UDirerselle, 1811. 

* Mangeti Bibl. — Diet Hist. — Fabric Bibl. GrtBC. * 

' lE(iog.'Brit.— Taiiiier.—LelaDd. 


4 A A R O N - H AH I S C O N. 

1. *^ A commentary on the Pentateuch ;"' a translation o^ 
Which into Latin was published at Jena, 17 10, fol. a work 
highly praised, by Simon, in his Critical History of the 
Old Testament, and by Wolfius, in his Bibl. Hebraica. It 
appears by a manuscript of the original, in the library of 
Ihe Oratory at Paris, that it was written in 1294. 2. "A 
commentary on the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and 
Kings, translated from the Arabic into Hebrew,^' a manu- 
script in the library at Leydeii. 3. "A commentary on 
Isaiah and the Psalms," in the same library. 4. ^*A 
commentary on Job/' which the author notices in his first? 
mentioned work on the Pentateuch. 5. *^A treatise on 
Grammar," a very rare work, printed at Constantinople 
in 1581, which some have attributed to another Aaron« 
6. **The Form of Prayer in the Caraite Synagogue," 
Venice, 1528-29, 2 vols, small quarto*. 

AARON (PiETRO), who flourished in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was a Florentine, of the order of Jerusalem, and a 
voluminous writer on Music. He first appeared as an au« 
thor in 1516, when a small Latin tract in three books, 
*' De institutione Harmonica," which he wrote originally 
in Italian, was translated into Latin, and published at Bo* 
logna, by his friend Joh. Ant. Flaminius, of Imola, 4tO;. 
d. "Toscanello della Musiqa, libri tre." This treatise^ 
the most considerable, of all his writings, was first printed 
at Venice, 1523 ; then in 1529, and lastly, with additions, 
in 1539. In the Dedication he informs us, that he was 
bom to 2^ slender fortune, which he wished to improve by 
some reputable profession ; that he chose Music, and had 
been admitted into the Papal chapel at Rome during the, 

{)ontificate of Leo X. but that he sustained an irreparable 
OSS by Leo's death. 3. ^^Trattato della natura e cogni* 
zione di tutti li Tuoni di Canto figurato," Venite, 1525, 
fol. 4. *' Lucidario in Musica di alcune Oppenioni Anti-- 
che e Moderne," 4to. Venice, 1545. In this work we have 
discussions of many doubts, contradictions, questions,r^nd 
difficulties, never solved before. 5. << Compendiolo di 
molti dubbj segreti et ^entenze intorno il Canto-fermo e 
figurato," 1547, 4to. This seems a kind of supplement to 
his Lucidario. There is not much novelty in any of his 
works ; but, in the state of musical science in his time, they 
were all useful *. 

1 Simon Biblioth. critique, vol. II. p. 201-^205. ^-ClemeBt Bibl* tMy d«9 li^ 
rares. — Diet, Hist 1810. — ^Moreri. 
t Burney'v Hist, of Music^ vol. IU.-«.J>ict. Hist. ISIO. 

A A R* S E N & I 

AARSENS (Francis), lord of Someldyck and Spyck, 
one of the most celebrated negociators of the United Pro«^ 
vinces^ was the son of Cornelius Aarsens^ (who was gre£- 
fier^ or secretary of state, from 1585 to 1623,) and was 
born at the Hague in 1572. His father put him under the 
care of Duplessis Mornay at the court of William I. prince 
of Orange. The celebrated John Barnevelt sent him after- 
wards as agent into France; and, after residing there 
some time, he was recognised as ambassador, the first 
whom the French Court had received in that capacity from 
the United States ; and the king, Louis XIIL created him 
a knight and , baron. After holding this office for ^fteen 
years, he became obnoxious to the French Court, and was 
deputed to Venice, and to several German and Italian 
princes, on occasion of the trpubles in Bohemia. But such 
was the dislike the French king now entertained against 
him, that he ordered his ambassadors in thes^ courts not 
to receive his yisits. One cause of this appears to have 
been a paper published by Aarsens in 1618, reflecting qq 
the French king's ministfsrs. . In 1620 he was sent as am* 
bassador to England, and again in 1641 : the object of this 
last embassy was to negociate a marriage between prince 
William, son to the prince of Orange, and a daughter of 
Charles I. Previous to /this, however, we nnd him. again 
in France^ in 1624, as ambassador .extraordinary, wper^ 
it appears tha( he became intimate with and subservient to 
the cardinal Richelieu ; who used to say that he never 
knew but three great politicians, Oxehstiern, chancellor 
Qf Sweden, Viscardi, chancelloir of Montferrat, *and Fjan* 
CIS Aarsens. His character, however, has not escaped just 
censure, on account of the band he bad in the death of 
Barnevelt^ and of some measures unfriendly to the liberties 
of his country* He died in 164.1. The editors of the Diet* 
Historique attribute to him ^' A Journey into Spain, histori* 
cal and political," published by De Sercy at Paris, 1^666^ 
4to, and often reprinted ; but this was the work of a grand« 
son, of both ,his names,, who was drowned in biy passage 
from England to HoUaiyl, 1659'. 


ABAItIS, .a celebrated sage, or impostor, whose history 
has been the subject of much learned discussion. Jamblii* 
cus, in bis credulqus Life of Pythf^goras, meHtipiis AbariA 
as a disciple of that philosopher,, and relates the wondera 

' Pu Alaurier's Memoirs.— ^Wicquefort'g Treatise on Ambassadors i«—;G<ak DicW 

^ A B A R I S. 

he performed by means of an arrow which he received from 
Apollo. He also gfVes the particular^ of a conversation 
which he had with Pythagoras, whilst the latter was detained 
prisoner by Phalaris, the tyrant. But this narration is filled 
with so many marvellous circumstances, and chronological 
errors, that it deserves little credit. Brucker, whom we 
principally follow in this article, gives the following in- 
istance. It is said that, in the time of a general plague', 
Abaris was sent from the Scythians on an embassy to the 
Athenians. This plague happened in the third olympiad. 
Now, it appears, from the learned contest between Bentley 
and Boyle, on the subject of Phalaris, that this tyrant, in 
whose presence Abaris is said to havd^ispiited with Pytha- 
goras, did not exercise his tyranny, at the* nidst, longer 
than twenty-eight-years, and that his death happened not 
earlier than the fourth year 6f the fifty-seventh olympiad, 
which is the opinion oi; Bentley, nor later than the first 
year of the sixty-ninth olympiad, wJiich is the date fixed 
by DodwelL It is evident, therefore, that Ab|iris could 
not have lived, both at the time of the general plague men- 
tioned above,^and during the reign of Phalaris. The time 
when he' flourished may, with some degree of probability^ 
be fixed about the third olympiad; and there seems little 
reasOn^toddubt, that he went from place to place imposing 
upon the vulgar by false pretensions to supeirnfetural powers. 
He passed throng Greece, Italy, arid nlany other coun- 
tries,' giving forth brkcular predictions, pretending to heal 
liiseases by ihcantation, and practising other arts of inipos- 
ture. H^ee^the fabulous tales concerning Abaris grew up 
into to entire history, written by Heraclides. Some of 
the later Platooists, in their zeal against Christianity, coU 
lected these and other fables, and exhibited them, not 
without large additions from their own fertile imaginations, 
in opposition to the miracles of Christ'. 

ABATI (Antony), an Italian poet of the 17th century, 
enjoyed^tkoh reputation during his life. He was in the 
service fit the archduke Leopold of Austria, and travelled 
in France and the Netherlands. On his return to Italy, 
he was successively governor of several small towns in the 
ecclesiastical state. He died at Siriagaglia, in 1667, after 
a long illness. The emperor Ferdinand 111. made a bad 
acrostip in honour of his memory, but does not appear 

1 Bayle iq Qen. Dict-*Brucker Hist Fhilos. abridirei} by £nfield.--Fabnc.. 

A B A T t. 7 

to have-been a very ^beral patron, while he was living. 
He wrote : 1. ^^Ragguaglio di Parnasso contra poetastri e 
partegiani delle nazioni,*' Milan, 1633, 8vo. 2. '^Le 
Frascherie^ fasci tre," satirical poems, with some prose^ 
Venice, 1651, 8vo. 3, " Pofesie postume," Bologna, 1671^ 
fivo. 4. " II ConsigUo degli Dei, dramma per musica,*' &c. 
Bologna 1671, written on occasion of the Peace between 
France and Spain, and the marriage of Louis XIII. to tha 
Infanta of Spain K 

ABAUZIT (FiRMiN) was born at Uzes on the llth of 
November 1679. His father died in the second year after 
his birth. As his f>arehts were protestants, the mother 
removed him from France, to prevent his being educated in 
the Romish faith; but it being difficult to 'find a secure 
retreat, he was sent from one place to another, and at last 
wasu>bliged to wander among the mountains of Cevennes, 
and/td.chanjge his residence as often as his concealment was 
discovered, ;:until at length he found a safe asylum in Ge*- 
nieva.' In the mean time his mother was confined in the 
castle of Scnnieres ; but nothing could shake her fortitude, 
or alttr her/esolution to have her son educated in her own 
persuasion. Her health was much impaired by confine* 
ment, under which she probably must have died, bad not 
a fortunate occurrence required the commander of the fort' 
to visit Paris. • His brother, who occupied his place, in- 
terested, himself in behalf of his prisoner, and obtained her 
enlargement. Having surmounted various perils, she ar- 
rived at Geneva two years after her son. Thei small share 
which she bad been able to save from the wreck of a for-* 
tune which once had been considerable, she expended in 
the education of young Abauzit, who made a very rapid 
progress in his studies. Mathematics and natural histoiy 
chiefly attracted his attention ; but he cultivated almost 
every department of literature. In 1698 he visited HoU 
Undy where he became acquainted with the most celebrated 
literary characters of the place, Bayle, Jurieu, and the 
Basnages. From Rotterdam he went to England, where 
he conversed with St. Evremond and sir Isaac Newton. 
With the latter he afterwards engaged in an epistolary 
correspondence, and received a compliment which must 
be esteemed highly honourable. ^^ Yeu,*' says Sir Isaac» 
"are a very fit person to judge between Leibnitz and me.'* 

William III. invited Abauzit to settle in England, and 
ordered Michael le Vassor to offer some advantageous prov 

4 A 9 A U Z I. T. 

posala ; which^ however, were not acceptec}. Filial aflfee* 
tion, or attachment to the country in which he had obtained 
n refuge, recalled him to Geneva; where, in 1723, the 
University offered him the chair of philosophy, which he 
declined, pleading the weakness of his constitution, and 
his inability, to do credit to the appointment* In 1726, ha 
tost his mother, to whom .he had ever been most affec* 
iionately attached. In the same year he was admitted a 
citizen of Geneva, and appointed librarian to the city. He 
profited by such a favourable opportunity to improve in 
useful literature. Principally . attached to antiquities, he 
BOW dedicated to his newly-adopted country the fruit of 
his labours and his talents. In 1730, he published a new 
edition* of the History and State of Geneva, which had 
been originally written by David Spon, and printed in two 
vols. 12mOf The work haying already passed through three 
editions, was committed to Abauzit. Not contented with 
the mere republication, he corrected the errors, gave two 
dissertations on th^ subject, and annexed the public acts 
an4 memorials, that were necessary as proofs and illustra^^^ 
tions. To these were added a copious variety of learned 
4nd useful notes, in which he gave an ample detaitof fact? 
which were but imperfectly related in the text Modest 
bimsell^ he was not ambitious of fame, but assisted others 
\lj his labours. Among those who derived benefit from 
bis learning and researches, AJ* de Meiran alone had the 
gratitude to acknowledge his obligation. The labours of 
Abauzit were assiduous, and his knowledge was extensive. 
While he declined public notice his name was known, an4 
bis communications were frequent to most of. the celebrated 
mathematicians, philosophers, and divines in £^urope« Not- 
withstanding the simplicity of his manners, this modest philo-r 
sopher was not, perhaps^ without a small share of vanity. For 
he employed himself in discovering what to his apprehen-i^ 
sion seemed errors in the different translations of the Bible. 
He could believp nothing but what he saw, or was sug- 
gested by bis own ideas, or could be reduced to mathema^ 
tical demonstration, and, becoming sceptical, wished tQ 
^ivest the scriptures of several miracle^. He even made 
some efforts iu poetry ; but th^y were soon forgotten. He 
is acknowledged to have excelled more in diligenqe, accur 
r&cy, and precision, than in taste or genius. Voltaire, who 
)iad as great an aversion to miracles as Abauzit, esteemed 
%^d consulted him. As. a citizen of Q^neva^ the philosq^ 

A B A U Z I T. 9 

pber was acttre in the dissensioBs. of 17S4. He exertdd 
himself in support of the aristocratic party, though he had 
much of republican zeal. His industry was indefatigable^ 
and he seemed to have written and acted from the convio^ 
tioQ of his own mind. In religion he adopted and sup* 
ported the doctrines of Arianism. Though declining praise^ 
he acquired the esteem of many of the most eminent cha^ 
racters in Europe, and received an elegant compliment 
from Rousseau : ^< No/' says he,. ^^ this age g^ philosophy 
will not pass without having produced one true philoso-** 
pher. I know one, and I freely own, but one ; but what 
I regard as my supreme felicity is, that he resides in my 
native country, it is m wy own.countrjf that he resides: 
shall I presume to name him, whose real glory it is to re«« 
main almost in obscurity ? Yes, modest and learned 
Abauzit, forgive a zeal which seeki not to promote your 
fame. I would not celebrate your name in an age that is 
unworthy to admir^ you. I would honour Geneva by dis-* 
tinguishing it as the place of your residence : my fellow^i. 
citizens are honoured by your presence. Happy is the coun* 
try where the merit that seeks concealment is the more te-* 
vealed.'' The reader will appreciate the merit of Abauzit^ 
in proportion to the value he sets on the esteem of VoU 
taire or the praises of Rousseau. He,, however, who could 
gain the approbation of two such opposite characters, could 
have been no ordinary person. He died on the 20th of 
March 1767. 

, Abauzit left behind him some .writings, chiefly theolo- 
gical. Of these the principal was an ^^ Essay upon the 
Apocalypse," written to shew that the canonical authority 
of the book of Revelation was doubtful, and to apply the 
predictions to the destruction of Jerusalem. This work 
was sent by the author to Dr. Twells, in London, who 
translated it from French into English, and added a refuta« 
tion, with which Abauzit was so well satisfied, that he de- 
sired his friend in Holland to stop an intended impression. 
The Dutch editors, however, after his death, admitted 
this essay into their edition of his works> which, beside^ 
comprehends ^'Reflections on the Eucharist," ''On Ido- 
latry," "On the Mysteries of Religion," "Paraphrases 
and explanations of sundry parts of Scripture," several 
critical and antiquarian pieces, and various letters. An 
edition without the Essay on the Apocalypse^ was printed 

10 A B A tr Z I T. 

at Geneva in Oct. 1770,' and translated into English in this 
came year by Dr. Htftwobd, 

, These writings afford an idea of the 'merit of Abauzit a^ 
a divine. To judge of the depth of his physical ^nd ma- 
thematical knowledge, it must be remembered that he de- 
tended Newton against father Gastel ; that he discovered 
an error in the ** Principia," at a time when there were 
few. people in Europe capable of reading that work ; and 
that Newton corrected the error in the second edition. 
Abauzit was one of the first who adopted the grand con- 
ceptions of Newton, because he was a^ geometrician sufE- 
ci^illy learned to see their truth. He wsls perfectly ac- 
quainted with many languages; he understood siiftAsiilt-a^ 
modern history so exactly, as to be master of all' the^prift^ 
cipal names and dates ; rhe was so a^ccurate a gebgfa^her, 
that the celebrated Pococke concluded, from bis minute 
description of Egypt, thatiie must, like himself^ have 
travelled in that country; the bad a very extensive know- 
ledge '^of physics; and Iztstlyj he was intimately conversant 
with medals and antient manuscripts. All tU^e different 
sciences were so well digested«and arranged in his mind, that 
be could in an instant bring t^ether all that he knew upon 
any subject. Of this the -following example has bee!n 
given. Aousseau, in. drawing up his Dictionary of Musics- 
had, taken great pains to give an accurate account of the! 
music of ^the antients. .^Conversing with Abautiit upbn'th^ 
subject, the librarian gave him a clear and exact adcoun^ 
of all that he bad with so niuch labour collected. Rousseau 
concluded that Abauzit had lately been studying the sub- 
ject : but this learned man, of whom it might almost lite- 
raJly be said that be knew every thing, and never forgot 
any thing, unaffe<^tedly confessed, that it was then thirty 
years Mnce he had inquired into the music of the antients. 
It was probably owing to the strong impression which this 
incident made upon the mind of Rousseau^ that the only 
panegyric which bis wretched temper ever permitted him 
to write upon a living person, was what is given above 
TOqpon Abauzit. It, yet remains to be noticed that an edition 
of his works was printed at Amsterdam in 2 vols, after that 
of Geneva, and, according, to the editors of the Diet. His— 
torique, considerably different from it^. . 

1 Htst. Lit de Geneve par Senebieri vol. III. p. 63.— ^General Bio^. bv^ 
Aikiu.— Diet. Historique, 1810. T 

A B B A D I E. a 

' ABBADIE (JiiMES)/ a learned Protestant diyine, was 
Iborn at Nay in Berne, in 1658, according to Niceron, or 
in 1654, as in the Gen. Dictionary. He studied at Puy 
Laurent, at.Saumur, at Paris, and at Sedan ; at which last 
place he reoeiv^ the degree of doctor in divinity. He 
intended to have dedicated himself very early to the mfeiis- 
try ;< but 'the t circumstances of the Protestants of Fmnce 
xejadecing it impracticable there, he accepted the offer of 
the.3C.ount d'Espense^ an officer in the service of the elec- 
toruO£:Brandenburgh, by whom he was settled at Berlin, 
as a French minister. Here he resided many years, and 
bis congregation, at first very thin, >was greatly increased 
by the revocation of the edict of Nantes. In 1688, the 
elector, Frederic William, died, and our author accepted 
of an invitation from marshal Schomberg, to go with him . 
first into HolUnd, and thei\ into England, t widh the prince 
of.Ocange. ; In 1j689 M wfent to Ireland,* and was there in 
the following year, when liis'Tpatron was killed at the battle 
of the Boyne. On bis return Itoi England,' he became mi<- 
jiister of the French church at the Savoy, but the air dis- 
agreeing with him, he went again to Ireland, and would 
have been promoted to the deanery of St, Patrick's- had he 
been acquainted with the English language. He obtained, 
however, that of Killaloo, the value of which was far infe- 
rior, and never had any other promotion. He occasionally 
visited England and Holland, for the purpose of printing 
bis works, which were all in French. In one of these visits 
to London, he died ax, Marybone, Sept. 25; 1727. He 
was«^trongly attached to the cause of king William, as 
appears joty I his elaborate defence of the Revolution, and 
his history of .the Assassinadon-plot. He had great natural 
abilities,' which be cultivated with true and i^useful learn- 
ing. ^Uejvas a most zealous defender of the primitive 
doctrine of the Protestants, as appears by his writings; 
and that strong nervous eloquence, for which he was so 
remarkable, enabled him to enforce the doctrines of his 
profession from the pulpit with great spirit and energy. 

His works are : 1. ^^ Sermons sur divers textes de TEori- 
ture,*' Leyden, 1680.- 2.: " Paoegyrique de M. PElec- 
teur de Brandenbourg," Rotterdam, 1684, 4to. Gregorio 
Leti translated this into Italian, and inserted it in his^ His- 
tpry of Brandenburgh. 3^ '<Trait6 de la Verity de la 
Religion Cbrdtienne.'* This treatise on the truth of the 
(Ihristiw Religion has passed through many editions^ and 

t$ A B B AD I E. 

hB» \}een translated iato EngliBb, 2 toIs. 8vo, and Dutch, 
und has long been esteemed an able confutation of infidel 
principles. The abb6 Houteviile, a steady Catholic, gives 
it the following character: ^^The most shining of thefie 
treatises in defence of the Christian religion^ which were 
published by the Protestants^ is that written by Mr* Abba- 
die. The favourable reception it obtained, the almost un* 
axampled praise it received on the publication, the tini- 
yersal approbation it still preserves, render it unnecessary 
for me to join my commendations, which would add so 
little to the merit of so great an author. He has united in 
|his book ail our controversies with the infidels. In the 
£rst part, he combats the Atheists ; the Deists in the se« 
cond ; and the Socinians in the third. Philosophy and 
theology enter happily into his manner of composing, 
which is in the true . method, lively, pure, and elegant, 
especially in the first Looks." 4. *' Reflexions sur la Pre- 
isence r^elle du Corps de Jesus Christ dans TEucharistie,^* 
Hague, 1685, 12mo, and Rotterdam, 1713, but both edi- 
tions so erroneous as to induce the author to disown them. 
B, "Trait6 de la notre Seigneur Jesus Christ,** 
Rotterdam, 1689,. 8vo. A translation of this was published 
about the year 1 7 7 7, by the Rev. Abraham Booth, adissenting 
clergyman in London. 6. " L'art de se Connoitre Soi- 
meme ; ou, la recherche des Sources de la Morale," Rot- 
terdam, 1692, 12mo. An edition of this excellent treatise 
ivas published at Lyons in 1693, in which all the passages 
in favour of the Protestant religion are left out. 7. " De- 
fence de la Nation Britannique,'* &c. London, 1692, ovo. 
This defence, of the Revolution in England was in answer 
to Mr. Bayle's " Avis important." 8. " Panegyrique def 
Marie reine d'Angleterre,*' Hague, 1695, ito. 9. <?His- 
toire de la Conspiration derniere d'Angleterre,'*»&c. Lond. 
1698, 8vo, reprinted in ^olland, and translated into Eng- 
lish, but at present a very scarce book. It regards what 
vas called the Assassination-plot, and was written by order 
of king William 111.; the original papers and documents 
were furnished by: the earl of Portland, and sir William 
Trumbal), secretary of state. 10. *? La Verit6 de la Reli- 
gion Reforna6e," Rotterdam, 1713, 2^ vols. 8vo. Dr. Henry 
Lambert, bishop of Dromore, translated this work for the 
instruction of the Roman Catholics in his diocese. 1 i . ^^ Lo 
triomphe de la Providence et de la Religion, en l*ouver- 
t^re des Sept Sceaux par le Fds de Dieu^'^ &c. Atosterdamn^ 


1723, 4 vols. 12010. In this commentary on the Revela-^ 
doDs, for such it is, the author has been supposed more 
inclining to conjecture and fancy than, in his other works* 
Besides these he revised, in 1719, the French translation 
of the Common Prayer, and published some single sermons 
^nd small tracts'. 

ABBAS (Halli), or Ali Ebnol Abbas, as Abulpbaragius 
calls him in his Hist. Dyn. or, as he is usually called, Ma^ 
gus, as being one of the Magi, the followers of Zaradushi 
or Zoroaster; and not for his learning, as the learned Dr« 
Freind supposes. He was a Persian physician, and studied 
under Abu Maher, another Persian doctor, who probably 
was of the Magian religion also ; he wrote his book, or 
Royal Work, at the request of Bowaia the son of Ada- 
doMdaula the calif, to whom he dedicates it in the oriental 
manner, in lofty hyperbolical language, about A. D« 989. 
It was translated into Latin by Stephen of Antioch in 1 127^ 
in which language we have two editions, Venice 1492, 
and Leyden 1523, fol. There is an Arabic MS copy in 4 
vols, folio in the Leydep library, which was brought by 
James Golius from the East^ 

ABBATI (NicOLO), an eminent historical painter,- was 
lM>rn at Modena in 1512, and was the scholar of Antoni6 
Beggarelli, a Modenese sculptor, whose models Correggio 
is said to have often made use of for his works. Little is 
known of his progress at Modena, except that, in partners- 
ship with his fellow-scholar Alberto Fontana, he painted 
Che pannels of the Butchers hall in that place ; and at the 
age of thirty-five, for the church of the Benedictines, the 
celebrated picture of the martyrdom of St. Peter and St. 
Paul, now in the Dresden gallery : with some firesco paint- 
ings, drawn from Ariosto and Virgil, in the palace Scan«> 
diano. Of hiis works at Bologna, tradition has left a very 
distiiiguished account, thodgh little or nothing exists of 
them now but the large symbolic picture in the Via di St. 
MamcJo; a nativity of Christ, under the portico of the 
Leoni palace ; and fdur conversation pieces and concertos, 
of exquisite taste, in the Academical Institute, which have 
been engraved. Notwithstanding the innate vigour, the 
genial facility, and independent style of this artist, he 
Owes his fame, in a great measure, to his coalition with 
Francisco Primaticcio, . and to his happy execution of the 

1 Biog. Britan. Niceron. 
'< rnmd*9 Ai»%, of Physic-^MaDseti BiU. i 

in art. Haljr.-^-Fabric, Bibl GmCm 


A B B A T I. 

designs of that great master, particularly the frescoes he 
painted in the galleries and apartments at Fountainbieau. 
These, however, being destroyed in 1738, to make room 
for a new fabric, nothing remains but a few pictures of the 
history of Alexander. Some of the others were engraved. 
The period of his death is. not "known '. - u 

ABBATIUS (BALDtJS Angelus), a physician, a native 
of Eiigiubio, a man who is said to have., surmounted the 
prejudices of his age, and wrote : 1. *'De admirabiii Vi- 
peraB natura, et de mirificis ejusdem facultatibus,'! . of 
which there are four editions, 1589 — 1660. 2. **DiscussaB 
concertationes de.Rebus, Verbis, et Sententiis controversis," 
Pisaur. 1594, 4to. There is no account of his deaths 

ABBO (Cernuus), a monk of St. Germain-des-Pres; 
was the author of a poetical relation of the siege of Paris 
by the Normans ^nd Danes towards the end of the 9th 
century. He was himself of Normandy, and an eye-wit- 
liess ; and if not eminent as a poet, is at least a faithful 
and minute historian. His poem consists of twelve hundred 
verses, in two books, and has been admitted into Pithou's 
and Duchesne^s collections; but a more. correct edition^ 
wilh.npte's, and a French translation, mav be seen in^he 
** Nouvelles Annales de Paris,'* published by D. Toussaint 
Duplessis, a Benedictine of the congregation of Su Maur, 
1753, 4to. There are also " Five select Sermons" under 
his name in vol. IX. of D'Acheri*s Spicilegium ; and in vol. 
V. Bibl. P. P. Colon. 1618, id « Abbonis E^istola ad Desi- 
derium episc,*' There was originally a third book to his 
History of the siege, addressed " to the Clergy," which his 
editors omitted as having no conneicion with the history*. 

ABBO (Floriacensis), or Abbot of Fleuri, a Benedic* 
tine monk of the tenth centyry, was born in the territory 
of Orleans, and educated in the abbey of Fleuri, ai>d af- 
terwards at Paris and Rheims, where he distinguished him-^ 
aelf in all the learning of the times, and partiqularly - in 
mathematics, theology, and history. Oswald, bishop of Wor- 
cester, in 985, applied to the abbey .of Fleuri to obtain a 
proper person to preside over the abl^ey of Ramsay, which 
he had founded, or rather re-established. Abbo was sent 
over to England for this purpose, apd/much 
king Ethelred and the nobility. Returning to Fleuri uppa 

< PiTlLingtoQ'3 pictioQury of Painters by Puseli, in art Abbati, and p. iS84.- 
s Diet Hist 1810.— Manget Biblioth. 

? Vessius de Hist Lat^Care, vol. II.— Fabric. Bibl. Lat Med. JStat— Diet, 
irist— Saxii Onomast 

A B B O. 15 

the death of the abbot, he waa declared his successor. 
Here he experienced many Texations from some of the 
hishops, against whom he asserted the rights of the monas- 
tic order. His enemies charged him with some acrimony 
against his persecutors. In his justification, he wrote aa 
apology, which he addressed to the, kings Hugh and Ro- 
bert. Some time afterwards, he dedicated to the same 
princes a collection of canons on the duties of kings and 
the duties of subjects. King Robert, having sent him t9 
Rome to ^^appease the wrath of Gregory V. who had 
threatened to lay the kingdom under an interdict, the pope 
granted him all he requested, Abbo, on his return from 
this expedition, set about the reform of the abbey of Reoie 
in Gascony. He was here slain in a quarrei that rose be- 
tween the French and the Gascons, in 1004. His works 
are : 1. " Epitome de vitis Pontificum,*' taken from Anasta^ 
sius Bibliothecarius, and published with an edition of tha( 
author by Busaeus, Mentsr, 1602, 4to. 2. "Vita S. Edmundi 
Anglorum Orientalium regis & martyrhs,'. printed in Surius* 
Lives of the Saints. There is a MS. of it in the Cottoiiian 
Library. 3. '^ Collectio, seu epitome Canonum,'^ printed 
by Mabillon. 4. " Epistola ad abbatem Fuldensj^m,'*^ 
in Baluze's Miscellanies, 1678, 8vo. 5. " Letters to Hugh, 
king of." France, to St. Bernard, Gregory," &c. and hi* 
Apology,, are inserted whole, or in fragments, . in his Life 
by Aimonius, a monk of Fleuri, and his pupil K 

ABBOT (George), archbishop of Canterbury, wa^ bom 
at Guildford, in Surrey, Oct. 29, 1562, the son of Maurice 
Abbpt^ a clothworker in that town, and Alice March, who, 
having been sufferers by the persecution in queen Mary's 
reign, educated their children in a steady zeal for the Pro- 
.testaut religion. George * was sent, with his elder brother 
Robert, to the free-school of.Guildiord, where he was edu- 
cated under Mr. Francis Taylor, and in 1578 was entered 
of Baliol college, Oxford. On April 31, 1582j he took 
the degree of bachelor of arts, And* Nov. 29, 15S3, was 
elected probationer fellow of his college. After taking his 
master's degree, Dec. 17, 1585, he entered into holy 
orders, became a celebrated preacher in the Univer- 

. * Aubrey, in his Antiquities of Sur- and rise to great preferment. $he diil. 

rey, bas a ridiculous st9r3r, that when catch a jaek, <* and had thus an odd 

Mre. Abbot was pregnant with this* son, opportunity of fulfilling her dream^" 

•he dreamt that if she couht eat a jack, Aubrey*s Surrey, vol. III. p. 98 1. 
or jpil^e,, t1^^ chijd would proye a son, 

» Care Hist. Lit. toI. M.— Vofsius.— Fabricius BiW. Gr. & Ut.— Saxii Ono- 
fluutZ-^Djcl^Hist, 1810.— Gen. Diet. 

1% ABBOT. 

sity^ and was sometime ehaplain to Thomas Tord Buck-* 
hurst. In 1593, March 4, he commenced bachelor of 
divinity, and proceeded doctor of that faculty May 9, 
1597- On September 6 he was elected master of Univer- 
sity college, to whioh he afterwards proved a benefactor. 
About this time some differences took place between him 
and Dr. Laud, which subsisted as long as they lived. 

In 1598 he published his " Qua^stiones Sex,'* which ob- 
tained him gr^at reputation. On March 6, 1599, he was 
installed dean of Winchester, and in 1600 was appointed 
vice-chancellor of Oxford, and while in this office decided 
a dispute which at that time engaged the attention of the 
public, respecting the repairing of the cross in Cheapside^ 
which was ornamented with Popish, images. The citizens 
of London requested the advice of both Universities ; and 
Pr. Abbot, as vice-chancellor of Oxford, gave as his 
opinion, that the crucifix with the dove upon it should not 
be put up again. Dr. Bancrbft, bishop of London, was of 
a different opinion ; but Dr. Abbot's advice was followed, as 
expressed in a letter printed many years after. He published, 
the same year, his Sermons on the Prophet Jonah. In 
1693 he was again chosen vice-chancellor; and in 1604, 
wh^n king James ordered the new translation of the Bible, 
he was one of the eight divines of Oxford to whom the 
translation of the historical books of the New Testament 
was committed. In 1605 he was a third time vice-chan-i- 
cellor; and, in the succeeding year, he is thought to 
have bad some share in the censures passed on Laud, on 
account of a sermon he preached before the University. 
The principles of the two men were continually at variance. 
Abbot being a rigid Calvinist, and a foe to every thing 
that had the' appearance of Popery, and Laud equally 
strenuous for the opinions afterwards known by the name 
of Arminian, and a friend to the ceremonies and splendour 
of public worship. 

In 1608, on the death of his patron, lord Buckhurst, 
earl of Dorset, he became chaplain to George Hume, 
earl of Dunbar, and treasurer of Scotland ; and went 
home with him, in order to establish an union between 
the Churches of England and Scotland. King James's 
object was to restore' the antient form of government by 
bishops ; and, notwithstanding the aversion of the people 
of Scotland to this measure. Dr. Abbot's skill, pru- 
dence, and moderation succeeded so far as to procure aa 

ABBOT* 17 

act of the General Assembly, which was afterwards rati- 
fied and confirmed by the Parliament of Scotland. By this 
it was enacted, that the king should have the calling of all 
General Assemblies; that the bishops or their depjatiei; 
should be perpetual moderators of the diocesan synods; 
that no excommunication or absolution should be pro- 
nounced without their approbation ; that all presentations 
of benefict^ should be made by them, and that the depri-^ 
yation or suspension of ministers should belong to them ; 
that every minister, at his admission to a beneBce, should 
take the oath of supremacy, and canonical obedience ; that 
the visitation of the diocese should be performed by the 
bishop or bis deputy only; and finally, that the bishop 
should be moderator of all conventions for exercisings or 
prophesyings, which should be held within their bounds. 

This service advanced Dr. Abbot's character very high 
in the opinion of king James, and an incidental affair about 
this time brought him yet more into favour. While he was 
at Edinburgh, a prosecution was commenced against one 
George Sprot, notary of Aymouth, for having been con- 
cerned in Gowrie*s conspiracy eight years before, for 
which he was now tried before sir William Hart, lord justice 
general of Scotland, and condemned and executed. A long 
account of the affair was drawn up by the judge, and a 
narrative prefixed by Dr. Abbot unfolding the precise na- 
ture of the conspiracy, about the reality of which doubts 
bad previously been entertained, and perhaps were after- 
wards. Dr. Robertson and Guthrie, however, are both per- 
suaded of the authenticity of the generally-received account. 

Soon after this, the king being engaged in the mediation 
of peace between the crown of Spain and the United Prpv 
viijces, by which the sovereignty of the latter was to b« 
acknowledged by the former, he demanded the advice of 
the convocation then sitting, as* to the lawfulness of espousi- 
ing the cause of the States ; but, instead of a direct an- 
swer, the members entered upon a wide field of discussion* 
which excited new jealousies and apprehensions. On this 
occasion the king wrote a confidential letter to Abbot, re- 
flecting on the convocation for not being more explicit in 
their answer to his question, '^ how far a Christian and a <. 
Protestant king may concur to assist his neighbours to 
^hake off their obedience to their own sovereign*?" It 

' * Thif corious letter was first pub- Sherlock and b(8 adversaries oti hif 
lithed during the dispute between dean taking tha path* to king William, im 

Vot. h c 



does not appear what effect this letter produced ; but Dr. 
Abbot now stood so high in his majesty's fiivour, that on the 
death of Dr. Overton, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
he promoted him t(S the vacant see, May 27, 1609, and he 
was consecrated Dec. 3. Before he had held this above a 
month, he was translated to the bishoprick of London, and 
confirmed Jan. 20, 1609-10. During the short. time that 
he held the bishoprick of London, he distinguished himself 
by the diligent performance of his function, and by fre- 
quent preaching, and patronizing learning and learned 

the New Observer, vol. Tir. No. U, 
the author of which tells us, the origi- 
nal is in the hands of an eminent per- 
son ; the four last lines in the king's 
own. hand, and the rest in the secre- 

" Good Dr. Abbot, 
" I cannot abstain to give you my 
judgment on the proceedings in the 
convocation, as you will call it ; and 
both as rex in solio, and unus gregis in 
tcclesia, I am doubly concerned. My 
Utle to the crown nobody calls in ques- 
tion, but they that love neither you 
nor me, and you may guess whom I 
mean : all that you and your brethren 
have said of a king in possession (for 
that word, I tell you, is no more than 
that you make use of in your canon) 
concerns not me at all. 1 am the next 
heir, and the crown is mine by all 
rights you can name, but that of con- 
quest; and Mr; Solicitor has suffi- 
ciently expressed my own thoughts 
concerning the nature of kingship, and 
concerning the nature of it ut in tnea 
persona ; and i believe you were all of 
his opinion ; at least, none of you said 
any thing contrary to it at the time he 
spoke to you from me : but you know 
all of you, as I think, that my reason 
of calling you together was to give 
your judgments how far a Christian and 
ft Protestant king may concur to assist 
his neighbours to shidce off their obe- 
dience to their own sovereign, upon 
account of oppression, tyranny, or 
what else you please to name it. In 
the late queen's time, this kingdom was 
very free in assisting the Hollanders 
bod with arms and advice; and none 
of your coat ever told me that any 
scrupled at it in her reign. Upon ntf 
coming to England, you may know 
that it came from some of yourselves 
to raise scruples about this matter; 

and albeit I have often told my mind 
concerning jii« regiumin subditos, as in 
May last, in the sur-charober, upon 
the occasion of Hale's padaphlet; yet 
I never took any notice of these scru- 
ples, till the ilffairs of Spain and Hol- 
land forced me to it. All my neigh- 
bours call on me to concur in thsr 
treaty between Holland and Spain; 
and <the honour of the nation will net 
suffer the Hollanders to be abandoned; 
especially after so much money and 
men spent in their quarrel ; therefore 
I was of the mind to call my clergy to- 
gether, to satisfy not so much me, as 
the world about us, of the justness of 
my owning the Hollanders at this time. 
This I needed not to have done, and 
you have forced me to say, I wish I 
had not ; you have dipped too deep in 
what all kings reserve among the arcu" 
na imperii ; and whatever aversion you 
may profess against God*s being thf 
author of sin, you have stumbled upon 
the threshold of that opinion, in saying 
upon.the matter, that even tyranny is. 
God's authority, aud should be rem«*m- 
bered as such. If the king of Spain 
should return to claim his old pontifi- 
cal right to my kingdom, you leavo 
me to seek fur others to fight for it ; 
for you tell us upon the matter before- 
hand, his authority is God's authority 
if he prevail. 

'* Mr. Doctor, I have no tin^ to ex- 
press my mind further on this theory 
business ; 1 shall give you my orders 
about it by Mr. Solicitor, and until 
then, meddle no more in it ; for they 
' are edge tools, or rather like that wea- 
pon that is said to cut with one edge, 
and cure with the other. I commit 
yon to God's protection, good- Dr*. 
Abbo^ and rest your good friend, 

Jamis R." 

ABBOT. }» 

vieti. In prk)ate life he was equally noted for ardent piety^ 
generosity, and gentleness of manners. 

In the following year be was preferred to the see of 
Canterbnry, and confirmed April 9, and on the 23d of 
June he was sworn of his majesty's most honourable privy- 
couhciL* At this time he was in the highest favour both 
with prince and people, and appears to have taken an 
active part in all the great transactions in church and state. 
Although not thought excessively fond of power, or de- 
sirous of carrying his prerogative, as primate of England, 
to an extraocdinary height, yet be was resolute in main* 
taining the rights of the high commbsion court, and would 
not submit to lord Coke's prohibitions. In the case of 
Vorstius, his conduct was more singular. Vorstius had 
been appointed to a professorship in the university of 
Leyden, and was a noted Arminian. King James, by our 
archbishop's advice, remonstrated with the States on this 
appointment ; and the consequence was -that Vorstius was 
banished by the synod of Doct, as will appear more at 
lengrth in his life. This conduct on the part of the arch- 
bishop alarmed those who were favourers of Arminianism, 
and who dreaded Calvinism from its supposed influence on 
the security of the church ; but their fears as far as he was 
concerned appear to have been groundless, bis attachment 
to the church of England remaining firm and uniform. He 
had soon, however, another opportunity of testifying his 
dislike of the Arminian doctrines. The zeal which the 
king had shewn for ^removing, first Arminius, and then 
Vorstius, had given their favourers in Holland so much 
uneasiness, that the celebrated Grotius, the great cham« 
pion of their cause, was sent oVer to England to endeavour 
to mitigate the King's displeasure, and, if possible, to give 
him a better opinion of the Remonstrants, as they then 
began to be called* On this occasion the archbishop 
wrote an account of Orotius and his negociation in a 
letter to sir Ralph Winwood, in which he treats Grotius 
with very little ceremony. For this he has met with an 
advocate in archdeacon Blackburn, who, in his Confes- 
tional, observes in his- behalf, that ** his disaffection to 
Grotius was owing to the endeavours and proposals of the 
latter,' towards a coalition of the Protestants and Papists, 
which every wise and consistent Protestant, in every period 
since, the Reformation, as well as Abbot, has considersMi as 
a snare, and treated accordingly.'* 

20 A B B O T, 

Another affait which occurred in 1613, created no little 
perplexity to our archbishop, while it afforded him aii op* 
portttiHty of e^iticiBgadecidedness of character hot com- 
mon at that periods This was the case of divorce between 
lady Frances Howard, daughter to the earl of Suffolk, and 
Robert, earl of Esse^, her husband, which has always been 
considered as one of the greatest blemishes of kibg James's 
reign. The part Abbot took in this matter displayed his 
unshaken and incorruptible integrity; and he afterwards 
published his reascnas for opposing the divorce, as a measure 
tending to encourage public licentiousness. If this conduct 
displeased the king, he does not appear to have withdrawn 
his favour from the archbisbopi as in 1615 he promoted his 
brother, Robfert, to the see of Salisbury. The archbishop 
was less prudent in recomnoending to the king, George 
Villiers, ;afterwardfi the celebrated duke of Buckingham; 
but of this he lived ito repent, and to leave a 'Satisfactory 
vindication. • 

Towards the close pf 1616, the learned Antonio de 
Dominis, archbishop of Spalato, took shelter in England, 
from the persecution with which he was threatened by the 
Pope, for discovering his dislike both of the doctrine and 
discipline of the ehurch of Rome, and was very kindly re- 
ceived by his majesty, and hospitably entertained by the 
archbishop. It was by his f»ea<is that the archbishop got 
Father Paul's History of the Council of Trent transmitted 
into this country. Mr. Nathaniel Brent was employed on 
this service, and succeeded in procuring the whole of the 
manuscript, although with some hazard to himseif. In 
1618, while lamenting the death of his brother the bishop 
of Salisibury, which happened in March of that year, he 
elicountered a fresh anxiety from the king^s declaration for 
permitting sports and pastimes on the Lord's day. This 
declaration, usually called the Book of Sports, was ordered 
tp be read in the churches ; but the archbishop, being at 
Croydon when it came thither, had the coulrage to forbid 
its being read. 

In 1619 he executed a design which he had long formed, 
of founding an hospital at Guildford, where, on the 5th of 
April, he was present when sir Nicholas Kempe lud the 
0rst stone. The archbishop endowed it with knds to the 
value of three hundred pounds per annum : one hundred 
of which was to be employed in setting the poor to work, 
and the remainder for the mdntenance ot a masteri twckft 

A B B O t. 


brothers, and eightsist^rsj, whQ vrere. to have blae clothes^ 
aad- gowns pf the s^nae coloiut, ,aod h^*^--crown a we^ 
each* Oct 29y being the aqp^veFsa,Fy q£ the arehbishop'$^ 
bktb, i$ CQnunQonior^ii^ al GuUdford ; and the archbishop^ 
of Canterbury fby tilie time being i^ viaitoF of thehospitali! 
Towards tb^^.end of tbid year^ the l^lef^tfit Palatine ac* 
cepted of the oxotfn of JBobemia^ : which occasipiijied great 
dispates in king, James'a cou^qills,, &Qdp^ were desirous 
tbat hh ipiyesty. shouldi pot intef fere in iivis 9)att€^^ foresee-* 
ing that it wo^ld prodiocie a w^r if> GertiBiany ;: others wejre 
of opinioQ^ tjEiat natnial .a&ction :,to, his son, and daiughter^ 
and a juat Qoncein for the Protectant. intere$t| ought to en-y 
gage biai to support the new ele«ti0z^ The Jatter was the 
archbishop's sentisient.; and not being able at that^ time tp 
attend the privy councU,, be wjjQUe hi»: mind with, great 
boldness and freedom to the secretary pf . fiitate, Thif 
archbishop, now in a declining 9tate pf he^th^ n^ed in the 
sumnier to go to Hampshire foy the sake of rt^e,I!eaikipn ; 
and, being invited by lord Zouch to hunt in bia park at 
Bransill, be met. there with the greatest ^lisfor^nne that 
e?er befel him ^ for he aocideat^Uy kitted that nf^leman'i 
keeper^ by an arrow, froin a ,cross*-bowy which be; sbpt a^ 
one of the deer. This accideiiKt threw him iuto a dee.f> ine^ 
lancboly! ; and he ever afterwards kept a ii^pathly faat on 
Tuesday, the* day on which this fatal misohani^e happened. 
He also settled :an annuity oi ,20lu qn the widpw. There 
were several.pefsons who took advantage oS this misfortunes 
to lessesL. him in the kin9^a.favoui:;:bia'his m^esty said) 
'^ An angel might have miscarried in this sort.'* JBut his 
enemies refuresedtiDg, that^ having irregularity, 
he was. thereby incapacitated for perforoiing the pdicea of fL 
primate, the king direeted )a aomfni^ ten persons^ ti9 
inquire into xhh matter. The points referred tp their det 
xsisionwece^ !• Whether the arohbishap. was irregular by 
the fiict of involuntary homicide? , 2. Whether thsit act 
m\f^ ten* scandal in a churchman? 3« How bi^ grace 
sWuld be restored, in ease ,tbei commissioners, should find 
him irregular f All agfeedy. that it: .could not be othcr:l«^i$e 
done,^ tfate by reskitutioii. from the king ; but they varied 
in the manner.;. The bishop of Winchester, the lord chi^f 
justice, and Dr. Steward, duought it should be done by the 
kang, and by him alone.. The lord keeper, and the bi»bop$ 
of London, fiiichester, Exeteir, and St, David*s, were for 
:a Gooxmisdion item the) king ; directed to some bishops. 

Jf A B B O T. 

Judge Doddridge and sir Henry Martin were deMrous it 
should be^done both ways^ by way of caution. The king 
accordingly passed a pardon and dispensation ; by which he 
acquitted the archbishop of all irregularity, scandal, or in^ 
famation, aftd declared him capable of all the authority of 
a primate. Fl'om that time an increase of infirmities pre* 
Tented his assistance at the council. . But when, in the 
last illness of James L his attendance was required, he 
was attentive to the charge till the 27th of Mar<:h 1625, the 
day on which the king expired. Though very infirm, and 
afflicted with the gout, he assisted at the ceremony of the 
coronation of Charles I. whose favour, however, be did not 
long enjoy. His avowed enemy, the dvke of Buckingham, 
soon found an opportunity to make him feel the weight of 
his displeasure. Dr. Sibthorp had in the Lent assizes 1627 
preached before the judges a sermon at Northampton, to 
justify a loan which the king had demanded. . This sermon, 
calculated to reconcile the people to an obnoxious measure, 
was transmitted to the archbishop with the king's direction 
to license it ; which he refused, and gave his reasons for 
it : and it was not licensed by the bishop of London, until 
after the passages deemed exceptionable had been erased. 
On July 5, lord Conway, wh6 was then secretary of state, 
made him a visit ; and intimated to him, that the king ex- 
pected he should withdraw to Canterbury, The archbishop 
declined this proposal, because he bad then a law-suit with 
that city ; and desired that be might rather have leave to 
retire to his house at Ford, five miles beyond Canterbury. 
His request was granted; and, on Oct. 9 following, the 
king gave a commission to the bishops of London, Durham, 
Rochester, Oxford, and Bath and Wells, to execute the 
archiepiscopal authority; the cause assigned being, that 
the archbishop could not at that time in his own person at* 
tend those services which were otherwise, proper for his 
cognizance and direction. The archbishop did not remain 
long in this situation ; for, a parliament beii^ absolutely 
necessary, he was recalled about Christmas, and irestored 
to his authority and jurisdiction. On his arrival at court 
he was received by tbe archbishop of Yofk and the earl ol 
Dorset, who conducted him to. the king, and his regnlar 
attendance was from that time required. He sat in the 
succeeding parliament, and continued afterwards in the full 
exercise of his office. On the 24th of August 162&, the 
archbishop consecrated to the see of Chichester Dr. Richard 

<^ A B B O T- 23 

Montague, who had before been active in supporting thp 
pretence of irregularity . which had been alleged against 
him. Laud, bishop of London,, one of his former enemies^ 
also assisted at the consecration. When the petition of 
right was discussed in parliament, the archbishop delivered 
the opinion of the House of Lords at a conference with the 
House of Commons, offering some propositions from the 
former, and received the thanks of sir Dudley Digges. 
Dr.. Man waring, having preached before the House of Com- 
mons two sermons, which he afterwards published, and in 
which he maintained the king's authority in raising sub- 
sidies without the consent of parliament, was brought be- 
fore the bar of the House of Lords, by impeachment of the 
Commons. Upon this occasion the archbishop, with the 
king's consent, gave the doctor a severe admonition, in 
which be avowed his abhorrence of the principles main- 
tained in the two discourses. The interest of bishop Laiid 
being now very considerable at court, he drew up instruc- 
tions, which, having the king's name, were transmitted to 
the archbishop, under the title of " His majesty's instruc- 
tions to the most reverend father in God, George, lord 
archbishop of Canterbury, containing certain orders to be 
observed and put in execution by the several bishops^in bis 
province." His greu:e communicated them to his suffra- 
gan bishops ; but, to prove that be still intended to exer- 
cise his authority in his own diocese, he restored Mr. Pal- 
mer and Mr. Unday to their lectureships, after the dqan 
and archdeacon of Canterbury had suspended them. In 
other respects he endeavoured to soften their rigour, as they 
were contriveu to enforce the particular notions of a pre- 
vailing party in the church, which the archbishop thought 
too hard for those who made the fundamentals of religion 
their study, and were not so zealous for forms. His con- 
duct in this and other respects made his presence unwel- 
come at court; so that, upon the birth of the prince of 
Wales, afterwards Chai^les II. Laud had the honour to 
baptize him, as dean of the chapel. . It appears, however, 
from'almost the last public act of his life, that Abbot was 
not so regardless of the ceremonial parts of religious duty 
in the church of England as his enemies have represented 
him; for he issued an order, dated the 3d of July 1633, 
.requiring the parishioners of Crayford in Kent to receive 
the sacrament on their knees, at the steps ascending to the 
communion table. On the 5th of August, in the sao^e 

]5?4 ABBOT. 

year, he died at Croydon, worn out with cares and infihili<» 
ties, at the age of 7 1 , and wa^ according to bis own direct, 
tion buried in the chapel of Our Lady, within the chttrch 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity at Guildford. A stately mo- 
tiument vvas erected oter the grave, with the efBgies of the 
archbishop in his robes. He shewed himself, in most cir- 
cumstances of his life,, a mah of great modetation to all 
parties; and v^sls desirous that the clergy should attract 
the esteem of the laity by the sanctity of their manners, 
rather than claim it as due to their function. His notions 
and principles, however, not suiting the humour of soiiie 
writers, have drawn upoii him many severe reflections, 
Heylin asserts, '^ That marki^ of his benefactions we find 
none in placei^ of his breeding and preferAnrent ;" an asper- 
sion which is totally groundless. Dr. WelKvood has done 
more justice to the merit and abilities of our prelate : 
<* Archbishop Abbot," says be, ** was a person of wonderful 
tenlper and moderation ; and in all his conduct shewed an 
unwillingness to stretch the act of uniformity beyond what 
was absolutely necessary for the peace of the chiircb, or 
the prerogative of the crown, any farther than condilced 
to the good of the state. Being not well turned for a 
c6urt, though otherwise of considerable learning and gen- 
teel education, he either could not, or would not, stoop tb 
the humour of the times ; and now and then, by an un« 
seasonable stiffness, gave occasion to his enemies to repre- 
sent him as not well inclined to the prerogative, or too 
'much addicted to a popular interest ; and therefore not fit 
to be employed in matters of government" 

Others of the contemporary historians, besides Heylin, 
have given unfavourable characters of the archbishop ; but 
their accounts disagree. Lord Clarendon likewise bears 
hard on his religious principles and general characten 
f^ He had," says his lordship, " been master of one of the 
poorest colleges in Oxford, and had learning sufficient for 
that province," The Editor of the Biog. Britannica has 
here supplied the name (Balliol), a blunder which lord 
Clarendon was not likely to have made, as our archbishop 
was master of University College, and his brother Robert, 
master of Balliol. It is rather singular, however, that his 
lordship should undervalue the ** learning sufficient for 
that province." He also notices, as extraordinary, that 
he was promoted to the bishoprick of Lichfield and Coven- 
try ^* before he had been parson, vicar, or curate of any 


parish church in England, or dean or prebendary tt ar¥y ca»- 
I thedral church in England; and was in truth totally- igno?- 
rant of the true constitution of the church of England^ and 
the state and interest of the clergy.'' Here again his lord»- 
ship seems to haye forgot,, that he was deau of Winchester 
before he was bishop of Lichfield, and that the chief caoise 
of his promotion was tbe service he rendered to his majes^ 
by procaring the establishment of episcopacy in Scotland. 
Upon the whole of his character as dirawh by. lord Clai'en«- 
doD, the late ri^t hon. Arthur Onslow, speaker of the 
House of Commons, offers the following remarks : f^Tbat 
worthy prelate did surely deserve a better representaliofii 
to posterity. He was a very wise and prudent man,, knew 
well the temper and disposition of the kingdom with re*- 
spect to the ceremonies and power of the church, ind did 
therefore use a moderation in the point of .ecclesiasUead 
discipline, which if it had been followed by his sucoessoi!^ 
the ruin that soon after fell on the ohurch might viery. likely 
have been prevented. His being without any credit «t 
court from the latter end of king iamea's reign will Uiog 
no dishonour on his memory, if it be considered that his 
disgrace arose from his dislike of, and opposition to> the 
imprudent and corrupt measures of the<%:ourt at that time, 
^nd from an honest zeal for the laws and liberties of his 
country, which seemed then to be in no small danger, and 
it was a part truly becoming the high :station he then bore. 
His advice upon the affair of the Palatinate and the Spanish 
match shewed his knowledge of the true, interest of £ng«- 
Jand, and bow much it was at his heart ; and his behaviour 
and sufferings in tbe next reign, about the loan and Sib^^ 
thorp's sermon, as they were the reasons of his dfagrace at 
that time, so ought they to render his memoi^ valuable to 
all who wish not to see the fatal counsels and oppressiou of 
those times revived in this nation. The duke of Bucking- 
ham was his enemy, becsAise the archbishop would not be 
his creature; and the church pcriaaps might have been 
thought to have been better governed, if he had stooped 
to the duke, and given in .to the wantonnesses of his power : 
but he knew the dignity of bis character, and loved his 
country too well to submit to such a meanness, though 
very few of his brethren had the courage or honesty to jam 
with him in this, and, if the archbishop himself is to be ere- 
dited, his successor's rise was by the practice of those arts 
this good mau^could not bend to. As to his learnmg, we 


need no better testimony of it than his promotion by king, 
James, who had too much affectation that way to prefer 
mny one to sach a station who had not borne the reputa« 
don of a scholar ; but there are other proofs of his suBSi* 
ciency in this, even for the high place he lield in the 
cfaurcn. If he had some narrow notions in divinity, they 
were rather the faults of the age he had his education in, 
.than his ; and the same imputation may be Mid on the best 
and most learned of the Reformers. His warmth against 
Popery became the office of a Protestant bishop ; though 
even towards Papists there is a remarkable instance .of his 
mildness and charity, which shewed that his zeal against 
their persons went no farther than the safety of the state 
required \ His parts seem to have been strong and mas- 
terly, his preaching grave and eloquent, and his style equal 
'to any of that time. He was eminent for piety and a care 
for the poor ; and his hospitality fully answered the injunc- 
tion king James laid on him, which was, to carry bis house 
nobly, and live like an archbishop. He had no thoughts 
,of heaping up riches ; what he did save was laid out by him 
in the erecting and endowing of an handsome Ho^ital for 
^decayed tradesmen and the widows of such, in the town of 
Guildford, in the bounty of Surrey, where he was bom and 

, had his first education ; and here I cannot omit taking no- 
tice that the body of statutes drawn by himself for the go- 

. vemment of that house, is one of the most judicious works 
of that kind I ever saw, and under which for near one bun- 
<lred years that hospital has maintained the best credit of 
any that I know in England. He was void of all pomp and 
ostentation, and thought the nearer the church and church- 
men came to the simplicity of the first Christians, the better 
would the true ends of religion be served ; and that the 
purity of the heart was to be preferred to, and ought^ ra- 
ther to be the care of a spiritual governor, than the devo- 
tion of the hands only. If under this notion some niceties 
in discipline were given up to goodness of life, and when 
the peace of the church as well as of the kingdom was pre- 

. served by it, 'twas surely no ^ ill piece of prudence, nor is 
his memory therefore deserving of those slanders it has 
undergone upon that account. It is easy to see that much 
of this treatment has been owing to a belief in the ad- 
mirers and followers of archbishop Laud, that the reputa- 

1 Rufhworth*! CoUectioof, toI. I. p. 243. 


tion of ftha ktler was increased by depreciating that of the 
&niier. They were indeed men of very different frames, and 
the parts they took in the affairs both of church and state 
as disagreeing. In the church, moderatioa and the ways 
of peace guided the behaviour of the firsts rigour and se- 
verity that of the last In the state they severally carried 
the like principles and temper. The one made the liberty 
of the people and the laws of the. land the measure of his 
actions ; when the other, to speak softly of it, had the 
power of the prince and the exalting the pren^tive only^ 
for the foundation of his. They were indeed both of them 
men of courage and resolution ; but it was sedate and tem- 
perate in Abbot, passionate and unruly in Laud. It is not 
however to be denied that many rare and excellent virtues 
were possessed by the latter ; but it must be owned too* 
he seems rather made for the hierarchy of another church 
and to be the ministei: of an arbitrary prince, apd the 
other to have had the qualifications of a Protestant bishop 
and the guardian of a free .state *.'** 

As HeyUn has insinuated something to the prejudice of 
the arcbbkbop's liberality, it may be necessary to record, 
that, besides his noble foundation at Guildford, be gave to 
the schools at Oxford one hundred and fifty pounds. In 
1619, he bestowed a large sum of money on the library of 
Balliol college ; he built a conduit in the city of Canter^ 
bury ; in 1624 he contributed to the founding of Pembroke 
college, OjKford, and discharged a debt of three hundred 
pounds owing from Balliol to Pemb^^ college. In 1632 
be gave oift hundred pounds to th{|'4|brary of Univer- 
sity College, Oxford, and by will left la^e sums to cha- 
ritable purposes. 

His works are: 1. ^' Qusestioues Sex, totidem praelec- 
tionibus in Schola Theologica Oxonian, pro forma habitis, 
discuss® et disceptatsranno 1597, ia quibus e Sacra Scrip- 
tura & Patribus, , quid statuendum sit definitur.*' Oxon. 
1598, 4to, & Francfort, 1616, 4to, published by Abraham 
ficultetus. 2. '^Exposition on the Prophet Jonah, con- 
stained in certaine Sermons, preached in S. Maries Church 
in Oxford,'' 4to, 1600. It appears by a postscript to the 
reader, that these sermons or lectures were delivered cmi 
Thursdays early .in the morning, *^ sometimes before day- 

* This character is dated July 10, William Rurael of Merton coll. Oxon. 
17123, and was first printed in the Gkiildford, 1777, 8vo. ^ 
*< Life of anhhithop Abbot," by Mr* 

fiS A B B T. 

light,*' from 1594 to 1599. They were reprinted 40 Ul^ 
and form the most popular of hh works. 3. His " Answer 
to the questions of the Citizens of London in Jan^ 1600^ 
coneerniDg Cheapside Cross," not printed until 164K 
4; ^^The reasons which Dr. Hill hath brought for* the up^ 
holding of Papistry, unmasked and shewed to he very 
weak, &c." Oxon. 4to» 1604. Hill was a. elergyman of 
the church of England, which he exchanged , for. ti»t of 
Rome, and wrote his ^^ Quatron of Reasons" in vindication 
of his conduct, printed at Antwerp, 4to. i600. i. ** A Pre^ 
face to the examination of George Sprot," -&c.s noticed 
before. ' 6. ^< Sermon preached at Westminster, May 26, 
1606, at the fiineral of Thomas eari of I>orset, late lord 
high treasurer of England^ on Isaiah xl. 6;" 4to. 1603. 
t. "Translation of a part of the New Testament," with 
the rest of the Oxford divines, 1611. 8. ^< Some memo- 
rials^ touching' the Nullity between the earl of Essex and 
his lady, pronounced Sept. 25, 16 IS, at Lambeth; and 
the difficulties endured In the same." To this is added 
^^ some observable things since Septi. 25, 1619^' when- the 
sentence was 'given in the cause of the earl of -Essex, con- 
tinued unto the day of the marriage, Dec^ 26 j 1613," 
which appears also to have been penned by his graee, or 
by his direction; and to it is annexed *^the speech in- 
tended to be spoken at Lambeth, Sept 25, 1613, by- the 
archbishop of Canterbury, &c." These were repriiKted in 
one volume, 1719, 12mo, and the MS. in the archbishop's 
hand was then said toi'be in the bands of an eminent law- 
yer. 9. "A*»'brie| description of the whole World, 
wherein is particularly described all the monarchies, em- 
pires, and kingdoms of the same, with their aicademies," 
&c. 4to. 1617; a work, of which th^re have been several 
editions. 10. ^* A short apology for arcbbtsbop Abbot, 
touching the death of Peter Hawkins, dated Oct 8, 1621.^* 
11.^^ Treatise of perpetual visibility aqd siitecession - of the 
true Church in all ag^s," Lond. 4ta. 1 634 ; published with- 
out his name ; but bis arms, impaled ^ith those of Canter- 
'bury, are put before it. 12.' ^< A narrative containing the 
true cause of his sequestration and disgrace at Court : in 
two parts, written at Ford in Kent," 1627, printed in 
Rushworth's 'Historical Collections, vol. L p. 468— 461, 
and in the Annals of king CJiarles, p. 213 — 224. Bp. 
Hacket, in his life of Abp. William^ p. 68, attests the a;U- 
thenticity of this curious memorial. 13. ^^ History of ^e 
Massacre in the Valtoline," printed in the third volume of 

A B B Q T: « 

Fox^s Acts and Monutnents;^ 14. His- ^^ Judgment on 
bowing at the name of Jesus^V . Hamburgh, 8vo. 1632. la 
1^18, he and sir Heniy Savile defrayed the expence of an 
edition of Bradwardin's '^ Cause of God," a work written 
against the Pelagians >. 

ABBOT (GfiOROE), nephew of the preceding, and son 
of sir Maurice Abbot^ the archbishop's youngest brother^ 
was elected probationer fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 
1624, and admitted LL. B. 1630. He wrote: 1. <^ The 
whole book of Job paraphrased,'' Lond. 4to. 1640. 
2. " VindicisB Sabbati, or an answer to two treatises of Mr. 
Broad," Lond. 1641, 4to. Broad was rector of Rend- 
eombe in Gloucestershire ; and wrote two treatises, one 
concerning the Sabbath or seventh day, and the other 
concerning the Lofd's day, or first day of the week; which 
falling into Mr. Abbot's hands in manuscript, he wrote an 
answer to them, aivd published the whole under the above 
title. 3. ** Brief notes upon the whole book of Psalms,'* 
4to, 16il. He married a daughter of col. Purefoy, of 
Caldecote^hali, Warwicksbire, whose house he gallantly 
defended, by the help of the servants only, against the 
attack of the princes Rupert and Maurice with eighteen 
troops of horse. He died Feb. 4, 1648, aged 44 years ^ 

ABBOT (MauHice, or Morris), father of the above^ 
and youngest brother of archbishop- Abbot, was bred up to 
trade, became an eminent merchant iu London, and had 
a considerable share in the direction of the af&irs of the 
East India Company. He was one , of the commissioners 
employed in negociating a treaty with, the Dutch East- In* 
dia Company, by which the Moluc(?a islands, aiul the 
domm^ce to them^ were declared to be divided, two-thirds 
to the Dutch East India Company, and one-third to the 
English. This important treaty, which put an end to the 
Jong and violent disputes between the English and Dutch 
East India companies, was concluded at London, July 7, 
16i9, and ratified by the king on the sixteenth of the same 
month. In consequence of this treaty, and in order to re- 
dover the goods of some English merchants, sir Dudley 
Digged and Mr. Abbot were sent over into Holland in the 
sueceeding year, 1620, but with what sucoess does not ap*- 

* Biog. Bfjt-^Le Neye.— Wood's Athen9.«— Aubrey's. Surrey.— Godwin de 
Pnesttlihas ap. Richardson.— I^loyd's State Worthies. — Several letters^ speeches 
n parWament, &c. are in the contemporary historians and annalists. 

* Wood's AthensBy and Nichols's Hist, of Leicestershire, vol. IV. p. 602. 


pe&r. He was afterwards one of the farmers of the cu^' 
tomsy as appears from a commission granted in 1623, to 
him and others, for administering the oaths to such per«: 
sons, as should either desire to pass the seas from this 
kingdom, or to enter it from foreign countries. In 1624, 
he was appointed one of the council for settling and esta- 
blishing the colony of Virginia, with full powers for the 
government of that colony. On the accession of king 
Charles I. he was the first person on whom the order of 
knighthood was conferred, and he was chosen to represent 
the city of London in the first parliament of that reign. 
In 1627 he served the office of Sheriff, and in 1738 that of 
Lord Mayor. There are no other particulars extant con- 
cerning him^ unless the date of his death, Jan.'lO, 1640*. 
ABBOT (Robert), eldest brother to the archbishop, 
was born also in the town of Guildford in 1 560 ; educated 
by the same schoolmaster; and afterwards sent to Balliol 
college, Oxford, in 1575. In 1582 he took his degree of 
M* A. and soon became a celebrated preacher ; to which 
talent he chiefly owed his preferment. Upon his first ser* 
moil at Worcester,^ he was chosen lecturer in that city, and 
soon after rector of All Saints in the same place. John 
Stanhope, esq. li^ppening to hear him preach at PauPs 
cross, was so pleased with him, that he immediately pre- 
sented him to the rich living of Bingham in Nottingham- 
shire. In. 1594 he became no less eminent for his 
writings than he had been for his excellence in preaching. 
In 1597 he took his degree of D. D. In the beginning of 
king James's reign he was appointed chs^lain in ordinary 
to his majesty ; who had such an opinion of him as a wri*- 
ter, that he ordered the doctor's book " De Antichristo'* 
to be reprinted with his own commentary upon part of the 
Apocalypse. He had also acquired much reputation for his 
writings against Dr. William Bishop, then a secular priest, 
but afterwards titular bishop of Chalcedon. In 1609 he 
was elected master of Balliol college; which trust he dis-^ 
charged with the utmost care and assiduity, by his fre- 
quent lectures to the scholars, by his continual presence at 
public exercises, and by promoting discipline in the so- 
ciety. In May 1610 the king nominated Dr. Abbot one of 
the fellows in the college of Chelsea, which had been 
lately founded for the encouragement and promotion of 

I Diog. Brit. 

ABBOT. *l' 

polemical divinity. lu November 1 6 10 he vas made pre* 
bendary of Normanton in the church of Southwell ; and in 
1612 his majesty appointed him regius professor of divinity 
at Oxford ; in which station he acquired the character of a 
profound divine, though a more moderate .Calvinist than 
either of his two predecessors in the divinity-chair^ Hot* 
land and Humphrey : for he countenanced the sublapsa* 
rian tenets concerning predestination. He was not, how- 
ever, less an enemy to Dr. Laud than his brother ; and in 
one of his sermons pointed at him so directly, that Laud 
intended to have taken some public notice of it. 

The fame of Dr. Abbot's lectures became very great ; 
and those which he delivered upon the supreme power of 
kings against Bellarmine and Suarez afforded the king so 
much satisfaction, that, when the see of Salisbury became 
vacant, he named him to that bishoprick ; and he was con« 
secrated by bis own brother, the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Dec. 3, 1616. It would appear that he had enemies who 
would have deferred his promotion for various reasons* 
When he came to do homage, the king said, *^ Abbot, I 
have had very much to do to make thee a bishop ; but I 
know no reason for it, unless it were because thou hast 
written against one,'' alluding to Dr. Bishop before-men- 
tioned. In his way to Salisbury, he took a solemn farewell 
of Oxford, and was- accompanied ^for some miles by the 
heads of houses and other eminent scholars, who deeply 
regretted his departure. On his arrival at Salisbury he be- 
stowed much attention on his cathedral, which had been 
neglected, and ittised a considerable subscription for xe- 
pairs. He afterwards visited the whole of his diocese, and 
preached every Sunday while his health permitted, which 
was not long, .as the sedentary- course he had pursued 
brought on the stone and gravel, which ended his pious 
and useful life, March 2, 1617. He had enjoyed his 
bishoprick only two years and three months, and was in- 
terred in the cathedral. He was twice married ; the last 
time,, which is said to have given offence to his brother the 
archbishop, about half a year after his promotion to the 
see. The lady, whose name seems to have escaped the 
researches of his biographers, was Bridget Cheynell, wi« 
dow, and mother of the famous Francis Cheynell. By his 
first wife- he left one son, or more, and a daughter who was 
married to sir Nathaniel Brent, warden of Merton college. 
All his biographers concur in the excellence of his charac** 

3j2 A B B O T. 

ter, his eminent piety, charity, and learning. One of them 
has attempted a parallel between the two brothers, viz. 
that " George was the more plausible preacher, Robert 
the greater scholar ; George the abler statesman, Robeit 
the deeper divine ; gravity did frown in George, and smile 
iD Robert*" 

A few paritculars hitherto unnoticed by his biographers 
may be gleaned from Wood's Annals, published by Mr. 
Gutch. It appears that in 1596 the corporation of London 
requested the two universities to send them a list of per- 
sons properly qualified for the professorships of Gresham 
college, just founded. On this occasion Mr. Abbot, then 
M. A. of Balliol college, was chosen with three others, but 
the election ultimately fell upon a gentleman of Cam- 
bridge. — in 1612, Dr. John Howson, dne of the canons of 
Christ church, preaching at St. Mary's, reflected on the 
annotations to the Geneva translation of the Bible, ^'as 
guilty of misrepresenting the divinity of Christ and hia 
Messiahship." For this he was afterwards suspended, or 
forped to recant, by Dr. Abbot, then pro-vicechaucellor. 
Wood tihinks this the more hard, because king James had 
been known to censure the partiality of these annotations, 
r— While king's professor of Divinity, he had neither the 
Canonry of Christ church, nor the rectory of Ewelme 
usually annexed ; and his only profits were some fees from 
those who performed exercises in divinity, and a salary of 
forty pounds a-year paid by the dean and canons of Christ 
church. — ^In dislike to Laud, as already noticed, be shared 
amply with his brother ; but Wood's account of the sermon 
be preached against him is more particular than that in the 
Biographia, and throws some light on the controversies as 
well as the manners of the times. " On Shrove Sunday 
towards the latter end of this year (1614), it happened that 
Dr. Laud preached at St Mary's, and in his sermon in- 
sisted on some points which might indifferently be imputed 
either to Popery or Arminianism (as about this time they 
began to call it),, though in themselves they were by some 
thought to be no other than the true doctrines of the 
Church of England. And having occasion in that sermon 
to touch upon the Presbyterians and their proceedings, he 
used some words to this effect, viz. * that the Presbyte- 
rians were as bad as the Papists.* Which being directly 
contrary to the judgment and opinion of Dr. Robert Abbot, 
the king's professor of Divinity, and knowing how much 


Dr. Laud bad been distasted by his brother when be lived 
in Oxford, coDcei?ed he could not better satisfy himself 
and oblige his brother, now archbishop of Canterbury^ 
than by exposing him (on the next occasion) both to shame 
and ceiJsure, which he did accordingly. For preaching at 
St. Peter's in the East upon Easter-day (1615) in the after- 
noon, in the turn of the vicechancellor, be pointed at him 
so directly, that none of the auditors were so ignorant a$ 
hot to know at whom he aimed. Dr. Laud, being not 
present at the first preaching of the sermon, was by his 
friends persuaded to shew himself at St. Mary's the Sunday 
after, when it shoidd come to be repeated (according tp 
the ancient custom in this university) ; to whose persuasions 
giving an unwilling consent, he heard himself sniBciently 
abused for almost an hour together, and that so palpably 
and grossly, that he was pointed to as he sate." It ap- 
pears that Laud consulted his patron. Dr. Neal, bishop of 
Lincoln, who probably dissuaded him from taking any no-^^ 
tice of the matter, as we do not find that he wrote any 
answer, or vindication. 

Bishop Abbot's works are: 1. *^The mirror of Popish 
Subtleties," Lond. 4to, 1594. 2. << The exaltation of the 
kingdom and priesthood of Christ," sermons on the first 
seven verses of the 1 10th Psalm, 4to, Lond. 1601. 3. << An- 
tichristi demonstratio, contra fabulas Pontificias, et in- 
eptam Rob. Bellarmini de Antichristo disputationem,-'* 
Lond. 4to, 1603, 8vo, 1608, a work much conmiended by 
Scaliger. 4. ** Defence of the reformed Catholic of Mr. 
W. Perkins, agskirist the bastard counter- Catholic of Dr. 
William Bishop, seminary priest," in three parts, 4to» 
1606, 1607, 1609. 5. "The Old Way; a sermon at St. 
Mary's, Oxon." 4to, Lond. 1610. This was translated into 
Latin by Thomas Drax. 6. " The true ancient Roman 
Catholic ; being an apblogy against Dr. Bishop's reproof 
of the defence of the reformed Catholic," 4to, 1611. This 
work was dedicated to pHnee Henry, \#ho returned the 
author thanfks in a letter written vr ith his own band ; a cir- 
cumstance which seems to have escaped Dr. Birch in his 
life of ihat prince. 7. ^^Antilogia; adversus apologiam 
AndresB EudsBmon-Johannis, Jesuitse, pro Henrico Gar* 
netto Jesuita proditore;" Lond. 4to. 1613. The true 
ToJBe of the apologist was Isaac Casaubotv 8. ^' De gratia 
et perseinerantia San^ctorum, Exercitationes habit® in .Aca- 
demics Oiion." Loud«. 4to» 1618; Francfort, 8yo, 1619. 
Yot^L D 

^4 A B B O 1"., 

9. "Iq Ricardi Thomsoni Angli-Belgici diatribam)' ie 
amissione et intercessione justificationis et gratiae, animad^ 
versio brevis." Lond. 4to, 1618. Thomson was a Dutch-» 
rmfij born of English parents, and educated at Clarehall^ 
Cambridge. Our author finished this book on the last day. 
of his life, and it was published by his brother the arch-i' 
bishop and Dr. Featley his chaplain. 10. " De Suprema 
Potestate Regia, exercitationes habitas in Academic Ox-* 
oniensi, contra Rob. Bellarminum et Franeiscum Suarez/* 
LQnd/4to^ 1619, also a posthumous publication. He left 
behind him various sermons in manuscript, lectures on St. 
Matihew, and commentaries on some parts of the Old and 
New Testament, particularly a commentary in Latin upon 
the whole epistle to the Romans, in four folio volumes, 
which was given to the Bodleian library by Dr. Edward 
Corbet, rector of Haseley in Oxfordshire^ his grandson by 
bis only daughter the wife of sir Nathaniel Brent*. 

ABBOT (Robert), a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land, but whether belonging to the archbishop's family is 
uncertain, was originally of the university of Cambridge^ 
and was incorporated master jof arts of Oxford, July 
14, 1607* He was afterwards vicar of Cranbrooke in 
Kent, and minister of Southwick in Hampshire. Whenr 
Ephraim Udall^ the lawful rector of St. Augustine's, Wat- 
ling-street, was sequestered by authority of the House of 
Commons in 1643, the living was given to Mr. Abbot, 
which he enjoyed until his death, at a very advanced age, 
in 1653. He published " Four Sermons," 8vo, Lond. 1639, 
dedicated to Curie, bishop oi Winchester, who had been 
bis patron ;. and some other single sermons, a small cate- 
chism, &c. 

There was about the same time a Robert Abbot of Hat- 
field, mentioned by Dr. Pulteney, as a learned preacher, 
;ind an excellent and diligent herbalist, who assisted the 
celebrated Johnson in his works ^ 

ABBT (Thomas), a German writer of high character,, 
was born Nov. 25, 1738, at Ulm, where he received his edu- 
cation, and in 1751 produced his first dissertation, under 
the title of ^' Hist«ria vitae magistra,'' in which he main* 

1 Biog. Brit, — Clarke's Ecclesiastical History, p. 444. — Lapton's Moderp 
Divines^ p. 311.— .Fuller'8 Worthies, and Abel Redivivas.— Aifaen. Oxon. I. 430, 
725.— Stiype's Whitgifk, 486.— Featley's Life of him.-^Wood'a Annals, vok II. 

^ Wood's Fasti, X9\, I. 177. — Malcolm's History of London.'^ Pulteney '« 

A B B T. %S 

tained two theses^ the one on burning mirrors, the other on 
the niiracle of the dial of Ahaz. In 1756, he went to the 
university of Halle, where he was invited by professor 
Bauoigarten to live in his bouse. Here he published a 
thesis **De Extasi," and studied chiefly philosophy and 
the mathematics; and from 1758, when he received the 
degrecKof M. A. he confined himself to these, giving' up 
divinity, to which he had been originally destined. Id 
1760, he was appointed professor- extraordinary of philos6- 
phy in the university of Francfort-on-the-Oder,^ and in the 
midst of the war which then raged, inspirited his fellow- 
citizens by a work on " Dying for our Country.'' In the 
following year, he passed six months at Berlin, and left 
that city to fill the mathematical chair in the university of 
Rinteln, in Westphalia ; but, becoming tired* of an acade- 
mical life, began to study law, as an introduction to somd 
civil employment. ^In 1763, he travelled through the 
south of Germany, Switzerland, and part of France ; and, 
on his return to Rinteln, at the end of that year, published 
his work " On Merit," which was re-printed thrice in that 
place, and obtained him much reputation. In 1765, the. 
reigning prince of Schaumburg Lippe bestowed on him 
the office of counsellor of the court, regency, and consistory 
of Buckeburgh ; but he did not long enjoy the friendship 
of this nobleman, or his promotion, as he died Nov. 27^ 
1766, when only in his twenty-eighth year. The prince 
caused him to be interred, with great pomp, in his private 
chapel, and honoured his tomb by an affecting epitaph 
from his own pen. Abbt was highly esteemed by bis con- 
temporaries, who seem agreed that, if his life had beea^ 
spared, he would have ranked among the first Germaa 
writers. He contributed much to restore the purity of the 
language, which had become debased before his time, as 
the Germans, discouraged by the disastrous thirty yeaff 
war, had written very little, unless in French or Ljitin. * 

Besides what we have mentioned, Abbt wrote a great 
number of works in Germaa or Latin. His first publica- 
tions were theological : in 1757, he wrote on ** the Burial 
of Moses,'* Halle, 4to, which, contrary to the usual opi- 
nion, he contended was performed by men. In 1758,; he 
published a thesis, to prove that the " Confusion of Tongues 
at Babel was not a punishment,'* Halle, 4to ; and another 
oh the « Search of Truth," Halle, 1759; 4ta These ap- 
pear to have been the efforts of a young author endearbur* 

U A B B T. 

ihg io jbstablish a repqtation on paradox. After he had 
Begiki to sttidy philosophy,, he published a thesis on the 
'roper 9ianner of studying that science, Halle, 1760, 4to. 
U ^^ Treatise oh the influence of the Beautiful on 
crepce,^* Rintein, 1762, 4to, was intended as an introduc- 

! Ion to his lectures on the belles-lettres. He next pub* 
bhed a " l^rogramma on the difficulty of measuring the 
jEIunian Eaculties,*' Rintelh, 1763, 4to; and a ^^Consola- 
iory Epistle, to Dr. Schwartz," 1763, 8vo. His work en- 
titled "Recherches sur les Sentiments Moraux, tra- 
ibiites de l*Allemand de M. Moses Mendelsohn,*' 1763, 
i2mo, wa^ the only book he wrote in French. He wrote 
jilso a ^^Life of his old friend professor Baumgarten,** 
1765, Halle, 4to, which was re-printed in the Rintein 
Literary Journal. An anonymous work, which has the 
jdate of Hai;nburgh 1766, 8vo, but was really printed at 
Berlin^ the subject, the " folly of persecution among Pro- 
tests^its," is ascribed to him. '' Reflections on a plan of 
^tudy for young men of rank," was written by him in 1759^ 
.but pot printed .till after his death, in 1767; and re- 
printed at Berlin 1780. He had besun an universal his- 
.torj^, a fragment of which was puhlished by Miller, at 
,Hahe, 1767, 8vo. After his death, the count de la Lippe 
published a translation of the Catiline conspiracy from 
^Sallust,. written by Abht, and esteemed one of his best 
productions, Stadtbagen, 1767, 8vo; but it must not be 
.confounded with a translation of the same author published 
^.t Lemgow, 1772, under his name. His reputation was 
such, that there have appeared two surreptitious editions 
,Qf his works, at Reutlingen in 1782, and at Frankfort in 
.1783; but the genuine edition is that of Nicolai, 6 vols. 
Stetin and Berlin, in 1768, 1781, and 1790, which con- 
tains many pieces not before printed^ His correspondence 
with : Blum, Gause, Gleim, Klotz, Moses Mendelsohn, 
jNi^olai^ and others, contained in this edition, was re- 
printed by itself at Berlin and Stetin in 1782, 8vo. Be-^ 
sides these^ thejre are. several papers, on various subjects, 
written by Abbt, in the German literary journals, particu- 
. liLtly that conducted by Lessing^ and Moses Mendelsoba. 
. AU>t^.s life was written by Frederic Nicolai, and published 
at Berlin 1.767,' 4to.' 

ABDIAS^ a nam^ admitted into various biographical 
^ €olIectioQS| without much propriety. It has usucdlj beea 

A B D I A S. II 

yaid that Abdias was an impostor^ who pretended that he 
had seen our Saviour, that he was one of the seventy-two 
disciples, had been an eye-witness of the lives a^d martyr- 
dom of several, of the apostles, and had followed St. Simon 
and St. Jude into Persia, where he was made the first 
bishop of Babylon. From what he saw, he compiled a 
work entitled " Historia certaminis Apostolici/* This 
work Wolfgang Lazius, a physician of Vienna, and histo- 
riographer to the emperor Ferdinand I. (hereafter noticed) 
found in manuscript in a cave of Carinthia, and belieting 
it to be genuine, originally written in Hebrew, tratislated 
into Greek by one Europius, a disciple of Abdias,' and 
into X'atin by African us, published it at Basil in 1551^ 
after which it was. several times reprinted, but^ on.exftmin-? 
ation both by Papist and Protestant writers, was sbon dis- 
covered to be a gross imposture, from the many ana- 
chronisms which occur. Melancthon, who saw it in ma- 
nuscript, was, one of the first to detect it ; and the greater 
part of the learned men in Europe, at the time of publican 
tion, were of opinion that Abdias was a fictitious person- 
age, and that it was neither written in Hebrew, not* trans- 
lated into Greek or Latin : Fabricius had proved from in- 
ternal evidence that it was first written in Latin, but that 
the author borrowed from various ancient ipemoirs, which 
were originally in Greek. As to the age of the writer, 
some have placed him in the fifth and, some in the sixth 
century, or later. The object of the work is to recom- 
mend chastity and celibacy ^ 

ABDOLLATIPH, an eminent Persian historian and 
philosopher, was born at Bagdad, in the 557th year o!f 
the Hegira, or the 1161st of the Christian aerai Having 
been educated with the greatest care by his father, who 
was himself a man of learning, and resided in a capital 
which abounded with the best opportunities of instruction, 
he distinguished himself by an early proficiency, not only 
in rhetoric, history, and poetry, but also in the more se- 
vere studies of Mahommedan theology. To the acqui$ition 
of medical knowledge he applied with peculiar diligence ; 
and it was chie6y with this view that he left Bagdad, in his 
28th year, in order to visit other countries. At Mosul, in 
Mesopotamia, whither he first directed his course, he found 
the attention of the students entirely confined to the cbe- 

1 Ifabricii BibL Craec.—- Saxii OnoaDattioon.— Bayle in Gen. Dict.-*-CaTt, 
ia(,L$X» Ute Uit «cca)»Qt !• itt CbAufepie, Diet. HiiU 

38 A B D O L LA T I P H* 

ipistry of that day, with which he was already sufficientljr 
acquainted. He therefore removed to Damascus, where 
the grammarian Al Kindi then enjoyed the highest reputa- 
tion ;,.abd with him AbdoUatiph is said to have engaged in 
a controversy on some subjects of grammar and philology, 
TV'hich was ably conducted on both sides, but terminated in 
favour of oiir author. 

At this time Egypt had yielded to the arms of Saladin, 
who was marching against Palestine for the purpose of 
wresting that country from the hands of the Christians; 
yet towards Egypt AbdoUatiph was irresistibly impelled 
by that literary curiosity which so strongly marked his cha- 
racter. The defeat, however, of the Saracens by tha 
English king Richard, had plunged the Sultan into melan* 
cboly, and prevented our traveller from being admitted 
into his presence ; biit the favours which he received 
fBvinced^the munificence of Saladin, and he pursued his 
purpose, visiting Cairo, where his talents procured him a 
welcome reception. From this he withdrew, in order to 
present himself before the Sultan, who, having concluded 
a truce with the Franks, then resided in Jerusalem. Here 
he was received by Saladin with every expression of 
esteem, and Saladin granted him a liberal pension, which 
was increased by his son and successor, till the unnatural 
ambition of his uncle forced him from the throne of Egypt 
and of Syria; and thus our traveller was compelled to re- 
sort again to Damascus, after a ishort abode at Jerusalem : 
where bis qral lectures,^ and his written treatises, were 
equally the objects of general admii'ation. At Damascus 
he di^tiniguisbed bimseli chiefly by his medical skill and 
knowledge ; but nothing could detain him froih travelling 
in pursuit of higher improygment, and on this account, he 
left Damsiscus, and after having visited Aleppo, resided 
several yiears in Greece. With 3ie same view he travelled 
through Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor, still adding tb 
the number of his wqrks, many of which he dedicated to 
the princes whbs^ courts he visited. After this, sentiments 
of devotion induced hipi to undertake a pilgrimage to 
IVlecca; but h« first determined to pay a visit to his native 
country, and had scarcely reached Bagdad, when he was 
suddenly attacked by a distemper, of which he died, A. !Q, 
1223, in the 63d year of his age. * 

Of one hundred and fifty treatises, on various subjects 
of medicine^ naturs^l philosophy, and polite literature, which 


kave been ascribed to AbdoUatipb, on^ only is to be'fouijd 
ia the libraries of Europe. It is entitled " Al-kital At- 
sagir," or his *' Little Book," being an abridgment of a 
larger history of Egypt, Of this compendium, one manu* 
script only has yet been discovered by the industry of Eu- 
ropean scholars, and is now in the Bodleian library. An 
edition of it was published in 1 800,. by professor White of 
Oxford (from whose preface the abpve particulars hava 
been taken), enriched with valuable notes, and a translsilion 
into Latin. A very learnjed account and criticism on this 
work appieared in the Monthly Review for April 1802.> 

ABEILLE (Gabpar) was born at Riez in Provence, in 
1648. He removed to Paris early in life, where he was 
much admired for the brilliancy of his wit^ The mare- 
ci^.de Luxembourg took notice of him, and gave him, 
the title of his secretary ; and the poet, followed the hero 
in his caitipaigns» The marshal gave him his confi- 
dence during his hfe, and at his death recommended him 
to his heirs as an estimable man. The prince of Conti and 
the duke de YeAdome vouchsafed him their familiarity, and 
found great pleasure in his lively and animated conversa- 
tion. The witticismsv which would have been, comppn in 
the mouth of any other man,- were rendered striking in hint 
by the turn he gave them, and by the grimacies with whieh 
he accQmpanied them. A countenance remarkably ugly 
and full of wrinkles, which he managed at pleasure^ stood 
him instead of a variety of masks. Whenever he read a 
tale or a comedy, he made a ludicrons ufee of 'this move* 
able physiognomy for distinguishing the personages of the 
piece he was reciting. The abb6 Abeille enjoyed a priory, 
and a place in the French academy. We have of him 
somes odes, some epistles, several tragedies, :one comedy, 
and two operas. A certain prince observed of his tragedy 
pf Cato, tl)at, if Cato of Utica should return from the 
grave, be would. be only the Oato of the abbe AbeiHeb 
He understood well enough what was necessary to the forf 
snation of a good poet; but he was not one hiiQsdf* His 
*tyle ia. feeble, low, and languid. In bis versification he 
discovers none qf that dignity he had in his charaoter. He Raris, the 2l8t of May,; 1718. A French critic, 
speaking of the two tragedies, Solyman and Hercules, 
Written by JeaiVjuvenon de la TbulUerie, says, the reader 
will be able to, judge of their merit, when he is infori«ed 
|)i4t.they were attributed to the- Abbe Abeille*. ' 

. • • I Diet. Hist. .X6}0. . • • ' •• • ' 


ABEILLE (Scipio), brothei" of the preceding^ was «li« 
born at Riez, and became a surgeoii and medical writer of 
CODsiderayble eminence. His publications are: 1. '^ His^ 
toine des Os/' Paris, 1685, l2mo. 2. <^ Traits des places 
d^Arqiuebusades/' Paris, 1696, 12mo. 3. ^< Le parfait 
Chirurgien d'arm^e,'^ 1696, 12mo, reckoned his most use** 
ful work. He wrote also some poetry. He died Nov. 9, 
1697, leaving a son who wrote two unsuccessful dramas ^ 

ABEILLE (Louis Paul) was born at Toulouse, June 2, 
}7I9 ; and died at Paris, July 28, 1807. He was formerly 
inspector general of the manuiactures of France, and se* 
caretary to the council of trade. He wrote : 1. ^^ Corps 
d^observiUions .de la Society d' Agriculture, de Commerce, 
et des Arts, etablie par les Etats de Bretagne," Rennes, 
1761, 8vo. *^ PoBcipes sur la liberte du Commerce des 
Grains," Paris, 1768, Svo. He also published ^^Obser- 
vations sur PHistoire Naturelle de Buffon," written by M. 
Malesberbes, with a preface and notes, Paris, 1796, 2 
vols. 8vb*. 

' ABEL (Caspar), a native of Halberstadt, and an emU 
nent historian of the last century, born at Hpdeuburg in 
1676, published in 1710 the history of Prussia and Bran* 
denburg, ^< Preussische und Brandisburgische Staats-His«> 
tone,'* Leipsic, 8vo; in 1714, some favourite satires; and, 
in 1715, a work of far more utility and importance, ^^ His- 
toria Monarchiarnm orbis aptiqui,'' Leipsic, Svo ; a Greek 
Archaeology, 1738 ; and a translation of Boileau. He died 
ftt Westdorf in 1763». 

ABEL (Frederick Gottfried), a physician, assessor 
p( the College of Physicians, and member of the Lite* 
Viary Society at Halberstadt, the son of the preceding Gas- 
per, was born July 8, 1714. In 1731, he commenced his 
theological studies at Halberstadt, Qiider the celebrated 
lilosheim, and a year after removed to Halle, where he 
Attended the lectures of Wolfe and Baumgarten, and^ft^ 
preached with much applause. In a few years, however, 
be gave up his theological pursuits, studied medicine, and 
in 1744 was admitted to. the degree of doctor at Konigs<- 
)>erg. On his return to Halberstadt, he practised as a pby- 
liician above half a century, and died Nov. 23, 1794. He 
is said to have been uncommonly successful in practice, 
yet had very little faith in medicine, and always prescribed 
Buch remedies as were cheap and common. Probity, mo- 
desty, and humanity, were the most striking features in 

4 Diet Hist 1810. « Ibid. < Suii\OiioiiUEt*^iograpkit UnhrtnsUe^ 181U 

ABEL. 4t 

hh diaracter. While studying medicine at Halle, he did 
^ not neglect polite literature. He made some poetical traps- 
lations, particularly one of JuvcHial into German, which he 
published in 178S'. 

ABEL (Charles Frederick), an eminent musician, was 
a native of Germany, and a disciple of Sebastian Bach. 
During nearly ten years he was in the band of the electoral 
king ci* Poland at Dresden ; but the calamities of war hav- 
ing reduced that court to a close oeconomy, he left Dres- 
den- in 1758, widi only three dollars in his pocket, and 
proceeded to the next little German capital, ^here his 
talents procured a temporary supply. In 1759 he made 
his way to England, where he soon obtained notice and 
reward* He was first patronized by the duk^ of York: 
and on the formation of her present majesty^s band, was 
appointed chamber*musician to her majesty, with a salary 
of <£.200 per annum. In 1763, in conjunction with John 
Christian Bach, he established a weekly concert by sub- 
scription, which was well supported ; and he had as mtoy 
private pupils as he chose to teach. Abel performed on 
several instruments ; but that to which he chiefly attached 
himself was the viol da gamba^ an instrument growing out 
of fashion, and now veVy little used. His hand was that oi 
a perfect master. 

Dr. Burney gives the following character of his composi- 
tions and performance. '' His compositions were easy and 
elegantly simple ; for he used to say, ^ I do not choose to 
he always struggling with difficulties, and playing with ail 
my niight. I make my pieces difficult whenever I please, 
according to my disposition, and that of my audience.' Yet 
hi nothing was he so superior to himself, and to other musi- 
cians, as in writing and playing an adagio; in which the most 
pleasing, yet learned modulation, the richest harmony, 
and the most elegant and polished melody, were all ex- 
pressed with^uch feeling, taste, and science, that no musical 
production or performance with which I was then acquainted^ 
seemed to approach nearer perfection. The knowledge 
Abel had acquired in Germany in every part of musical 
science, rendered him the umpire of all musical controver- 
sies, and caused hhu to be consulted in all difficult points* 
ilis concertos and other pieces were very popular, and 
.were frequently played on public occasions. The taste and 

) Biofra^hieUnitcrteUe* 181 U—Pict. Biiit 1810. 

43 A B j; L. 

science of Abel were rather greater than bis inventiobj 0a 
that some of his later productions, compared with those of 
younger composers, appeared somewhat languid and mo- 
notonous. Yet he preserved a high reputation in the pro* 
fession till his death." 

Abel was a man who well knew the world, and kept on 
tolerable terms with society, though a natural irascibility, 
and disposition to say strong things, sometimes rendered 
him overbearing and insolent in company. His greatest 
failing was a love of the bottle, in which he indulged to a 
degree that .probably shortened his life. He died in Lon-* 
don, June 20, 1787 >. 

ABEL (Thomas). See ABLE. 

ABELA (John Francis), the historian of Malta ; bom 
in that ilsand about the end of the sixteenth century, de- 
scended from an illustrious family, which became extinct 
on his death. He entered of the order of the knights of 
Jerusalem, and distinguished himself so as to attain, before' 
1602, the title of vicQ-chancellor, and, at last, that of com-- 
mander. He is principally known by a very 'rare and curi-r 
ous work, entitled, "Malta illustrata,.ovvero della descri- 
zioiie di Malta, con le sue antichitsl, ed altre notizie,'* 
Malta, 1647, fol. In this volume the author has displayed 
great learning, and has accumulated a fund of information 
on every part of the history of his country. It is divided 
into four books, comprehending the topography and actual 
state of the island of JMalta, its antient history, churches, 
convents, and an account of the grand masters, and most 
.distinguished families and individuals. A few partieulars 
of his life are incidentally noticed, by which it appears that 
he bad travelled over the greatest pai^t of Europe, in quest 
of antient books and remains of antiquity, and corre-r 
sponded with the most eminent scholars of his time, as 
Gualteri, Holstein, and Peiresc. This history, which he 
wrote when considerably advanced in life, was transr 
lated into Latin by John Anthony Seiner, with a short pre* 
face, first published separately, and afterwards, in 1725„ 
printed in the 15th volume of Grsevius' "ThesaiHrus anti- 
quitatum et historiarum Siciliss.'' Bm*mann, in hia preface 
to the 1. 1th voltime of that Thesaurus, blames Abela for 
admitting some fabulous traditions; but adds, that this 
little defect is mpre than compensated by his great leatningf» 

I Burney>9 Hist of Hmc, vol IV. ^ Biographic UaiverieUe, 18; U 


A B E L A R ]>. 4S 

ihe son of Berenger, of noble descent, was born at Pa- 
lais, near Nantes, in Bretagne, in 1079. Such was the 
state of learning at that time, that he had no other field 
for the exercise of his talents, which were exceedingly ' 
promising, than the scholastic philosophy, of which he 
afterwards became one of the most celebrated masters. 
After the usual grammatical preparation, he was placed 
under the tuition of Rosceline, an eminant metaphysician, 
and the founder of the sect of the Nominalists^ By his in« 
structions, before the age of sixteen, he acquired consi* 
derable knowledge, accompanied with a subtlety of thought 
and fluency of speech, which throughout life gave him 
great advantage in his scholastic contests. His avidity to 
learn, however, soon induced him to leave the preceptor 
of his early days, and to visit the schools of several neigh- 
bouring provinces. In his 20th year, he fixed his 
residence in the university of Paris, at that time the first 
seat of learning in Europe. His master there was William 
de Champeaux, an eminent philosopher, and skilful in the 
dialectic art. At first he was submissive and humbly atten^ 
tive to de Champeaux, who repaid his assiduity by the in- 
timacy of friendship ; but the scholar soon began to con- 
tradict the opinions of the master, and obtained some vic- 
tories in contending with him, which so hurt the superior 
feelings of the one, and inflamed the vanity of the other, 
that a separation became unavoidable ; and Abelard, con- 
fident in his powers, opened a public school of his own, at 
the age of 22, at Melun, a town about ten leagues from 
Paris, and occasionally the residence of the court. 

While Abelard confesses the ambition which induced 
him to take this step, it must at the same time be allowed 
that he had not overrated the qualifications he could bring 
into this new office. Notwithstanding every kind of obstacle 
which the jealous de Champeaux contrived to throw in hi» 
way, his school was no sooner opened than it was attended 
by crowded and admiring auditories; and, as this farther 
^advanced his fame, he determined to remove his school to 
Corbeil, near Paris, where he could maintain an open 
l^bntest with his old rival. This was accordingly executed ; 
"the disputations were frequent and animated ; Abelard 
proved victorious, and de Champeaux was compelled to 
retire with Considerable loss of popular reputation. After 
an absence of two years spent in his native country for the 

f f A B £ L A R D. 

recovery of his health, which had been impaired by the in- 
tenseness of his studious preparations, and the vehemence 
dbd agitation incijdent to such disputes, Abelard found, 
on his return to Cbrbeil, that de Ohampeaux had taken the 
xnonastic habit among the regular canons in the convent of 
3t Victor, but that he still taught rhetoric and logic, and 
held public disputations in theology. On this he immedi* 
ajkely renewed his contests, and with such success, that the 
scholars of his antagonist came over in crowds to him, and 
even the new professor, who had taken the former schoot 
of de Cibampeaux, voluntarily surrendered the chair to our 
young philosopher, and even requested to be enrolled 
among bis disciples. De Champeaux, irritated at a mor- * 
tification so public and so decisive, employed his interest 
to obtain the appointment of a new professor, and to drive 
Abelard back to Melun. Means like these, however, even 
in an age not remarkable for liberality, were not likely to 
serve de Champeaux's cause ; and the consequence was, 
that even his friends were ashamed of bis conduct, and he 
was under the necessity of retiring from the convent into 
the country. Abelard then returned to Paris, took a new 
station at the abbey on Mount Genevieve, and soon at- 
tracted to his school the pupils of the new professor. De 
Champeaux, returning to his monastery, made another 
feeble attempt, which ended in another victory on the 

{)art of his rival, but being soon after made bishop of Cha- 
cons, a termination was put to their contests. 

Abelard now determined to quit the study and profession 
pf philoso[>by, which he appears to have pursued, at least 
in a great measure, out of opposition to the fame pf his 
old master, and turned his thoughts to theology. Accord-* 
injgly, leaving his school at St. Genevieve, he removed to 
X4aon, to become a scholar of Anselm ; but his expectations 
from this celebrated master seem to have been disap- 
pointed, as he speaks of his abilities very slightingly. This 
probably roused his early ambition to excel his teachers; 
for, on a challenge being given him by some of Ariselm's 
scholars, to explain the beginning of the prophecy of Eze« 
kiel, he next morning performed this in such a manner adT 
to excite the highest admiratipn. At the request of his 
audience, he continued for several successive days his lec- 
tures on that prophecy, until Anselm prohibited him, lest 
30 young a lecturer might fall into mistakes, which would 
bruig discredit upon bis master. Abelard thought proper 

A B E L A R D. i» 

to obey the prohibition, but could not so easily relinquish 
the new path to fame which he had so favourably dpenet), 
and went immediately to Paris, where he repeated these 
lectures ' on Ezekiel. His auditors were delighted, hid 
school was crowded with scholars ; and from this time he 
united in his lectures the sciences of theology and philo- 
sophy, with so much reputation, that multitudes repaired 
to him, not only from various parts of France, but from 
Spain, Italy, Germany, Flanders, and Great Britain. 

An incident now occurred in his life, which has given him 
more popular renown than his abilities as a philosopher, a 
theologian, or a writer, could have conferred, but which 
has thrown a melancholy shade on his moral character. 
About this time, there was resident in Paris, Heloise, the 
niece of Fulbert, one of the canons of the cathedral church, 
a lady about eighteen years of age, of great personal 
beauty, and highly celebrated for her literary attainments. 
Abelard, who was now at the sober age of 40, conceived 
an illicit passion for this young lady, flattering himself 
that his personal attractions were yet irresistible. Fulbert, 
who thought himself honoured by the visits of so eminent 
a scholar and philosopher, while he had any reason to 
place them to his o^n account, welcomed him to his house, 
as a learned friend whose conversation mio-ht be instruc- 
tive to his niece, and was therefore easily prevailed upon, 
by a handsome payment which Abelard offered for hi» 
board, to admit him into his family as an inmate. When 
this was concli^ded upon, as he Apprehended no danger 
from one of Abelard^s age and gravity, he i;/Bquested him 
to devote some portion of his leisure to the instruction of 
Heloise, at the same time granting him full permission to 
treat her in all respects as his pupil. Abelard accepted the 
trust, and, we gather from his own evidence, with no other * 
intention than to betray it, *^ I was no less surprized," he 
/says, " than if the canon had delivered up a tender lamb 
to a famished wolf," &c. In this infamous design he suc- 
ceeded but too well, and appears to have corrupted hec ♦ 
^ mind, as, amidst the rage of he): uncle, and the reflections 
which would naturally be made on such a transaction, every 
other sentiment in her breast was absorbed in a romantic and. 
indecent passion for her seducer. Upon her pregnancy being 
discovered, it was thought necessary for her to quit hei^ 
uncle's house, and Abelard conveyed her to Bretagne, 

where she was delivered of a ison, to whom they gave thei 

f ... 

46 ABE t A R D- 

name of Astrolabus, or Astrolabius. Abelard now prfd-*. 
posed to Fulbert to marry his niece, provided the mar- 
riage might be kept secret, and Fulbert consented; but 
Heloise, partly out of regard to the interest of Abelard, 
whose profession bound him to celibacy, and partly from a 
less honourable notion, that love like hers ought not to sub- 
mit to ordinary restraints, at first gave a peremptory refu- 
sal. Abelard, however, at last prevailed, and they were 
privately married at Paris ; but in this state they did not 
experience the happy effects of mutual reconciliation. The 
uncle wished to disclose the marriage, but Heloise denied 
it; and from this time he treated her with such unkindness 
as furnished Abelard with a sufficient plea for removing 
ter from his house, and placing her in the abbey of Bene- 
dictine nuns, in which she had been originally educated. 
Fulbert, while he gave the provocation, pretended that 
Abelard had taken this step in order to rid himself of an 
incumbrance which obstructed* his future prospects. Deep 
resentment took possession of his soul, and he meditated 
revenge ; in the pursuit of which he employed some ruf- 
fians to enter Abelard's chamber by night, and inflict upon 
bis person a disgraceful and cruel mutilation, which was 
accordingly perpetrated. The ruffians, however, were ap- 
prehended, ajid punished according to the law of retalia- 
tion j and Fulbert was deprived of his benefice, and his 
goods confiscated. 

Abelard, unable to support his mortifying reflections, 
and probably those of his enemies, resolved to retire to a 
convent ; but first, with a selfishness which seems to have 
been characteristic in him^ insisted upon Heloise's promis- 
ing to devote herself to religion. She accordingly sub- 
mitted, and professed herself in the abbey of Argenteuil. 
Her romantic ardour of afl^ectjon supported her through this 
sacrifice, and seems never to have forsaken her to the latest 
moment of her life. A few days after she had taken her 
TOWS, Abelard' assumed a monastic habit in the abbey of 
St. Denys; but, upon the earnest solicitations of his ad- 
mirers and scholars, he resumed his lectures at a small 
village in the country, and with his usual popularity. His 
rival professors, however, soon discovered an opportunity 
of bringing him under ecclesiastical censures. A treatise 
which he published about this time, entitled, *^ The The- 
ology of Abelard," was said to contain some heretical te- 
nets respecting the Trinity, The work was accordingly 

A B E L A R n. 47 

presented to the archbishop of fiheims as heretical ; and, 
in a synod called at Soissons in the year 1 121, it was con- 
demned to be burnt by the author's own hand : he was fur- 
tfaier enjoined to read^ as his confession of faith, the Atha- 
nasian creed, and was ordered to be confined in the con- 
Tent of St. Medard ; but this arbitrary proceeding excited 
such general dissatisfaction, that, after a short imprisonment^ 
he was permitted to return to St. Denys. But here, too, 
his enemies endeavoured to bring him into new dis- 
grace. Having read in Bedels Commentary on the Acts of 
the Apostles thac Denys (Dionysius) the Areopagite was 
not Bishop of Athens, but of Corinth, he ventured this 
passage as a proof, that the patron of the convent, and of 
the French nation, was not, as commonly believed, th« 
Areopagite, but another St. Dionysius, bishop of Athens. 
A violent ferment was immediately raised in the convent ; 
and Abelard, being accused to the bishop and the king, a» 
a calumniator of the order, and an enemy to his country, 
found it necessary to escape with a few friends to the con- 
vent of St. Ayoul, at Provins, in Champagne, the prior of 
which was his intimate friend. But even here persecution 
followed him, until .at length, with difEculty, he obtained 
permission to retire to some soUtary retreat, on condition' 
that he should never again become a member of a convent. 

The spot which he chose was a vale in the forest of 
Champagne, near Nogent upon the Seine, where, accom- 
panied by only one ecclesiastic, he erected a small oratory, 
which he dedicated to the Trinity, but afterwards enlarged, 
and consecrated it to the Third Person, the Comforter, or 
Paracl£T£. In this asylum he was soon discovered, and 
fgllowed by a train of scholars. A rustic college arose in 
the forest, and the number of his pupils soon increased to 
six hundred. But his enemies St. Norbert and St. Bernard,, 
who enjoyed great popularity in this neighbourhood, con-* 
spired to bring him into discredit, and he was meditating 
his escape, when, through the interest of the Duke of 
Bretagne, and with the consent of the abbot of St. Denys, 
he was elected superior of the monastery of St. Giklas, in 
the diocese of Vannes, where he remained several years. 

About this time Suger, the abbot of St. Denys, on the 
plea of an ancient righ|:, obtained a grant for annexing the 
convent of Argenteuil, of which Heloise was now prioress, 
to St. Denys, and the i^uus, who were accused of irregular 
practices, w^^re^ dispersed* Abelard, informed of the dis* 


txessed sitaation of Heloise, invited her/ ivitb' her conapa* 
DtODs^ eight in number, to take possession of the Paraclete. 
Happy in being thus remembered in the moment of dis- 
tress by the man of her affections, she joyfully accepted 
the proposal ; a new institution was established ; Heloise 
was chosen abbess; and, in 1127, the donation was con- 
firmed by the king. Abelard^ now zM^ot of St. Gildas, 
paid frequent visits to the Paraclete, till he was obliged to 
discontinue them through fear of his enemies the monks^' 
who not only endeavoured to injure him by gross insinua- 
tions, but carried their hostility so far as to make repeated 
attempts upon his life. 

It was during Abelard^s residence at St. Gildas, that the 
interesting correspondence passed between him ttnd He- 
loise, which is still extant, and that he wrote the memoirs 
of his life which came down to the year 1134. The letters 
of Heloise, in this correspondence, abound with proofs of 
genius, learning, and taste, which might have graced a 
better age. It is upon these letters that Mr. Pope formed 
bis '^Epistle from Eloisa to Abelard,*' which^ however^ 
deviates in some particulars from the genuine character 
and story of Heloise, and is yet more seriously censurable 
on account of its immoral tendency. Her^, too, Abelard 
probably wrote bis " Theology,*' or revised it, which again 
subjected him to prosecution. William, abbot of St 
Thievry,. the friend of Bernard, now abbot of Clairvaux^ 
brought a formal charge against him for heresy in thirteen 
particles, copied from the ^* Theology.** Bernard, after au 
unsuccessful private remonstrance, accused Abelard to 
pope Innocent II. of noxious errors and mischievous de- 
lugns. Abelard, with the concurrence of the archbishop 
of Sens, challenged his accuser to appear in a public as*^ 
sembly, shortly to be held in ^at city, and make good his 
accusation. The abbot at first declined accepting the 
challenge; but afterwards nfiade his appearance, and 
delivered to the assembly the heads of his accusation. 
Abelard, instead of replying, appealed to Rome, which 
did not prevent the council from examining the charges, 
and pronouncing his opinions heretical. It was, how-^ 
ever, judged necessary to inform the bishop of Rome of 
the proceedings, and to request his confirmation of the 
sentence. In the mean time, Be)rnard» by letters writtea 
to the Roman prelates, strongly urged them to silence, 
^hout delay, this dangerous innovator. His importunitj^ 

A B £ L A R IX 4d 

iiicceeded ; for thd pope^ without watting for the anriTal 
of Abelard) pnonounced his opioions heretical, and sen- 
tenced hini to perpetual silence and confinement. Imme- 
diately upon being informed of the decision^ Abelard Bfit 
oat for Rome, in hopes of being permitted to plead his 
cause before bis holiness. In his way be called at Cluni, a 
monastery on the confines of Burgundy, where he found a 
2ealous friend ia Peter Maurice, the abbot, and also iu 
Reiuardus, the abbot of Citeaux, who negociated a recon- 
ciliation between him and Bernard, while Peter, by hia 
earnest remonstrances,, procured his pardon at Rome, and 
be was permitted to end his days in the monastery of 

In this retreat he passed his time in study and devotion^ 
with occasional intervals of instruction which tbe monks 
solicited ; but his health began to decay, and he expired 
April 21, U42, in tbe priory of St. Marcellus, near Cha-^ 
lonsy to which be had been jremoved for the bei>efit of the 
change of air. His character is thus summed up by his 
late el^^t and most impartial biographer*. ^^Hewaa 
bprn with uncommon abilities ; and, in a better age, had 
they been directed to other purposes, their display might 
have given more solid glory to their possessor, and more 
real advantage to mankind. But he was to take th^ world 
as be found it^ for he could not correct its vicious taste, 
nor, indeed, did he attempt it. On the contrary, the 
viciou9 taste of tbe age seemed to accord with the most 
prominent features of his mind. He loved controversy, 
was pleased with the sound of his own voice, and^ in hia 
most favoiurite researches, rather looked for quibbles and 
evasive sophistry, than for truth, and the conviction of 
season. He was a disputatious logician, therefore; and 
in diis cpnsiisted all his philosophy. His divinity W9s much 
of the same complexion. 

*^ When we consider him as a writer, not much more 
can be added to. his praise. He is obscure, laboured, and 
inelegant : nor do I discover any traces of that genius and 
vivid energy of soul, which he certainly possessed, and 
which rendered him so formidable in the schools of pbilp-* 
sophy. Even when he describes his own misfortunes, and 
is the hero of his own tale^ the story is languid, and it 
labours on through a tedious and digressive narration of 

* « Hlstoiy of tbe Lives of Abelard a^d Heloifa^ by the Ke?. Josepb 
Serripgfon/' 4to» M edit. 1789, 

Vol. I. E 

so ABE LA R D, 

incidents. In his theological tracts he is more j^une^ and 
in bis letters he has not the elegance, nor the harmony, 
Ror the soul of Heloise. ThereforCi did we not know how 
floQch his abilities were extolled by his contemporaries, 
what encomiums they gave to his pen, and how much the 
proudest disputants of the age feared the fire of his tongue, 
we certainly should be inclined to say, perusing his works, 
that Abelard was not an uncommon man. 

^'Nor was he uncommon in his moral character. He 
had not to thank nature for any great degree of sensibility, 
that source of pain and of pleasure, of virtue and of vice. 
Thrown, from early youth, into habits which could not 
meliorate his dispositions, he became selfish, opiniative^ 
and vain -glorious. What did hot serve to gratify Us own 
humour, called for little of his regard. He wished to apv 
pear above the common feelings of humanity, for- his phi-* 
losopby was not of a nature to make him the friend of man. 
Of religion he knew little more than the splendid theoiy ; 
and its amiable precepts were too obvious and familiar to 
engage the attention, and modify the heart, of an abstruse 
and speculative reasoner. When he loved Heloise, it was 
not her person, nor her charms, nor her abilities^ nor her 
virtues, which he loved :* he sought only his own gratifica^ 
tion ; and in its pursuit no repulsion of innocence coiild 
thwart him, no voice of duty, of friendship, of unguarded 
confidence, could impede his headlong progress. He suf*' 
fered : and from that moment radier he became a man/ 
We may blame him, perhaps, that he should so easily for« 

fet Heloise : but I have said that he never really loved her. 
lore than other men, he was not free to command his af» 
JTections: and from motives of religion, perhaps even of 
compassion, he wished in her breast to check that ardent 
flame, which burned to no other purpose than to render 
her heart miserable, and her life forlorn. 

*'To erase these unfavourable impressions whicli tlie 
mind has conceived of Abelard, we must view him in dis« 
tress, smarting from oppression and unprovided malevo- 
lence. There was in his character something which irri- 
tated opposition, whether it was a love of singularity, an 
asperity of manners, or a consciousness of superior talents, 
which he did not disguise. However this liiigbt ^be, the 
behaviour of his enemies was always harsh, and sometimes 
cruel; and him we pity. — He now became a religious, a 
benevolent, and a virtuous man ; and thousands reaped 

A B E. L A. B D. . ^1 

benefit from bis instructions, as tbey were tutored by bis 
example. Tbe close of bis unhappy life was to the eye of 
the Christian spectator its most brilliant period. In his 
death he was the great and good man, the philosopher and 
the Christian." 

In what manner Heloise received the tidings of Abelard*8 
death is uncertain. She requested, however, that his body 
might be sent for interment to the Paraclete, and this was. 
said to have been in consequence of a wish formerly ex* 
pressed to her by Abelard. Her request was complied | 

with, and the remains of her lover deposited in the church 
with much solemnity. For one-and-twentj years aftef 
we hear no more of her, only that she was held in the 
highest estimation; that she was a pattern of every mo- 
nastic and Christian virtue; and that, ever retaining the j 
tenderest affection of a wife, she prayed unceasingly at , | 
her husband's tomb. In 1163, she fell sick. History 
does not inform us what her disorder was, nor does it 
relate the circumstances of her death. She expired, how- 
ever, on Sunday, May 17th, in the sixty-third yeaV of 
her age, and her body was deposited, by her own orders^ 
in the tomb by the side of Abelard. Their bones have lain 
in the abbey of the Paraclete, in the diocese of Troyes, in 
France, 'ever since 1142 and 1163. They have been at 
several times, and in different centuries, moved to other 
parts of the church. The last transposition was made by 
order of the present abbess madame de Roucy, in the year 
1779, with the following ceremonies. The relics of this 
fond pair were taken up out of the vault, and laid by a 
priest in a leaden coffin separated into two divisions, in 
order that they might not be mixed, which was exposed to 
view for' a quarter of an hour, and then soldered up. AiEter 
which the coffin was borne, attended by tbe ladies of the 
convert singing anthems, first into the choir, and then 
to the place of its destination under tbe altar; where, 
after prayers had been said over it, it was solemnly in- 
terred. The abbess has caused a monument of blacfc 
marble to be erected on the spot, with the following ip« 
scription : ; 


tub eodem mamoie jaoenfc 

hujus monatterii 


et abbatissa prima HELOISA, 

olim stndiis, ingenio, amore, ui&uglis imptioM, 

et pomitentia ^ 

B2 * — 

fifi . A B E L A K S. 

Kane aternm, quod iperamua, felicitated 


Petrus obiit xx prima Apr. anno 1141. 

Helotsa, xvii Mail, 1163. 

Curis Carolae de Roucy, Paracleti abbatissv, 


Of Abelard's works, we have ** Abcelardi et Heloka^, 

conjugis 6jus, Opera; ex editione Andreae Quercetam V* 
4tOy Paris, 1616. This collection was published from the 
MS. of Francis d^Amboise. It contains Letters, which 
have been elegantly translated by Mr. Eerrington in the 
workalr«ady referred to; "Sermons, and Doctrinal tracts." 
There is a scarce edition of the Letters, " ex recensione 
Ric. llawlinson,'* 8vo. London, 1716, which is said to be 
the best, as it was correcteH from the most authentic 
manusctipts. ' 

ABELIN (John Philip)^ a historian, born at Stras- 
burgh, ahd who died about 1646, is perhaps better known 
by the name of John Louis Gottfried, or Gothofredus^ 
which he used in most of his numerous works. Under his 
proper name, he published only the first volume of the 
** Theatre of Europe,*^ which contains the history of Eu- 
rope from 1617 to 1628; and the 17th, l8th, 19th, and 
20th volumes of the " Mercurius Gallo-Belgicus,'* begun 
by Gothard Arthus, and containing the annals of Europe, 
but particularly of France, from 1628 to 1636, Francfort, 
1628 — 1636, 8vo. The Mercurius is in Latin, but the The- 
atre in German. The second volume of the latter bears 
the name of Avelin ; but Christian Gryphius, in his account 
of the historians of the seventeenth century, attributes it 
to John George Schleder, who also compiled some of the 
subsequent volumes. The best edition of the " Theatre of 
Europe'* is that published at Francfort, from 1662 to 
1738, in 21 vols, fol. illustrated by the engravings of Mat- 
thew Maittaire. The volumes composed by Abehn, Schle- 
der, and Schneider, are most esteemed ; the others, com- 
posed by their continuators, have neither the same reputa- 
tion or merit. 

In 1619, Abelin published an explanation of the meta- 
liioiphoses of Ovid, under the title "P. Ovidii Nasonis 
Metamorphoseon plerarumque historica, naturalis, moralis 
EK^fflkrif,'' Francfort, 8vo, with the engravings of J, The- 
odore de Bry. He signs the dedication to this work, <^ Lu- 

* Or Thi Chesne. 
1 Biographical Dictionary, vol. I.~Bayle.— Mereri.-^Bru<fkher Hist Philoi, 
•—Saxii Ooomast. — But principal^ Berringtoit. 

. A B E L I N. 53 

dovicus Gottofrkius.^' In 162 8, he was conperned in a 
German .and Latin translation of D'Ativy^s ^' Etats, Enx- 
piresy Royaumes, et Principautez du Monde/' under the 
title of ^^Archontologia cosmica/' . of which there hare 
been three editions, the two last with plates by Merian ; 
but, since the modern, improvements in geography, this 
work is less esteemed. He also compiled or translated 
the 12th and last volume of the History of .the East 
Indies, published at Francf6rt'1628| fol. under the title of 
.^^Historiarum Orientalis IndiiB tomus XII/' This history 
bears a high price, when complete. The copy in the 
French imperial library cost 4000 francs. In 1632, Abe- 
lin published, in German, his " Description of Sweden,'* 
folio; and the year following, ako in German, a ^^His« 
torical Chronicle,'* from the beginning of the world to the 
year 1619, folio, with a great number of plates by Merian, 
, of which the letter- press is merely the description. His 
last work was a ^* History of the Antipodes, or the New 
World ;'* this, which is in German, is a description of the 
West Indies, and was published at Francfort, 1655, folio. 
It is thought that he published a Grerman translation of 
the Plagium, a comedy by Daniel Cramer, under the fic-> 
titious name of John Philip Abel, in 1627; but why he 
assumed ithese disguises, we are not told. * 

ABELI^ (John), an English musician, was celebrated 
for ^ fine eounter-tenor voice, and for his skill on the lute. 
Charles lit of whose chapel he was, and who admired his 
singing, had formed a resolution of sending him to the 
carnival at Venice, in order to shew the Italians what Eng- 
land could produce in this way; but the scheme was 
dropped. Abeli continued in the chapel till the Revolu« 
tion, when he was discharged as being a Papist. Upon 
this he went abroad, and distinguished himself by singing 
in public in Holland, at Hamburgh, and other places; 
where, acquiring considerable wealt|i, be set up a splendid 
equipage, and affected the man of quality, though at in* 
tervals he was so reduced, as to b^ obliged to travel through 
whole provinces with his lute slung at his back. In ram<r 
bling be got as far s^s Poland, and nt Warsaw met wi|;h a 
very ^extraordinary adventure. He. was sent for to court;* 
but, evading to go by. some slight excuse, was commanded 
to attend. At the palace he was seated in a chair, in the: 
puddle of ^ spacious hall, and suddenly drawn up to ^ 

I Biegraphie Universei1«; 181U 

54 A B £ L L. 

great height, and the kiiig, with hid attendasts, ap-* 
peareid in a gallery opposite to him. At the same instant 
a number of wild bears were turned in, when the king bid 
him choose, whether he would sing, or be let down among 
the bears ? Abell chose to sing, and declared afterwards, 
that he never sung so well in his life. 

After having rambled for many years, he probably re-< 
turned to England; for, in 1701, he published at London 
a collection of songs iii several languages, with a dedicatioa 
to king William. Towards the end of queen Anne^s reign 
be was at Cambridge with his lute, but met with little en« 
couragement. How long he lived afterwards is not known. 
This artist is said to have possessed some secrets, by which 
he preserved the natural tone of his voice to ah extreme 
old age. ^ 

ABELLI (Louis) was born in the Yexin Francois, in 
1603. He was promoted to be grand vicar of Bayonne, 
then curate of Paris, and lastly bishop of Rhodes, in 1664, 
which he resigned about three years afterwards, in order to 
live a retired life in the house of St. Lazare, at Paris. He 
died Oct 4, 1691, aged 88 years. His principal works 
are: 1, ^^ Medulla Tbaologica," 2 vols. 12mo, which 
gained him the title of Moelleux Abelli (the marrowy) from 
Boileau. 2. A treatise ^^De la Hierarchic, et de l*auto-« 
rit6 du Pape," 4to. 3, <• La Tradition deTEglise, touchant 
la devotion i, Sainte Vierge,** 8vo, 1662, a work which 
the Protestants have often quoted against Bossuet. 4. *^ La 
Vie de M. Renard," 12mo. 5. "La Vie de St Vincent 
de Pauly'^ 4to, in which he openly declares himself 
against the Jansenists. 6, "Enchiridion soUicitiidiais pas« 
toralis,*' 4to. 7. "Meditation pour chaque jour de Tan^ 
ii€e,*' 2 vols. 12i|io. His Latin style is harsh, and his 
French writings are accounted by his countrymen flat and 
insipid. They allow hin), however, to have excelled in 
every sacerdotal virtue, i|nd to h$ive been exemplary in bis 
pastoral offices,* 

ABENDANA (J4COQ)» a Sps^iish Jew, who died in 
' 1685, was prefect of a synagogue in London, and the au* 
thor of a Spicilegium of explanations of various passages in 
the Hebrew bible, published at Amsterdam, folio, about 
the time of his death. He published also some other wofi^s 
in considerable esteem with Qebrew scbolar^t' 

1 Hawkins's Hist, of Musie* 

ff Diet. Historiqiie.n<9en. Dict« ? Hipt .Hist, 

A B E N-E Z R A. 5^ 

ham), a celebrated Rabbi, bora at Toledo, in Spain, in 
1099, called by tbe Jews, the wise, great, and admirable 
doctor, was a very able interpreter of the Holy Scriptures, 
and was well skilled in* grammar, poetry, philosophy, astro- 
nomy, and in medicine. He was also a perfect master of 
the Arabic. His style is in general clear, elegant, concise^^ 
^nd much like that of the Holy Scriptures ; he almost 
always adheres to the literal sense, and everywhere gires 
proofs of his genius and good sense : he however ad«- 
yances some erroneous sentiments, and his conciseness 
sometimes makes his style obscure.. He travelled in 
most parts of Europe, visiting England, France, Italy, 
Greece, &c. for the purpose of acquiring knowledge, 
and far surpassed his brethren both in sacred and profane 
learning* He wrote theological, grammatical, and astro^ 
nomical works, many of which remain in manuscript, but 
tbe following have been published : 1. ^^ Perus a PAltora,* 
or a cooimentary on the Law, fol. Constantinople, 5262 
(1552), a^ very rare edition. There is likewise another 
edition printed at Venice, 1576, foL 2. ^^Jesod Mora,'* 
intended as an exhortation to the study of the Talmud, 
Constantinople, 8vo. 1530, by far the most scarce of all 
his works. 3. ^^ ElegantisB Grammaiicse,'' Venice, 1546, 
8vo. 4« ^' D^ Luminaribus et Diebus criticis liber," Leyden^ 
1496, 4to. of which there have been three editions. 
5. "De Natiyitatibus," Venice, 1485, 4to, republished 
by John Dryander, Col. 1537, 4to. He died in 1X74 at 
the island of Rhodes, in the 75th year of his age, but 
some havQ placed his death in 1 165. ' 

FIT, an Arabian physician, who flourished in the 12th cen« 
tury, is the author of : 1. ^^ De virtutibus Medicinarum et 
Ciborum," translated from the Arabic into Latin by Gerard 
of Cremona, and published at Strasburgh, 1531, foL 
2. " De Balneis,'' Venice, 1553, foL* 

ABEN-MELEK^ or.ABEN-MALLEK, a learned rabbi 
of the. 17th century, who wrote a commentary on llid 
Bible, called in Hebrew the *' Beauty of Holiness," Amst* 
1661, foL Different parts of it havebe^n translated into 
Latin, and printed, 4to and 8vo, in Germany. This rabbi 
follows the grammatical sense, and the opinions of Kimchi'« 

' ^ !Ba54e.-^haafepie.-*-Bnicker'9. Hist;— >Saxii Oaomast.' 
* Diet. Hi8t.-~Mangeti Bibi.— Fabric. BiiA, Or. ' ' \ 

s Moreri .r-Dict. Hist.«— Simon, Hist, Grit. 

A0 A B E R C R O M 18 I E. 

ABERCROMBIE (John), a horticultural writer of con- 
isiderable note, and to whose taste and writings the English 
garden is considerably indebted, was the sou of a respectable 
gardener near Edinburgh, and descended of a good family. 
The father, having early discovered a predilection in the 
,son for that profession in which he was himself allowed to 
excel, afforded him every encouragement; and, as his 
mind was solely bent on this delightful pursuit, bis ' profit 
4:iency in horticulture, &c. soon outstripped his years. To 
increase his knowledge in the different branches of garden** 
ing, he came to London at the age of eighteen, and 
.worked in Hampton court, St. James's, Kensington, Lei- 
^cester,. &c* gardens. His taste in laying out grounds, and 
Jiis progress in botany, were^o highly appreciated, that he 
was advised to publish something on those subjects ; but his 
extreme diffidence for a long time counteracted the wishes 
of his friends. At length he was induced to commence au- 
thor : having submitted his manuscript to Mr. GrifHn, book^ 
seller,, of Catherine-street, in the Strand, Mr. Griffin can-^ 
ilidly told him he was not a judge of the subject, but, with 
permission, he would consult a friend of his who was allowed 
to be so, Mr. Mawe, gardener to the duke of Leeds. Mr; 
AbercFombie consented. Mr. Mawe bore testimony to the 
merit of the production, and prefixed his name to the pub- 
lication, in order to give it that celebrity to which it was 
80 justly entitled, for which he received a gratuity of 20 
gui^as. The work was published under the title of 
'^Mawe's Gardener's Calendar;*' the flattering reception 
which it experienced induced the real writer to publish 
another work under his own name ; ^^ The Universal Die-- 
tionary of Gardening and Botany,*' in 4to. This was fol- 
lowed by "The Gardener's Dictionary," "The Gardener's 
Daily Assistant," " The Gardener's Vade Mecum," "The 
Kitchen Gardener and Hot-Bed Forcer," "The Hot- 
House Gardener," &o. &c. Some of these are hasty com- 
pilations, without much display of botanical knowledge; 
but they were in general popular, dnd most of them were 
tnmslated into French, German, &c. Mr. Abercrombie'^ 
industry enabled him to bring up a large family, and to 
give them a good education ) but he survived them all^ 
except one son, who has. more than once dislinguishedi^ 
himself at sea in the service of his country. Hedied at 
his apartments, Chalton-street, Somers Town, in the 
80tk year of his age^ 1806. 

A B E R C R O M B Y. SH 

ABERCROMBY (Patrick), a physician and historian, 
was the son of Alexander Abercromby, of Fetternear, ia 
Aberdeenshire, and brother of Francis Abercromby, whe 
was created lord Glasford in July 16SS. He was bom at 
Forfar, in the county of Angus, in 1656, and educated ill 
the university of St. Andrew's, where he took the degree 
of doctor in medicine in 1685. Some accounts say that 
he spent his youth in foreign countries, was probably edu- 
cated in the university of .Paris, and that his family were 
all Roman Catholics, who partook of the misfortunes of 
James II. ; others, that on his return to Scotland he re* 
nounced the Protestant religion, at the request of king 
James, and was by him appointed one of the physicians to 
the court, which he was obliged to relinquish at the Revo* 
lution. Soon after he attached himself to the study of 
antiquitiesy and published, ^^ The Martial Atchievements 
of Scotland,** 2 vols. fol. 1711 and 1715,. to which he was 
encouraged by a large list of subscribers.- The first volume 
abounds in the marvellous, but the second is valuable on 
account of its accurate information respecting the British 
history in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. He 
ni^ote also a treatise on Wit, 1686, which is now little 
known, and translated M. Beague*s very rare book^ 
**L*Histoire de la Guerre d'Escosse," 1556, under the 
title of "The History of the Campagues 154S and 1549: 
being an exact account of the martial expeditions per- 
formed in those daysby the Scots and French on the one 
side, and the English and their foreign auxiliaries on the 
other : done in French by Mons. Beague, a French gen*- 
tleman. Printed in Paris 1556, with an introductory pre* 
face by the translator,'' 1707, 8vo. The ancient alliance 
between France and Scotland is strenuously asserted in 
this work. He died about the year 1716, according to 
Mr. Chalmers, or, as in the last edition of this Dictioniary, 
in 1726, about the age of 70, or rather 72. 

In the former edition of this work it is said that be never 
made any distinguished figure in the physical profession. 
There was, however, a David AB£RCROMBY,~a contempo- 
rary and countryman of his, who published in London some 
medical tracts on the venereal disease, the pulse, &c. 
which were colleoted in one volume, entitled, ^^ D. Aber- 
erombii Opuscula Medica hactenus edita,'* Lond. 1687, 
12mo« Of him no memoirs have been preserved ; but his 
works are analysed in the Act. Li|^s. 1685, 1686, 1687.^ 


jSaxius deDomioates bim *^ medicaa et pbilologus/* and at« 
tributes to bim a bumorous publication, entitled, >< Fur 
Acad^emicus/' Amsterdam, 1689, 12mo/ 

ABERCROMBY (Sir Ralph), K. B. a British officer 
c^ great bravery and talents, was tbe sou of George Aber- 
crombie, of TiUibodie, in Clackmannanshire, esq. by 
^Mary daughter of Ralpb Dundas, of ]\Ianour, esq, and was 
.bom about tbe year 1738, or, according to his epitaph at 
Malta, 1733 ; and, after, a liberal education, went by 
choice into the army.t His first commission was that of 
xrornet in the third regiment of dragoon guards, dated 
March 23, 1756. In the month of February 1760, he 
obtained a lieutenancy in t^e same regiment, and in that 
of April, a company in the third regiment of horse. In 
this last regiment he rose to the rank of major and lieu«> 
tenattt*coloneL In November 1780, he was included. in 
the list of brevet colonels, and in 1781 was made colonel 
of the lOSd, or king^s Iri^h infantry. On Sept. 26, 1787^ 
he was promoted to the rank of major-general. 

Soon after the war broke out on the Continent in 
1792-3, Jie was employed there, and had the local rank* 
of lieutenant-general conferred upon bim. He commanded 
the advanced guard in the action on the heights at Cateau^ 
and was wounded at Nimeguen. -On every occasion his 
bravery and skill procured, bim the warmest praise of 
the commander in chief, and of the army. In the unfortu* 
nate reti«at from Holland, in th« winter of 1794, the 
guards as well ^ the sick were left under bis care, whom 
he conducted with the utmost humanity, amidst many 
painful scenes, during the disastrous march from Deven* 
ter to Oldensall* In 1795, he was made knight of the 
Bath, and appointed commander in chief of the forces in 
the West Indies. On his arrival, he obtained possession of 
the island of Grenada, in the month of March, and soon 
after of the settlements of Demarara and Essequibo, in 
South America. His next conquests were the islands, of 
St. Lucia and St. Vincent's; and in February 1797; the 
Spanish island of Trinidad capitulated to him. This suc- 
cessful campaign being concluded, he returned to Europe, 
and had the command conferred upon ^ him of the 2d, or 
North British dragoons, and had been before his arrival 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and was ap« 

1 Chalmers's Life of Ruddimao, p. 37.— -Gou^h's British T9P9graphy> vol. |I. 
«--MaDgeC Bibliotb.^<-^xii Onomastlcon. 



pointed lientenant^gbvemor of the Isle of Wight, from 
which be was in 1798 removed to the higher office of go- 
vernor of Fort Augustus land Fort St. George. Previous 
to this he was appointed commander in chief in Ireland. 
Jo this situation he laboured to maintain the discipline of 
the anny, to suppress the rising rebellion, which had been 
concerted between the French government and a number 
of traitors at home ; and he protected the people from the 
inconveniencies of military government, with a care and 
skill worthy of the great general, and the enlightened and 
beneficent statesman. But circumstances rendering it 
necessary that the civil and military command of that coun« 
try should be invested in the same person (the marquis 
Comwallis), he . was removed to the chief command in 
Scotland, ^ere his conduct gave universal satisfaction. 

When the great, and, in its plan, highly judicious enter* 
prize against Holland was undertaken, sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby held a principal command under his royal highness 
the duke of York; and it was confessed, even by the 
enemy^ that no victory could have conferred more honour 
than the great talents, activity, and bravery he displayed 
in forwar&ng the purposes of that expedition, which failed, 
partly from the want of a judicious co-operation on the 
part of idur allies, the Russians, but perhaps chiefly from 
the eonduct of the Dutch themselves, who still were de« 
luded by the professions and pretended amity of the French. 
A more favourable enterprize, however, soon afforded 
our gallant hero an opportunity of immortalizing his name. 
This was the memorable expedition ordered in 1801 to 
dispossess the French of- Egypt. To this destination, sir 
Ralph conducted the English army and fleet in perfect 
health and spirits, and landed at Aboukir on the 8th of 
Marcb, 1801, after a severe battle, in which the English 
were victorious. The landing, the first dispositions, the 
attack, and the courage opposed to attack, the high con* 
fidence of the army in their general, and the decided su- 
periority of the British infantry under his command over 
the Firencb, which was thought the bravest and best dis- 
ciplined infantry in Europe, all demonstrated that the best 
qualities of the greatest commanders were united in sir 
Ralph Abercromby. But it was'^his destiny to fall in the 
moment of victory. After having repulsed the French in 
a general attack upon our army near Alexandria, the 
fsenoh again^ on the 21st MaJrcb, made a second advance. 

60 A 6 £ R C R O M B Y. 

which was contested with unusual obstinacy^ and th^ 
were again forced to retreat. On this memorable occa- 
sion, he received a mortal wound in the thigh, which be 
concealed until the enemy were totally routed, when he feh 
from his horse through loss of blood. He was conveyed from 
the field of battle on board the admiral's ship, where he died 
on the 28th, and was interred under (be castle of St. JClroo, 
in La Valetta, in the island of Malta. The following jvist 
and admired tribute to his memory was contained in the 
dispatch from lord Hutchinson, who succeeded him in the 
chief command : — ^^ We have sustained an irreparable 
loss, in the person of our never to be sufficiently lamented 
commander in chief, sir Ralf^ Abercromby, who was 
mortally wounded in the action, and died on. the 28th of 
March. I believe he was wounded early ; but he concealed 
his situation from those about him, and continued in the 
field giving his orders with that coolness and perspicuity 
which had ever marked his character, till long after th6 
action was over, when he fainted through weakness and 
Joss of blood. Were it permitted for a soldier to regret 
any one who has fallen in the service of his country, I 
might be excused for lamenting him more than any other 
person; but it is some consolation to those who teilderly 
loved him, that, as his life was honourable, so his death 
was glorious. His memory will be recorded in the annals 
of his country ; will be sacred to every British soldier, and 
embalmed in the recollection of a grateful posterity.'' In 
private life, sir Ralph in his manners had somewhat of 
reserve ; but was truly amiable, honourable, and virtuous, 
.attached to his country and to his profession, -and in every 
relative duty most exemplary. He was one of a family 
distinguished for bravery or talents. His brother James, 
a lieutenant-colonel in the 22d foot, was killed in America, 
1774, at the battle of Bunker's Hill. The character and 
high rank of his surviving brother, sir Robert Abercrombie, 
K. B. are well known. Another, Alexander, one of the 
Scotch Judges, died in 1795, a man of high reputation in 
the law, and not less distinguished for his taste in the 
belies lettres. He was the author of ten papers in the 
Mirror, and nine in the Lounger, two well-known periodical 
papers published at Edinburgh. Sir Ralph sat in three 
parliaments for the county of Clacktnannan. 

As a testimony of national regard, the House of C(^^ 
n)Qns unanimously voted a monument to bij^ memory ia 

A B E R C K M B Y. «l 

fiti PauPs cathedra]) and a pension of a£.2000. was settled 
on his family. His widow, Mary Anne, daughter of John 
Menzies, of Farnton, in Perthshire, esq. was created Ba- 
roness Abercrombie, of Aboukir and Tillibodie, in the 
county of Clackmannan, with remainder to her issue male 
by her late husband. Sir Ralph left four sons : George, a 
barrister, heir-appai^nt to the barony ; John, a major- 
general in the army ; James, member of parliament for 
Midhurst ; and Alexander, also a major in the army. > 

ABERNETHY (John), an eminent dissenting minister 
in Ireland, was bora Oct 19, 1&80 : his father was a dis« 
renting minister in Colraine, his mother a Walkinshaw of 
Renfrewshire, in Scotland. In 1689 he was separated 
from his parents; his father having been employed by 
the Presbyterian clergy to solicit some public afiairs in 
London, at a time when his mother, to avoid the tumult 
of the insun*ections in Ireland, withdrew to Derry. He 
was at this time with a relation, who in that general confu* 
sion determined to remove to Scotland; and having no 
opportunity of conveying the child to his mother, carried 
him along with him. Thu^ he happily escaped the hard- 
ships of the siege of Derry, in which Mrs. Abernethy lost 
all her other children* Having spent some years at a 
grammar-school, he was removed to Glasgow college^ 
where he continued till he took the degree of M. A. Hift 
-owa inclination led him to the jitudy of physic, but he was 
dissuaded from it by his friends, and turned to that of di- 
vinity ; in pursuance of which he went to Edinburgh, and 
was some time under the care of the celebrated professor 
Campbell. At his return home, he proceeded in his stu- 
dies with sudi success, that he was licensed to preach by 
the presbytery before he was 21 years of age. In 170$, 
having a call by the dissenting congregation at Antrim, he 
was ordained. His congregation was large, and he applied 
himself to the pastoral work with great diligence. His 
preaching was much admired; and, as his heart was set 
upon the acquisition of knowledge, he was very industrious 
in reading.. In 1716, he attempted to remove the pre- 
judices of the native Irish in the neighbourhood of Antrim, 
who were of the Popish persuasion, and bring them over 
to the Protestant faith. His labours were not without suc^- 
cess, for several were induced to renounce their errors. 

> Gent. Ma;. 1801, ISO^.^Biojnraphieal Peerage.-*-Beatson's Political IndeY. 


About the time the Bangorian controversy was- on foot 
ia England, encouraged by. the freedom of discussioa 
which it had occasioned, a considerable number of minis^ 
ters and others, in the North of Ireland, formed themselves 
into a society for their improvement in useful knowled^ 
Their plan was to bring things to the test of reason and 
scripture, without having a servile osgard to any human 
authority. Abemethy pursued this design with much zeal^ 
and constantly attended their meetings at Belfast, whence 
it was called the Belfast society. Debates, however, soon 
grew warm, and dissensions high among them, on the 
subject of requiring subscription to the Westminster cou<* 
fession. This controversy, on the negative side of which 
Abernethy was one of the principal leaders, was brought 
into the general syHod, and ended in abrupture in 1726. 
The Stynod determined, that those ministers, who at the 
time of this rupture, and for soma years before, were 
known by the name of non-subscribers, should be no 
longer of their body : the consequence of which was, that 
the ministers of this denomination foimd everywhere great 
difficulties arising from jealousies spread among their peo«> 
pie. The reputation wboch Abemethy had acquired began 
now todecay, and some of his people forsook his ministry, 
and went to other congregations: and in a short time the 
number of the scrupulous and dissatisfied so increased, that 
they were by the synod erected into a distinct congrega* 
tion, and provided with a minister. There happened about 
this time a vacancy in the congregation of Wood-street, in 
Dublin: to this Abernethy had an invitation, which he 
accepted. When he came to Dublin, he applied himself 
to study and to the composing of sermons with as great 
industry as ever. He wrote all his sermons at full length, 
and constantly made use of bis notes in the pulpit. Here 
he continued his labours for ten years with much reputa^ 
tion : and while his friends, from the strength of his con^- 
stitution and his perfect temperance, promised themselves 
a longer enjoyment of him, he was attacked by the gout, 
to which he had been subject, in a vital part, and died, 
Dec. 1740, in the 60th year of his age. 

The most celebrated of his writings were his two volumes 
of *^ Discourses on the Divine Attributes," die first of 
which only was published during his life. These excited a 
very general attention and admiration, were much ap- 
plauded and recommended by archbishop Herring, and 


ue stiH held in high esteem. Four volumes of ^' Postfau** 
moiis Sermons" were likewise published, the two first in 
1748j and the others in 1757 : to which is prefixed the 
life of the author, written, as is generally understood, by 
Dr. DuchaL In 1 7^1, a volunie of his controversial ^^Tracts*' 
was published in London. He published in his life-time 
three occasional Sermons, and a pamphlet or two on the 
dissenting controversy. He left, behind him a diary of his 
life, which begins in February 1712-13, a little after his 
wife^s death. It consists of six large volumes in quartoy in 
a ^ery small hand, and very closely written. It is, indeed, 
say his biographers, an amazing work, in which the temper 
of his soul is throughout expressed with much exactness ; 
and the various events he met with are described ; ti^ether 
with his reflections upon them, and his improvements of 
them. The whole bears such characters of a reverence 
and awe of the Divine presence upon his mind, of a sim« 
plicity and sincerity of spirit, and of the most careful dis^ 
cipline of the heut, that how great soever his reputatioa 
in the world was^ it shews his real worth to have been su«- 
perior to the esteem in which he was held. ^ 
' ABGAR, or ABGARUS, a name given to several of the 
kings of Edessa in Syria, one of whom is said to have 
written a letter to our Saviour, and to have received an 
answer, and at the same time an handkerchief, on which 
was impressed the portrait of Jesus Christ. Eusebius is 
the first who has reported this story, which has generally 
obtained more belief from Protestant than from Popish 
writers. Father Simon and M. du Pin pronounce the let** 
ters to be forgeries, while Dr. Parker, in his *^ Demon 
Stration of the Law of Nature and the Christian Religion, 
Dr. Cave^ in his Literary History, and Dr. Grabe, in Iida 
*^ Spicilegium Patrum," and others, are inclined to think 
them genuine Dr. Lardner, however^^n his.'^ Testimoniea 
of ancient Heathen Authors,** argues with much force of 
reasoning against their authenticity. The letters being, 
short, are inserted here as curiosities. 
" The copy of the letter which was written by Abgarus the 

toparch to Jesus, and sent to him* at Jerusalem by the 

courier Ananiiis : 

'^ Abgarus, toparch of Edessa, to Jesus the good saviour, 
who has appeared, at Jerusalem, sendeth greeting. I have 
heard of thee, and of thy cures, performed without herbs, 

1 Bioy. Brit.— Life prefixed to his Sermons. 


€4 A B G A R U a 

or other medicines. For it is reported that, tbou jrfiiijcesli 
the blind to see, and the lame to walk ; that thou cleapseat 
lepers, and castest out unclean spirits. and demons, and 
bealest those who are tormented with diseases of a long^ 
standing, and raisest the dead. Having heard of all th^^e 
things concerning thee, I conclude in my mind one of 
these two things — either that thou art God cpme down froj;i% 
lieaven to do these things, or else thou art the Son of God,^' 
and so performest them. Wherefore I now write. unto thee^ 
entreating thee to come to me, and to heal my distempei:# 
Moreover, I hear that the Jews murmur against thee^ .and 
plot to do thee mischief. I have a city, small indeed!^ but 
neat, which may suffice for us both.'' 
** The rescript of Jesus to the toparch Abgarus^ . j^ept by 

the courier Ananias : 
^^ Abgarus, thou art happy, forasmuch as thou.has.t be«- 
lieved in me, though thou hast not seen me. For it is; 
written concerning me, that they who have seen pie should 
not believe in me, that they who have not seen me mighti 
believe and live. As for what thou hast written to me»; 
desiring me to come to thee, it is necessary that all thp^e 
things, for which I am sent, should be fulfilled by m^ her^e ;' 
and that, after fulfilling them, I should be received up to 
him that sent me. When, therefore, I shall be re^eiv^cjl 
up, I will send to thee some one of my disciples, that h^ 
may heal thy distemper, and give life to thee, and to thp^e^ 
who are with theeJ' 

The disciple, thus' sent, was Thaddeus, one of the se-, 
venty, according to Eusebius'. ajccount, which Lardner 
allows, may have been procured by that historian from the. 
archives of the eity of Edessa. But it is not, perhap.s^ 
necessary to dwell longer on the authenticity of what, is 
fiow so generally given up by ecclesiastical writers. Before 
Lardner's time, an ample confutation appeared in the Ge- 
neral Dictionary, including Bayle, art. Abgaaus ; and Mr». 
Jones, in the second volume of ^^A new and/uU method 
of settling the canonical authority of the.NewTestament^'V 
discussed the question Vith much learning and judgment*- , 
Mosheim seems to be of opinion that, although the letters . 
are spurious, there is no reason of sufficient weight to de- 
stroy the credibility of Abgarus having applied to^ oar Sa« 
Tiour for his assistance. ' 

1 Cen. Diet.— Mosheim't Eccl. Hist— Lardner's Works, vol. VII. ^22, with 
ffcye references in these works. 

A B I O S I. €« 



AblOSI, or ABIOSUS, a physician and mathematician, 
born at Bagnnolo, in the kingdom of Naples, flourished 
toveards the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the six* 
teenth century. Some of his works were much esteemed- 
tiis ^'Dialogus in Astrologise defensionem, item Vatici* 
nium a diiuvio usque ad Christi annos 17/' Venice, 1474, 
4to, was put into the Index Expurgatorius, aud is extremely 



ABLE, or ABEL (Thomas), an English divine, was 
educated at Oxford, where he took the degree of B. A* 
July 4, 1513, and that of M. A. June 27, 1516^ and after^ 
wards proceeding in divinity, became doctor of that fk-^ 
culty. He was not only a man of learning, but a great 
master of instrumental music, and welt skilled in the 910* 
dern languages. These qualifications introduced him at 
court, wliere he became domestic chaplain to queen Cathe^^ 
rine, wife of Henry VIH. and taught her music and gramu 
mar. Strype calls him *^ the lady Marie's chaplain.'* In 
1530 queen Catherine gave him the living of BradwelU 
juxta-mare, in Essex ; and the affection he bore to his 
royal mistress engaged him in that dangerous controversy 
which was occasioned by king Henry's determipation ti 
divorce Catherine that he might be at liberty to man^ 
Anne -Bullen. Able opposed this divorce both by word 
and writing, publiidiing a tract, entitled, ^^Tractatuis de 
non dissolvendo Uenrici et Catherinae matrimonia*^' Tan^ 
ner mentions this, or perhaps another tract, by the name 
of '^ Invicta Veritas : An answer, that by no manner of 
law it may be lawful for the king to be divorced from th« 
queen*s grace, his lawful and very wife.'^ It is not impro- 
bable that this was a distinct tract from the former, as in 
the 8tat« 25 Henry VUI. c. 12, he is mentioned as having 
^' caused to be |irinted — divers books against the said di- 
vorce and separation — animating the said lady Catherine 
to persist in her opinion against the divorce — ^procured 
divers writings to be made by her by the name of Queen-^ 
abetted her servants tj^ call her Queen." In 1534 he was 
prosecuted for being tfoncerned in the affair of Elizabeth 

1 Di«t. Hist. l810.-.Fabric. Bib!. Gr. 

Vol. I. ^ F 

«« ABLE. 

Barton, called the Holy Maid of Kent, and was found 
guilty of misprision, of treason. He was also one of those 
Yfho denied : the king^s supremacy over the, church; for 
WJiich he was imprisoned, and afterwards banged, drawn, 
^d quartered in Smithfield, July 30, 1540. In a room in 
Beaucbamp*s, Tower, in the Tower of London, anciently a 
plaoe of confinement for state prisoners, are. a great num-r 
^er of inscriptions on the wall, written by th^ prisoners, 
Mtkd among others, under the word Thomas a gi^at A upon 
a bell, a punning rebus on his name.* 

ABNEY (Sir ThoMas), an eminent magi$tni|te qi the 
city of London, was one of the younger sons of Jaines 
Abnqy, esq. of Willesley, in the county of Derby, where 
his ancestors had resided for upwards of five hundred years* 
He vgtas born! January 1689 ; and, as his mother died ii^ his 
mfancy, his father placed him at Loughborough school, in 
Leioe&tershire, tobe under the eye of his.aunt^ lady Brom-r 
ley> widow of sir Edward Bromley, a barorx of the Exche- 
quer in the reigns of queen Eli^abejth and James I. At 
what time he oame to London^ we are fiot toM; but he 
appears to have carried on busioe^ with srUCf e3s and repu* 
tetion, as in I693i he was elected sheriff of London, .«nd 
in the following year he was chosen alderman of Vintry 
ward, and about the same time received :^he boopur of 
i^fiightbood from king William^ In. ITOO^ some years before 
kis turn, be was chosen lord maypr, and employed^ his 
inftuence in faivour of the Protestant .religion with niM^h 
0eaK He had the courage, a^ this critii^^l juncture, ^b^n 
the king of Framcie had proclaimed tbe Pretepder king of 
Great Britain, to propose an addrasa firom the. Co^poratipa 
to king William, although opposi^d by the majority of his 
brethren on the bench; ^ud be completely s^Q^elWd. The 
^example being followed by other corpqre^tioDs^ ihis^me^suee 
proved of substantial service to the kiug» who was thereby 
si^ncouraged to dissolve the. Parliament, and t9Jke<j^ sense 
of the people, which was almost univen^aUy in. favour of 
the Protestant succession. The zeal sir Thomas had dis- 
played^ in l^is ailair, as well 93 his steady adber^ice to the 
•eivil and religious privileges estajbilished by the Hevolutiou^ 
-rendered him so popular, that his fellow^i^isea» elected 
kkkn their representative in parliament. He wsl% «4s0 one cf 

1 Biog. Brit.— Tanner.— Pitts.— Dod's Church History.— Wood's AtheiwB, 
vol. I. — Archsologia, rol. XUI. wbere the inscriptions in the Jomer are^ 
plained by Mr. Bi^nd. . ^ 

A B N E Y. ^ 

the first promoters of the Bank of England, and for many 
years before his death was one of its directors. He died 
Feb. 6, 1721-29 aged 83, after having survived all hi$ 
senior brethren of the court of Aldermen, and become the 
]£atther of the city. He was a man of strict piety * and inde- 
pendence of mind, and munificent in his charities. Having 
been educated among the dissenters, he attended their 
places of worship in common, but in his magistracy at- 
jtendedthe church on all public occasions, and when soli« 
^itecl to support public charities. The moat remaorkable 
circumstance of his hospitality, is the kind and lasting asy- 
lum which he provided for the celebrated Dr. Watts at his 
house at Stoke Newington. That eminent divine was at- 
tacked by an illness in 1712, which incapacitated him £jt 
public service. ^^ Tbis calamitous state," says Dr^ Johnson^ 
^^madethe compassion of his friends necessary^ and drew 
upon him the attention of sir Thomas Abney, who received 
him into his house ; where, with a constancy of friendship 
and uniformity of conduct not often to be found, he was 
treated for thirty^siic years with all the kindness that friend- 
ship could prompt, and all the attention that respect could 
dictate. Sir Thomas died about eight years afterwards^ 
but he continued with the lady and her daughters to the end 
Of bis life." 

. Sir Thomas wafi married, first, to a younger daughter of 
the Rev. Joseph Caryl, by whom he had seven children^ 
* who all died before him. In 1700 he married Mary Gun^ 
stoR, eldest daughter of John Gunston, of Stoke Newing- 
ton, esq. by whom he had a son, who died in infancy, and 
three daughters, who survived hinr; the last, Elizabeth^ 
dyuig unmarried in 1782, aged 78.. By this second wife, 
Bir Thomas became :posse8sed of the manor of Stoke NeW- 
mgton, and lived in the manor-nhouse. ^ 

ABOU-HANIFAH, or ABOANIFA, surnamed Al- 
KOOMAN, was the son of Thabet, and born at Cousa, ia 
the. year of the Hegira 80, and of the vulgar s&ra 700. He 

%• . , • 

* His religious observances, whether aiid that upon the evening of the dajr 

pubFic or domestic, he never suffered he entered on his office, he without 

to be iottnrrupied by business or plea- any- notice withdrew from the public 

•urew Lady Abney informed Dr. Gib- assembly at Guildhall after suppert 

bont, one of the biographers of Dr. went to hii house, there performed 

Watts, that be kept up regular prayer family worship, and then returned id 

in im faoiily during all his mayoralty, the company ! 

. 1 Life of sir Thomas Abney appended to his Funeral Sermoo by Jeramiall 
Sjjiitb, 1772, 8vo.— Johnson's Life of Watts.— Gibboiis's Life of Watte.— Lf- 
«9B^ Bnril-0116 of Loudota, vol, ll.— Brown's History of Stoke ifewiDgton. 

F 2 

*« A B O U . H A N-l F A H. 

is thief ihost famous of all the doctors of the orthodox trm<^^ 
sulmarts, concerning the matters of their law ; for he held 
the first place among the four chiefs of particular sects, 
who may be followed implicitly in their decisions on points 
of right. He was not, however, in high estimation during 
his life, as the calif Almanzor had him put into prison 
at Bagdat, for refusing to subscribe to the opinion of abso* 
lute snd determinate predestination, which the mussulman^ 
term cadha : but Abu-Joseph, sovereign Judge, and a ^ort 
of chancellor of the empire under the calif Hadi, brought 
his doctrine into such reputation, that, in order to be a 
good mussulman, it was necessary to be a Hanifite. Ne- 
vertheless he died in the prison of Bagdat ; and it was not 
till 335 years after his death that Melikshab, sultan of the 
race of the Seljuk dynasty, caused to be built for him in 
the same city a noble mausoleum, to which he added a 
college particularly for those who made profession of hift 
sect. This was in the year 485 of the Hegira, of the 
vulgar cera 1092. Several of the most illustrious author9 
among the Mohammedans have written, in a style of com- 
mendation, the life of this doctor \ Zamakhschari, Korderi, 
Marghinani, Deinouri, Sobahazmouni, are of that number : 
and some of them have even found his name in the Old 
Testament, and assert that he was foretold in the sacred 
writings, as well as their prophet. All the historians agree 
^at he excelled not only in the knowledge, but also in the 
practice of the mussulman law: for he led a life of great 
austerity, entirely detached from the manners of the world ;' 
which has caused him to be considered as the first chief 
and iman of the law by all the orthodox, and he is only 
ejected by t!ie Shiites, or followers of Ali. The author" of 
Kabialabrar relates the opinion of this doctor concerning 
the authority of tradition in these terms : ^^ As to what 
regards the things we have received from God and from 
his prophet, we respect them with perfect submission : as 
to what is come down to us from the companions or con** 
temporaries of the prophet, we select the best of it ; H^it 
as to what the other doctors who succeeded them have left 
us, we look upon it as coming from persons who were men 
like us." Houssain-Vaez, expounding that verse of the 
chapter of Amram, where God says he has prepared Para- 
dise for those who restrain their anger, and pardon such as. 
have trespassed against them', relates a fact of Abou-Ha* 
nifah that deserves to be not^. That ' doctor, liaving re- 

A B O U - H A N I F A H. «« 

eeived a blow on the face, said to him who had tbe,4Ui<}a« 
<ity to strike him : "I might return you injury for injury; 
but I will not do it. 1 might carry my complaint to the' 
calif; but 1 will not complain. I might at least lay before 
God in my prayers the outrage you h%ve done me; but I 
will not. Lastly, I might, at the day of judgment, require 
God to avenge it; but, far from doing so, if tha^ terrible 
day were to arrive this moment, and my intercession might 
avail, I would not enter into Paradise^ except in your 

The principal, writings of Abou-Hanifah are: ^'The 
Mesnud,'' i. e. The Support, in which he establishes all 
the points of Mussulmanism on the. authority of the Koran, 
and that of tradition. A treatise, ^' Filkelam, on scholastic 
theology;*' and a catechism, or . instruction, under the 
title of "Moallem," that is. The Master; in which be 
maintains tiiat the faithful who adhere to the faith, never be«- 
come the eneuiies of God, though they fall into many sins ; 
tliat sius do not cause a man to lose the faith, and that grace 
is not incompatible with sin. These propositions, and 
others of a tike nature, gave a handle to Vazai to write 
against him the book ^VEkhtelaf Abi*Hanif»h,'' or, Th<i 
^contradictions of Abou-Hanifah. V 

ABOULOLA (Ahmed ben Souman), an Arabian poet^ 
was born in the town of Maara, A. D. 973. He was blind 
irum three years old, having lost his sight at that age by 
the small-ppx; but this defect was compensated by the 
qualities of his mind. He adopted the vegetable diet ot 
the Bramins, but appears in other respects to have believed 
io no religious principles. His principal work was >entitled 
Sekth-alrzend, a poem which was greatly esteemed in the 
East He was considered as one of the most celebrated 
poets of bis nation. . He died in 1057. Fabricius in 163S, 
and Golius in 1^56, published some extracts from his poem.* 

ABOU-RIHAN, a native of Biroun, in the province of 
Khovarezme,. who flourished about the beginning of the 
eWentb century, attained the title of AUMobakapad, or 
the subtle philosopher, on account of his knowledge of the 
^i»fences, and particularly his skill in astrology. He was 
contemporary and rival to Avicenna, a more celebrated 
Arabian writer. Abou^rilian wrote some treatises on Geo^ 
grapby, the fixed istars^ and the sphere. ^ 

» Moreri.^— irHerbelot B»^l. Orient. 

» D»Herb«l©t/^Dict Hist. • P'H«rb«lot— Moreri. 


A.B R A B A N E L. 

ABRABANEL (Isaac)^ a famous r^bbi, was born at 
Lisbon in 1437, of a family who boasted their descent 
from king David. He raised himself considerably at the 
court of Alphonso V. king of Portugal, and was honoured 
with very high offices, which he enjoyed till this prince'* 
death ; but, upon his decease,, he felt a strange reverse of 
fortune under the new king. Abrabanel was in bis 45tb 
year, when John IL succeeded his father Alphonso. All 
those who had. any share in the adtpinistration of the pre« 
ceding reign were discarded : and, if we give credit to oup 
rabbi, their death was secretly resolved, under the prcr 
text of their having formed a design to give up the crowci 
of Portugal to the king of Spain. Abrabanel, however, 
suspecting nothing, in obedience to the order he received 
to attend his majesty, set out for Lisbon with all expedi- 
tion ; but having, on his journey, heard of what was plot- 
ting against his life, fled immediately to bis Castilian 
majesty's dominions. A party of soldiers were dispatched 
after him, with orders to bring him dead or alive ; how- 
ever, he made his escape, but his possessions were con- 
fiscated. On this occasion he lost all hid books ; and also 
the beginning of his Commentary upon the book of Deu- 
teronomy, which he much regretted. Some writers affirm, 
that the cause of his disgrace at this time was wholly owing 
to his bad behaviour ; and they are of the same opinion in 
regard to the other persecutions which he afterwards siff- 
fered. They affirm that he would have been treated with' 
greater severity^ had not king John contented himself with 
banishing him. They add that by negociating bills of ex«» 
change (which was the business he followed in Castile), be 
gQt introduced at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella: that 
he amassed prodigious wealth, by practising the usual tricks 
and frauds of the Jewish people, that he oppressed the poor, 
and by usury made a prey of every thing ; that he had die 
yanity to aspire at the most illustrious titles, such as the 
noblest houses in Spain could hardly attain, and that being, 
a determined enemy of the Christian religion, he was Ae 
principal cause of that storm which fell upon him and the 
rest of his nation. Of the truth of all this, some doubt 
may be entertained. That he amassed prodigious wealth 
seems not very probable, as immedkitely on his settling in 
Castile, he began to teach and write. In 1494, he wrote 
his " Commentary upon the books of Joshua, Judges, and 
Samuel'' Bein^g afterwards sent for to the court of Fer^ 

A B R A B A N £ L. 7| 

dinandand Isabel, he was advanced to preferment'; wbicb 
he enjoyed tili 1492, when the Jews w^re driven out 
of the Sparfish dominions* He used his utmost endea'v 
vours to avert this dreadful storm ; but ail proved ineifeo* 
tual ; so that he and all his family were obliged to quit the 
kingdom, with the rest of the Jews. He retired to Naples; 
and, in 1 493, wrote his ^^ Commentary ou the books of 
the Kings.*'. Having been bred a courtier, he did not 
neglect to avail himself of the knowledge he had acquired 
lit the courts of Portugal and Arragon, so that he soon iu* 
gratiated himself into the favour of Ferdinand kiag of Na- 
ples, and afterwards into that of Alphonso. He followed 
the fortune of the latter, accompanying him into Sicily^ 
when Charles VIII. the French king, drove him froui 
Naples. Upon the death of Alphonso he retired to th^ 
island of Corfu, where he began his ** Commentary on 
Isaiah^' in 1495; and, about this time, he had the good 
fortune to find what he had written on the book of I>eu<» 
teronomy. The following year he returned to Italy, and 
went to MoQopoli in Apulia, where he wrote several booksi 
In 1496 be finished his ^^ Commeutary on Deuteronomy ;*' 
and also composed his '^ Sevach Pesach,**' and his *^ Na«* 
chalath Avoth.'* In the succeeding year he wrote his 
^' Majene Hajeschua ;*' and in 1498 his <^ Maschmia Jes* 
chua," and his ^' Commeutary on Isaiah.*' Some time after, 
he went to Venice, to settle the disputes betwixt the Ve* 
netians and Portuguese relating to the spice trade ; and 
on this occasion he displayed so much prudence and ca«> 
pacity, that be acquired the favour and esteem of both 
those powers. In 1504 he wrote his '^Commentary oil 
Jeremiah ;" and, according to some authors, his *' Com- 
mentary on Ezekiel, and the twelve minor prophets." lit 
1506 he composed his '^ Commentary on Exodus;" and 
died at Venice in 1508, in the 7ist year of his age. Se« 
▼eral of the Venetian nobles, and all the principal Jews^ 
attended his funeral with great pomp. His corpse was 
interred at Padua, in a burial-place without the city. 
Abrabanel wrote several other pieces, besides what we 
have mientioned, the dates of which are not settled, and 
some have not been printed. The following list appears iji 
the Leipsie Journal (Nov. 1686), and is probably correct: 
1. '^ Commentaries on Genesis, Leviticus, and Numbers/* 
^. <* Rach Amana." 3, " Sepher Jeschuoth 'Moschici, a 
treatise on the traditions relating to the Messiah.'' 4k 

72 A B R A B AN EL- 

*' Zedek Olammim^ upon future rewards and punishments/* 
5. ^' Sepber Jemoth Olam, a history tronv- the time of 
Adam." 6. *^ Maamer Machase Schaddai, a treatise on 
prophecy and the vision of Ezekiel, against rabbi Maimo"* 
nides." 7, " Sepher Atereth Sekenim." 8, " Miphabth 
Elohim, works of God.". 9. ^' Sepher Schamaim Chadas^ 
chim.^' 10. " Labakath Nebhiim." His " Commentary on 
Haggai" was translated into Latin by Adam SUerzerus, 
and inserted in the Trifolium Orieutale, published in 
Leipsic in 1663, where bis ^^ Commentary on- Joshua, 
Judges, and Samuel," was alsp printed in 1686, tbiio. 
In this same year his *^ Annotations on Hosea," with a 
preface on the twelve minor prophets, were translated into 
French by Erancis ab Husen, and published at Leyden. 
In 1683, Mr. de Veil, a converted Jew, published at Lon- 
don AbrabanePs preface to Leviticus. His. commentaries 
on the Scriptures, especially those on the prophets, ai^ 
filled with so much rancour against our Saviour, the church, 
the pope, the cardinals, the whole clergy, and all Chris-> 
tians in general, but .in a particular munner against the 
Boman catholics, that father Bartolocci was • desirous the 
Jews ' should be forbid the perusal of them. And he 
tells us that they were accordingly not allowed to read or 
to keep io their houses AbrabanePs commentaries on the 
latter prophets. He was a man of so great a genius, that 
most persons have equalled him, and some even preferred 
him) to tb(3 celebrated Maimouides. The Jews set a high 
value upon what he has written to refute, the arguments 
and objections of the Christians ; and the latter, though 
they hold in contempt what be has advanced upon this 
head, yet allow great merit in bis other performances, 
wherein he gives many proofs of genius, learning, and pe* 
netration. He does not blindly follow, the epinions of his 
superiors, but censures their mistakes with great freedom. 
The persecutions of the Jews, under which iie had been a 
considerable sufferer, affected him to a very great degree ; 
so that the remembrance of it worked up his indignation, 
and made bim inveigh against the Christians in the strong** 
est terms. There is hardly one of his books where he has* 
omitted to shew bis resentmeut, and de«ire of reVenge; 
and whatever the subject may be, he never iails to bring 
in the distressed condition of the Jews. He was mo^t as- 
iiduous in his studies, in -which he would spend whole 
oig^hts, and would fast for a considerable lime. . He had % 


great f4cility in writiog ; and though he discovered an im- 
placable hatred to the Christians in his compositions, yer^ 
when ill company with tbem^ he behaved with great po« 
liteuess^ and would be very cheerful in conversation. ^ 

ABUAHAM (Nicholas), 9 learned Jesuit, was born in 
the diocese of I'oui in Lorruin, in 15S9 ; he entered into the 
society of Jesus in 1609, and took the fourth vow in 1623. 
He taught the belies lettres, and was made divinity pro-> 
fessor in the university of Pont^a-Mousson, whiph place he 
enjoyed 17 years, and died Sept. 7, 1655. 

His v^orks are : 1. ** Commentaries on Virgil's JEneid,*' 
printed at PoQt-u*Moussony 1632, Svo; and again atTou* 
louse, 1644; at Rouen, 1637 and 1648. 2. "Comment 
tary on the third volume of Cicero*s Orations,'' Paris, 1631, 
2 vols. fol. His Analyses of the Orations were publi^ed 
separately at Pont-a-Mousson, 1633, 4to. 3. *^Pharu« 
Veteris Testament!, sive sacrarum questionum libri XV.'* 
Paris,, 1648, fol. This is the modt esteemed of his works. 
4. '^ Nonni Neopolitani paraphrasis sancti secundum Jo* 
annem £vangelii. Accesserunt notae P. N. A, soc. Jes.'* 
Paris, 1623, Svo. These notes were from the p'^en of bur 
author. He published also a Hebrew grammar in Latin' 
verse, and translated into French Bartoli's Italian pieces, 
" The Life of Vinant Caraffa ;' « The Man of Letters," and 
" Contented Poverty." As an original writer he is unconi*- 
monly prolix, but displays much learning and acuteness. 
Bayie gives most praise to his commentary on Cicero, by ' 
which Osorius and Olivet profited much ; but others prefer- 
his Pbarus. It may be necessary to add what is meant by his 
taking the fourth vow. In addition to the vows of poverty, 
chastity, and obedience, the fourth is, that the person taking 
it shall labour to promote the salvation of others, by instruct-* 
i^g youth, preaching, administering the sacraments, and by 
becoming misatonarie&t among heretics and idolaters, ^ 

ABRAHAM (B£N Chaila), a Spanish rabbi, of the 
thirteenth century, practised astrology, and assuming the 
character of a prophet, predicted the coming of the Mes«- 
8iab to be in 1358, but died himself in 1303, fifty-five 
years before the time when his prediction was to be fuU 
filled. A treatise of his, ^^De Nativitatibus,'* was printed 
at Rome in 1545, 4to. He is also said to have written a 

1 Gfn* Dict,<— Moreri.-i^Simon Crit. Hist. • 

* Bajple in Gen. Diet. — Kooigti Bibl. Vet. et Nov.— Baillet Jugemens, ton* 
2. p..240, 24 U 



treatise on the figure of the earth, in Hebrew and Latih^ 
which was published at Basil, 1546, 4to. * 

ABRAHAM (Usque), a Portuguese Jew, though Ar- 
naud thinks him a Christian, joined with Tobias Athias in 
giving a Spanish translation of the Bible in the 1 6th cen- 
tury. The title of tliis famous version is as follows t 
^^ Biblia en lengua Espagnola, traduzida palabra por pala- 
bra de la verdad Hebraica, por mui excellentes letrados^ 
en Ferrara," 1553, folio, in gothic characters. Though 
the nouns and the verbs are translated according to the 
strictest rules of grammar, this translation is looked upon 
as nothing more than a compilation from Kimchi, Rasci, 
Abenezra, the Chaldee paraphrast, and some ancient 
Spanish glosses. This version is extremely rare, and much 
sought after. Another edition has been made for the use 
of the Spanish Christians, which is neither less scarce nor 
less inquired for. The curious are desirous of having both, 
in order to compare tbem together. Notwithstanding 
their apparent conformity, the discrepancies are very ob- 
servable in the various interpretations of several passages, 
according*to the belief of those for whom they were printed. 
The version for the use of the Jews, which is the most in 
request^ is addressed to sennora Gracia Naci, with the 
subscription d' Athias and d' Usque; the other is dedicated 
to Hercules d'Est, and signed by Jerome de Vargas and 
Duarte PineK« 
ABRAHAM (Echellensis). See ECHELLENSIS. 
ABRESCH (Frederic Louts), an eminent Greek scho- 
lar and commentator, was born at Hamburgh, Dec. 29, 
1699. At the ^e of thirteen, he went to a village called 
Dabhausen, or Taubhausen, near the town of Griefen-^ 
stein, where there was then a French colony, to ieani 
that language ; and made so much progress within seven 
months, that it appeared to be his native tongue. On bis 
return home, he studied Latin and Greek; and, as his 
father designed him for the church, he was sent, in 17 17*^ 
to the college of Herborn, a small town in the principality 
of Nassau*Dillenburgb, where, for two years and a haif, he 
went through a course of philosophy, and studied Hebrew 
and divinity. In 1720, he removed to the university of 
Utrecht, where the instructions of the celebrated Draken* 
burgh and Duker inspired him with a decided taste for 
ancient literature, and he gave up divinity. About the 


1 Diet Hist > Moreri.—- Gen. Diet.—- Simon Hist Crit 

A' B R E S C H. Tf 

end of 1723, when be had finished his studies at Utrecht, 
and wnfaed to go through the same course at Leyden, ho 
was appointed vice-director of the coljege of Middleburgh. 
In 1725, hfe was promoted to he rector of the same col- 
lege; and, in 17 41, he filled the same office in that of 
Zwol, in Over-yssel, where he remained until his death^ 
in 1782. 

At Middleburgh he became first known to the learned 
world by many valuable pieces of criticism on ancient 
authors, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, H^sycbius, 
.£schylus, &c. wliich he sent to a literary journal then 
printed at Amsterdam, under the title of ^^ Miscellanea^ 
Observationes criticse in auctores veteres et recentiorcs,** 
Some of these have his name appended, others are marked 
by an H. or H. L. or P. B. A. A. H., and the fictitious 
name of Petrobasilius. He published also separately some 
critical works in high estimation: 1. ^^ Animadversionum 
ad ^schylum libri duo; accedunt annotationes ad quas* 
dam loca Novi Testament!," Middleburgh, 1743, 8vo. To 
this work is added a list of words in iEschylus which arei 
not in Stephens's Thesaurus. 2. " Aristaeneti Epistolae, 
Gr. cum notis," Zwolle, 1749, 8vo, a most excellent edi- 
tion, not only on account of the learned editor's notes;^ 
but also for the emendations of Tollius, D'Orville, and 
Valckenaar. 3. With the assistance of J. J. Reiske, he 
published a ** Supplement" to the preceding, Amsterdam, 
1751, or 1752, 8yo. 4. " Dilucidationum Thucydidearum, 
pars prima," Utrecht, 1753, 8vo; and the second part in 
1755. In this are many valuable observations on other 
authors incidentally introduced ; but the author has not 
been thought lo happy in illusirations oil the text of Thn- 
cydides. In 1763, he published a "Supplement** to this, 
and a continuation of his remarks on ^schylus. We also 
owe to Abresch a new and much improved edition of Cat- 
^tiei^s " Gazophylacium Grsecorum,'* (which was first pub- 
lirfied at Paris in 1651) Utrecht, 1757, 8vo.* 

ABRIANI (Paul) of Vincenza, was a priest of the Carme^ 
lite artier, and a professor atGenoa, Verona, Padua, and Vin^ 
cenza. In 16<?4, he was obliged, we are not told why, to quit 
thereligious habit; and died at Venice, 16^9, in the 92d year 
of his age. He published : 1. Academical Discourses, en-» 
titled " Funghi," because they grew, as he said, like 

i Biograph^e Universelle, 1811.— Dr. Clarke's Bibliographical Dictionary .— 
Sasii Onomasticoa, 

7« A B R I A N i 

mushrpoms in his uncultivated mind. 2. "II VagliO)" or 
the Sieve, answers to the remarks of Veglia on the God- 
trey of Tasso, Venice, 1662 and' 1687. 3. "Poetry, Son- 
nets, &c.*' Venice, 166i3 and 1604, 12mo. 4. " L'Arte 
Poetica d' Horatio, tradotta in versi sciolti," Venice, 1663, 
12mo. 5. " Ode di Orazio tradotte,'* Venice, 16S0, 12mo, 
This, and the translation of the Ars Poetica, have been 
often re-printed, 6. "A translation of Lucan," Venice, 
1668, 8vo.» 

ABSTEMIUS (Laurentius), an Italian writer, was borti 
at Macerata, in La Marca de Ancona, and devoted himself 
early to the study of polite literature, in which be made 
great progress. He taught the. belles-lettres at Urbino, 
where he was librarian to duke Guido Ubaldo ; to whom 
he dedicated a small piece entitled " Annoiationes variae," 
explaining some dark passages in the ancient authors. 
He published it under the pontificate of Alexander VL 
and another treatise also, entitled " Hecatomythiuro,'* 
Venice, 1499, 4to, from its containing a hundred fables, 
which he inscribed to Octavian Ubaldini, count de Mer- 
catelli. His fables have been often printed with those of 
jEsop, Phtcdrus, Gabrias, Avienus, &c. He has these 
ancient mythologists generally in view, but does not al- 
ways strictly follow their manner; sometimes intermixing 
his fable with ludicrous stories, and satires on the clergy, 
which, as usual in such cases, abound in indecent allusions 
to the Holy Scriptures. Some of his conjectures on par- 
ticular passages in the ancients a^re inserted in the first vo- 
lume of Gruterus^s Thesaurus criticus, under the title of 
Annotationes varije ; but they are few in number. He 
wrote also a preface to the editio princeps of Aurelius 
Victor published at Venice, 1505, and a work entitled, 
" Libri duo de quibusdam locis obscuris in libro Ovidii in 
Ibin, bactenus male interpretatis,'* Venice, 4to, without 
date. The date of his birth and death are not known, but 
his works appeared at the end of the fifteenth and begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. « 

ABUCJVRAS (Theodore), bishop of Caria, in the 8th 
century, attached himself to the party of the learned Pbo- 
tius, during the disputes which at that time disturbed theT 
church at Constantinople. He undertook, with Zachary, 

* Biographie Universelle, 1811. 

s Diet. Hist. ISlO.-^Fabric. Bibl. Latin.— G niter, Thesaar. Crit. torn. 1. p, 
873. Saxii Ooomast. 

A p U C A R A S. 77 

bishop. of Chalcedon, an eoftb^ssy to the. emperor Lewis I, 
to present to him a book svhich Photius had written against 
pope Nicholas, and to endeavour to persuade him to shake 
oflf the pope** yoke. On his journey he was recalled by 
Basil, who had usurped the empire ; and soon afterwards, 
finding it no longer safe to support the interest of Photiusi 
he pruciently abandoneil it, and, before the council of 
Constantinople, entreated pardon, which was granted, and 
he restored to his place in the council* Forty-two trea* 
tises, written by him against Jews, Mahometans, and he- 
retics, wf^re. collected by Cretser, and published in 4to, 
at Ingolstadt, 1606. Andrew Arnold published another 
treatise by him f* .De Unione et In^arnatione,'* Pari^, 
1685, 9.yo, the manuscript of which, it is said^ he found 
in the Bodleian library. ' 

ABULFARAGIUS (GREGoav), commonly called Ibn- 
Hakima, sou to Aaron a Christian phys<ician, was born in 
1226^ in the city of Malatia. near thq source of the Eu-^ 
phrates in Armenia. He is said by some to have followed 
the profession of his father, and practised with great suc- 
cess, numbers of people coming from the most remote 
parts to a^k his advice ; bnt others doubt this account* 
However, he would hardly have been known at this time, 
ha4 his knowledge been confined to physiq ; but he applied 
himself to the study .of- the Greek,. 3yriac, and Arabic 
languages,, as well ,as philosophy ^nd divinity ; and he 
wrote a history, which does honour tq his memory. It is 
written in Arabic, anddivided^intp dynasties. It consists 
of .ten pacts, beit^g an. ^pitpn^e of uoriversal history from 
the creation of the worl4>to his own time. Dr. Pocpcke 
publishe4 i^r ^^^k a Latin translation in 1663, Oxford^. 
2 vols. 4tp, and addqd, by way of supplement, a short 
continuation relating to the history qf the Eastern princes. 
Dr. Pococke had published in .1650, an abridgment of the. 
ninth dynasty,, as a " Specimen Uistorioe Arabum." 

Al^ulfars^ius was ordained bishop of Guba at 20 years 
9f age, by Ignatius, th^ patriarch of the Jacobites. In 
}1247 be .was promoted .to the see of Lacabena, and some 
years after to that of AJeppo. About the year 1266 he 
was elected primage of the Jacobites in the East. As Abul- 
taragius lived in the 13th century, an age famous for mi* 
lacles, it woyldseem ^tr^nge if somq had not been wrought^ 

.^ Faliric* Bibl. Grec. in wUtch is a complete list of liis w9rks.-*>Bayle, Qeii.. 
l>ict.— ^Saz. Qoomast! 


bybiniy or in bis behalf: he himself mentions two* Ohe 
IiappeDed in Easter holidays, when he was consecrating^ 
tbe chrism or holy ointment ; which, though before con- 
secration it did not fill the vessel in which it was contained, 
yet increased so mnch after, that it would have run over^ 
bad they not immediately poured it into another. Tbe 
other happened in 1285. The church of St. BarnagOiie 
having been destroyed by some robbers, Abulfaragiuft 
built a new one, with a monastery, in a more secure place^ 
and dedicated it to the same saint ; and as he desired the 
relics of tbe saint should be kept in the new churob, he 
sent some persons to dig them out of the ruins of the old 
<me : but they not finding the relics, the i^int appeared 
to some Christians^ and told them, if the primate himself 
did not come, they would never be found. Abnlfaragiu^^ 
hearing of this, wOUW -not believe it ; and feigning to be 
sick, shut himself up m biscell from Friday till the Sunday 
evening ; when a glorified boy appeared to him, and told 
him, the relics were deposited under tb6 altar of the old 
church. Upon this the primate went immediately with his 
brother and two bishops in quest of those holy remains^ 
which they found according to the boy's direction. 

The Eastern nations are genecally extravagant in their 
applause of mth of learning ; and have bestowed A^ 
highest encomiums and titles upon Abutfafagius, as, %he 
prince of the learned, tbe most exoeltelfit of tboae wbo^ 
Biost excel, theexariiple of his twnes, the* pfafo&trix 6f bis 
age, the glory of wise men. Sic- Our historian. Gibbon, 
esteems him *' eminent both<in his life and death. In his 
life be was an elegant writer 'o€ the Syriac aftd Arabic 
tongues, a poet, physician, and a/ moderate^ divines In 
his 'death, bis funeral was attended by his rival tbe Nesto* 
nan patriarch, w'rth a train of Greeks atid Armeniairs^ wha 
forgot their disputes, and mingled their teans over the 
grave of an enemy." His death took* place in 12S6. * 

ABULFEDA (Ishmael), a learned Arabian geogiriapher 
and historian, was born at Damas in 1275, succeeded in 
1310 to tbe rights of .'lis ancestors, the emirs and shieks 
of Hamah in Syria. He did not however obtain peaceful 
possession before the year 1319, and in 1320 was ackno#<« 
ledged sultan or king by the caliph of Egypt. He died itt 
f33i, or 1332. His writings are a lasting monument of 

I Ca^e Hist. Lit.>-Fabr. Bibl. GrsBC— Bayle itt Geii« Dfct-^Herbebt Biti^ 
wOrieat—Asseman. Bibliotb. Orient, -.:.-.. 

A B U L F ED A, 


ids knowledge in . geography and mtoy . other sciences. 
Attached, however, as he was to study, he appears to 
have for some time led a military life,, and in his youth fol- 
lowed his father in many of his expeditions, pai:ticularly in 
the wars against the Tartars and French in Syria. He 
speaks in his writings of otber expeditions in which he 
bore a part before he arrived at the throne. His works 
are:- 1. A system of Universal Geography, under the title 
of **Tekwyita el Boldaan," or Geographical Canons^ 
which ends at the year. 1321. It consists of preliminary 
matter, a general view of land, water, rivers, mountains, 
&c. twenty-four tables of longitude and latitude, with 
marginal notes descriptive of the countries, and twenty* 
four chapters describing the principal towns. There are 
manuscripts of this work in the Imperial Library at Paris, 
in the Vatic&n, and in the Bodleian. That in the library 
ef the university of Leyden was written under the inspect 
tion of the author, with some notes, supposed to be by 
his own band. 2. ^^ An Universal History,*' from the cre- 
ation pf the world to the birth of Mahomet, which forms 
about fifty or sixty pages. Various portions of these two 
works have been translated ; as, I. ^^Chorasmias et Ma* 
waralnahrsc;" i.e. ^^Regionum extra iluvium Oxum de- 
scription Arab, et Lat. ex interpret, Joan. Grievii *,'• Lon- 
don, 1650| 4to. reprinted by Dr. Hudson, in his Collec- 
tion of the -lesser Geographers, Oxford, 1698 — 1712, 4 
vols. 8vo. with a description of Arabia by Abulfeda,. Arab. 
et Lat. and the same, translated into French, was added, 
by Ant. de la Roque, to his "Voyage en Palestine," Paris, 
, 1717, l2nio. 3. "Caput primum Geographi« ex Arabico 
in Latinum translate promulgari jussit L. A. Muratorius, in 
Antiq. Italiois roedii sevi/' Dissert. 54, p. 9.41, 942. 4. 
^^ Tabula Syrise, Arab*, et Lat. cum notis Koehleri, et 
animadversionibus Jo. Jac. Reiskii,*' Lips. 1766, 4to. 
5. <*' Annates Moslemici, Arab, et Lat. d Jo. Jac. Reiskio,^* 
Lips^ 1754, 4to. 6. " AbulfedsB Anualen Mo9lemici| 

* Mr. Gr«aves consulted 6ve dlf- uses of it; Casta! diis corrected the 

ferent manuscripts: the first, that longitudes and latitudes by it; Oite- 

ivhich Er pen his had transcribed fr(»m ' lius mentions it often in his Theiiauruit 

Iheoopy in the Palatine library; the Qeographicus ; and Erpeoius wouki 

second, the copy afterwards in the have published it, had he not beea 

• Vatican ; two other manuscripts in prevented by death. Schickard fiift 

« Ar. Pococketa possession ; and a filth extracted several remarks, and insetted 

that had been purchased in Constanti- them in hi&.'<Tarich persicum;'* but 

aople. Ramusius first praised this the principal labour and credit of the 

••rk of Abalfedsi-and pointed out the work f«U to Mf. Greaves. Oeot J>io». 

M A B U L P E D A. 

Arab, et Lat^ opera et studiis J. J. Reiske, sumptibds^ 
at^jtie auspiciis P. F. Submii, niioc primum edidit J. G. Ch« 
AcHer,'* Copenhagen^ 1789 — 1794, 5vols. 4to. . 7. "De- 
Sfrriptia Egypti, Arab, et Lat, ed. Jo. Dav, Michaelis/' Got- 
tiiigen, 1776, 4to. 8. "Africa, Arab, cuoi notis ; excudi 
caravit I. G. Kickborn," Gotti|igen^ 1790, 8vo. Eickhoru's 
uoteft and additions are in the 4th vol. of the "Biblio.<* 
theque Theologique Universelle," with M. Rinck's addi« 
tions and corrections. 9. ^'TabulsB quaedam Geographies^ 
et aiia ejusdem argomenti specimina, Arabice,*^ by Fred* 
Tbeoph. Kinck, Lips> 1791, 8vo. 10. "Geographia La- 
tina facta ex Arabico, a Jo. Jac. Reiskio," 11. " Ahul- 
fedae descriptio regionum Nigritarum," printed at the . 
end of Rinck's edition of Macrizi^s ^ Hifitoria regum Isla- 
miticornm in Abyssinia,*' Leyden, 1790, 4to. 12. "Ta- 
bula, septima ex Abulfedas Geographia, Mesopotamiam 
exhibens, Arabice, cura E. F. C« RosenmuUer,. notas ad- 
spersit H. E. G. Paulus," 1791 ; inserted in the."NQUveau 
Kepertoire de la Litterature Orientale,*' vol. 3* 13. " Abul- 
fedaD ArabioB descriptio," with a Commentary by Chr, 
Rominel, Gottingen, 1801, 4to. In 171^8, Gagnler pub- 
lished the prospectus of a translation of Abuiteda^s Geo- 
graphy, and had made some progress in the printing of it, 
when he died. This occasioned the mistake of some Bib-^ 
liographers, who speak of this translation, as having beea 
published at London in 1732, fol. Gagnier, however, pubr 
lished, 14. "De Vita et rebus gestis Mohammedis liber, 
Arab, et Lat. cum notis," Oxford, 1725, fol. 15. "Auc* 
tarium ad vitam Saladini, extractum ex Abulfed® Histofia 
universal!, cum versione Lat. Alb. Scultens *." .this appears 
at the end of Bohadinus's Life of Saladine, Leiden, 1732» 
or 1755, fol. 16. " Climats Alhend et Alsend," trans^ 
lated into Latin from Abulfeda, may be found in Theve* 
notfs Voyages, Paris, 1696, 2 vols. fol. And, 17. In Mu- 
ratori's Italian Historians, i$ the History of the Saraceqs^ 
18. 1'he last publication we shall notice, is, some extracts , 
respecting the history of Africa and Sicily, under the em- 
pire of the Arabs, by Gregorio, in his collections for ^ 
history of Sicily, 1790. It remains yet to be mentioaed, 
that a manuscript of Abulfeda' s Universal History is ia 
the library of St. Germain-des-Pres, and another in the. 
French imperial library. Several chapters of the first , 
part of the Universal History, which had never been pub- 
lishedi are printed, Arab, et Lat. iu the new editloh'of 


l^ococke*s *' Specimen HistoriaB Arabom," by Professor 
White, of Oxford, 1806/ : 

ABULGASI (Bayatur)^ khan of the Tartars, worthy 
of a place in this Dictionary, as well on account of his lite^ 
rary talents as from the. circumstance of his being the Only 
Tartar historian with whom the nations of Europe are ao- 
iquaioted. He was born in the city of Urgens, capital of 
the country of Kharasm, in the year of the hegira 1014^ 
answering to the year 1605 of the Christian lera^ He waa 
the fourth,' in order of birth, of seven brothers, and 4e« 
^cended in a direct line, both on his father's and his mow^ 
therms side, though by different bratiches, from Zingii 
kban» His youth was mariied by misfortunes, which con* 
tnbuted not a little to form his character, and to fit him 
for the government of his states when he came to the sp^ 
vereignty of the country of Kharasm, which happened in 
the year of the hegira 1054» He reigned 20 years ; and, 
by his conduct and courage, rendered himself formidablf^ 
to all his neighbours. A short time before his death, h^ 
resigned tlie throne tq his son Anuscha Mohammed Baya*^ 
cur khan, in order to devote the remainder of bis life t^ 
the service of God. It was in his retreat that he wrot^ 
the famous '^ Genei^Iogical History of the Tartars;" but» 
being attacked by the mortal disease that put an end t^ 
his life in the year 1074 of the hegira, corresponding t0 
1663 of our qsra, before be could complete it, wh^en 
dying be charged his son and successor to giv^ it 
the finishing hand, which he did accordingly two ye^rs 
afterwards. As a specimen of the style and manner of 
this historian, the reader will not be displeased to see thf* 
preface to that work, which, in English, is as follows s 
*^ There is but one God; and before him none other di4 
ever exist, as after him no 6tber will be* He forw^ 
seven heavens, seven worlds, and eighteen C]^eations« By 
him, Mohao^med, the friend of God, was sent, in .quali^jf 
of his prophet, to all mankind* It is under his auspicei 
that I, Abulgasi Bayatur khan, have taken in baiKi t0 
write this book. My fiither, Arsep Mohammed khan, d^^ 
scended in a direct line from Zingis khan, and was, be^ 
fore me, sovereign prince of the country of Kharasm. I 
shall treat in this book of the house of Zingis khan, and 

* Pict. Hiit ISIO; an aiiiete ootttribute^ bj M. Maltc-Brao* But a«« mlM 

Vot.L O 

92 A B U L G A S I. 

of its origin ; of the places where it was: established, of 
the kingdoms and provinces it conquered, and to what it 
arrived at last. It is true that, before me, many writers, 
both Turks and Persians, have employed their pens on 
this subjeqt; and I have in my own possession 18 books of 
these several antlers, some of which are tolerably well 
composed. But,- perceiving that there was much to cor- 
rect in many places of these books, and, in other places, 
a number of things to be added, I thought it necessary to 
have a more accurate history : and, especially as ouii 
countries are very barren in learned writers, I find myself 
obliged to undertake this work myself; and, notwithstand- 
ing that, before me, no khan has thought proper to take 
this trouble upon him, the reader will do me the justice to 
be persuaded that it is not from a principle of vanity that 
I set up for an author, but that it is necessity alone that 
prompts me to meddle in this matter: that, if I were de- 
sirous of glorying in any thing, it could, at most, be only 
in that conduct and wisdom which I hold as the gift of 
God, and not from myself. For, on one hand, I under- 
stand the art of war as well as any prince in the world, 
knowing how to give battle ^ually well with few troops as 
with numerous armies, arid to range both my cavalry and 
my infantry to the best advantage. On the other hand, I 
have a particular talent at writing books in all sorts of 
languages, and I know not whether any one could easily 
be found of greater ability than myself in this species of 
literature, except, indeed, in the cities of Persia and In- 
dia ; but, in all the neighbouring provinces of which we 
have any knowledge, I may venture to flatter myself that 
there is nobody that surpasses me either in the art of war 
or in the science of good writing ; and as to the countries 
that are unknown to me, I care nothing about them. 
Since the flight of our holy prophet, till' the day that I 
began to write this book, there have elapsed 1074 years 
[1663 of the Christian cera]. I call it A Genealogical 
History of the Tartars ; and I have divided it into nine 
parts, in conformity with other writers, who universally 
hold this number in particular regard." 

The original manuscript of this history was purchased 
by some Swedish officers, who happened to be prisoners 
in Siberia, from a merchant, and had it translated into 
the Russian language. . Count Strahlenberg translated it 

A B U L G A S I. ii 

itito German; and a French translation was published at 
.Ley den,* 1-726, .12ino. Martiniere has copied it almost 
entirely in his Geographical Dictionary..* 

ABU-NOWAS, or ABOU-NAVAS, an Arabian poet 
of the first class, was born in the city of Bassora, in ti^e 
year 762, and died in 810. He left his native country in 
order to go to settle at Cufa; but did not continue long 
there, as the caliph Haroun Al Raschld would have him 
near his person at Bagdad, and gave him an apartment in 
bis palace with Abou-Massaab and Rekashi^ two other ex- 
cellent poets. His principal works have been collected 
into a body, called by the Arabians a Dizean^ or voluipe, 
by various persons; for which reason there is a great dif- 
ference in the copies of this author. ' 

ABUNDANCE (John), a name assumed by a French 
poetical writer of the 16th century, who likewise some- 
times called himself Maistre Tyburce. He resided at the 
town of Papetourte, whence he published or datqd^most 
of his productions, and called himself clerk or royal notary 
of Pont- St.- Esprit. He died, according to some biogra- 
phers^ in 1540 or 1544; and, according to others, in 1550. 
He wrote : 1. "Morality, mystere, et figure de la Passion 
de N. S. Jesus Christ,'* Lyons, printed by Benoit Rigaut, 
Svo, without date, and now so rare that only one copy 
is known to exist, which is in the imperial library of Paris, 
aiid formerly belonged to that of La Valliere. 2. *^ La 
Joyeulx Mystere des trois Roys," MS. in the same libr3.ry. 
3. "Farce nouvelle tres bonne et tres joyeuse de la Cor- 
nette," MS. 4. " Le Gouvert d' Humanity, morality a 
personnaiges,'* printed at Lyons. 5. " Le Monde qui 
tourne le dos a chascun, et Plusieurs qui n'a point de con- 
science," printed also at Lyoiis. According to the prac*- 
tice of the writers of his age, he assumed a device, which 
was fin sans fin. The titles and dates of his other works 
are given in the Bibliotheque of De Verdier, and consist 
of short poems, ballads, rondeaus, songs, &c.3 

ABU TEMAM, or Habib EbN Aws Al-Hareth Ebn 
Kais, an Arabian poet of great eminence in his time^ was 
born in the 190th year of the hegira, or A. D. 805, at Ja- 
sem, a little town between Damascus and Tiberias. He 

was educated in Egypt, and died at Mawsel, in the year 

« - ■ • • > . ■ . ■ 

^ Moreri. < Morcri.— D'Herb«lot. 

• JBiographie Univenelle, I8l1. . • 

Q 2 

U A & t^ t B M A M« 

84 J. His poeooB consist chiefl j of dulbgiums on sevMtl 
of the caliphs,! who richly rewarded him. He collected 
his compositions into a volume, entitled^ ** Al Hamasah/* 
according to D*Herbelot; but, according to Dr. Pococke> 
this was a selection from the ancient Arabic poets made 
by him, and not bis own compositions. He was long con** 
sidered as the prince of Arabian poets, and none but Al 
Motanabbi disputed precedence with him. Bakhteri, an«- 
other celebrated poet, candidly as well as critically said 
of him, '^Such verses as are good in Abu Temam excel 
tbe best of mine ; but such of mine as are bad, are mora 
endurable than where he falls off/' ^ 

ABYDENUS, or ABYD1NU6. This word, which sig- 
nifies a native, or inhabitant of Abydos, is given by Eiise^ 
bius, Cyril, and Syncellus, as tbe proper name of a Greek 
liistorian, to whom some authors ascribe two works, *^Ab^ 
syriaca,** and *^ Chaldaica,^' or the history of th^ Assy« 
riaas and Chaldeans ; but it is probable that these are th« 
titles of parts of the same veork. The fragments quoted* 
by Easebius, in his ** Pra^paratio Evangelica," St. Cyril,^ 
in his writings against Julian^ and Syncellus, in his Cbro- 
nography> have been collected and commented on by 
Scaliger, in his Thesaurus, and in his ** Emendatio Tem*» 
porum.^* But Scipio Tettius, a Neapolitan writer of die 
sixteenth century, in his Catalogue x>f scarce MaftUBcripts^ 
quoted by Labbe, in his ^^ Biblioth. Nov. libror. Manuscr.** 
pu 167, informs us, that the entire work of Abydenus 
exists in manuscript in a library in Italy. The recovery 
of this would be of importance^ as Abydtous appears %!»• 
have taken, as the basis of his work, the Babylonish bis«> 
tory of Berosus, of which only fragments remain^ unlets* 
we admit, what is universally denied, the authentici^ of' 
the edition published by Annius of Viterbo. 

The age and country of Abydenus are uncertain, the 
name Abydos being common to four cities. As Bero-^ 
sus, however, finished his work at Alexandria, undefr Pto<i> 
lemy Philadelpbus, it may be probable that our Abyde^. 
nus, who followed him, was an Egyptian priest belongping 
te the tempie of Osiris at Abydos, and that he flourished 
under the first Ptolemys^ while the love of letters wat 
encouraged at tbe court of Al^candria. Some wrtterr 
have supposed that he was quoted by Suidas, because b^ 

I D'HerbeloL-^MorarL— Cleo. Diet. 

A B Y D E N U S. «« 


Pal»]^hatai-Abydeniis, a historian. This person, 
koweTer, whose proper name was Pal^sphatus, was the 
disciple and friend of Ari^totle^ and may liave written the 
histories of Cyprus^ Delos, and Athens, which Suidas at* 
tributes to hini| after Philo of Hieraclea, and Theodore of 
Ilium; but the history of Arabia) which Suidas also attri^ 
butes to bioiy from the nature of the subject/ must belong 
to the author of the history of the Assyrians and ChaldeanS| 
or perhaps been a different title to the same work. Such 
is die opinion of Malte*Brun ; but Vossius has ventured 
on another conjeeture, although without giving his au^ 
thority. > 

ACACIUSy surnamed Lusccs, from his having but one 
eye, the disciple of Eusebius bishop of CeBsaiea* whom he 
succeeded in the year 338 or 340, Though scarce inferior 
to the former in erudition, eloquence, aiid reputation, he 
was deposed by the council of Sardica, together with se» 
▼eral other bishops, who had declared themselves of his 
opinion ; and who afterwards assembled at Philippolis, in 
Thrace ; where, in their turn, they fulminated against 
Athanasius, pope Julius, and the rest of their antagonists. 
Acacius had also a great share in the banishment of pope 
Liberiu9, and bringing Felix into the see' of Rome. He 
gave liis name to a sect who were called Acaciani. He was 
a man of great genius and distinguished learning; and 
wrote several books before he was made a bishop, and 
particularly a book against Marcellusof Ancyrai of which 
Epiphanius has given us a fragment. Some time after he 
was made a bishop, he wrote the *' Life of Eusebius'* his 
predecessor ; not now exunt, but metitioned in Socrates* 
history. St. Jerome says that be wrote 17 volumes of 
eommentaries on Ecclesiastes, or probably a commentary 
in 17 books ; and six volumes of miscellanies.. He died in 
the year 36S. * 

ACACIUS, patriarch of Constantinople, succeeded Gen* 
aadiiis in that see in the year 4T I. He maintained that hia 
see ought to have the pre*eminen.ce over those of Aiexaa« 
dria, Antioch, and Jerusalem } and, to compass this design^ 
prevailed on the Emperor Leo to restore and confirm alt 
the pririleges which the churches once enjoyed, and eape* 

t Iftiofraphie UniTCneUe, 1811.— VoMhit.«-Pabric. 9lbl. Grac.-*Moifii 
* Csv«, v«l« L-*Mor«ru-i4UuL Xftut. 

86 A C A C I U S. 

cially that of Constantinople. He was afterwards excom* 
municated by pope Felix lit.; and in return be erased the 
pope's name out pf-the sacred diptics, or the list of those 
bishops whose names were mentioned ia the public prayers : 
but, being supported by the emperor of the east, he en-*- 
joyed his bishoprick quietly till his death, which happened 
in the year 4.88. There are two letters of his extant in 
vol. 4 ot the Councils ; one to Peter the Fuller, or Petrus 
jFuUo, in Gr. and Lat. the other to pope Simpliciusi, in 
Lat. respectingj:he state of the church of Alq^andria. Cave 
entertains a hip^ber opinion of Acacius, thar^ the Editors 
of the General Dictionary ; but the account in the latter is 
the more copious^ ^ 

ACACiUS, bishgp of Bercpa in Syria, in the fourth and 
beginning of thehfth century, was at the. council of Con* 
stai^tinople, held in the year 381, in which were present 
150 bishops, ^ He was the friend of Epiphanius Fiavianus, 
^nd jthe enemy of John Ghrysostom) bishop of Constant 
tinople, whom he caused to be deposed. He also, when 
110 years of age, wrote t,o the empeJror , Theodosius the 
younger, %o advise him to ponfiirm the sentence pro-, 
nounced against Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, who bad 
been deposed in a conventicle of schismatics. Kpitr 
withstanding these rigorous prpceedings, Theodor^t as^ 
sures us that he was enunent bqth for his wisdom jeind 
the sanctity of his life. He died s^bout th§ year 432.^ 

ACACIIJS, bishop of Amida, o<r of Constance on the 
Tigris in Mesopotamia, was highly celebrated in the fifth 
century for his piety and cjavity* In .the year 420 during 
the war betvfeen the emperor Theodosius the youpger^ 
|ind Varanius, the king of Persia, Acacius, seeing 7000 
Persian slaves made prisoners by the Roman soldiers, and 
periiihing in want and misery, determined to alleviate th^ 
horrors of their situation. To accomplish this, he sold thl^ 
sacred vessels belonging to his church, and with the pur* 
4:base of them fed the poor prisoners, and sent them home 
with some inoney. This action appeared so extraordinary 
to the king of Persia, that he desired <to see the bishop ; 
^d Theodosius allowed hini to go to Persia . The inter- 
view was probably agreeable on both side^, a^ it was fol^ 
lowed by a peace between Theodosius and the king of 

1 Gen. Bict.-^^aTe, ▼©!. I. 
s Gen. Diet.— Da Pib.— -Moreri. 

A C A C I U S. 87 

Persia. In the Latin church, he is commemorated on the 
9th of April.* 

ACACIUS, bishop of Melitene in Armenia Secunda, 
flourished about the year 43 1. He was a warm opposer of 
Nestorius, and equally zealous for Cyril. He was present 
at the Council of Ephesus, where he had a private con- 
ference with Nestorius, and refuted his opinions as soon as 
the Council assembled. There are extant in the Councils 
vol. ^y a homily of his against Nestorius, Gr. and Lat. and 
a Latin letter to Cyril, among the ^^ EpistoIsB EphesinsB^' 
published by Lupus. ^ 

ACCA (St.) bi&hop of Hagustald, or Hexham, in Nor- 
thumberland, succeeded Wilfrid in that see, in the year 
709. He was a monk of the order of St. < Benedict, an 
Anglo-Saxon by birth, and had his education under Bosa, 
bishop of York ; and was then taken under the patronage 
of Wilfrid, whom he accompanied in a journey to Rome. 
Here he improved himself in ecclesiastical usages and dis- 
cipline ; which his historian, Bede, tells us it was imprac- 
ticable for him to learn in his own country. This prelate 
by th^ help of architects, masons, and glaziers, hired in 
Italy, ornamented his cathedral to a great degree of beauty 
and magnificence, furnished it with plate and holy vest- 
ments, procured a large collection of the lives of the Saints, 
and erected a noble library, consisting chiefly of ecclesias- 
tical learning. About the year 732, he was driven from 
his see into banishment, but for what cause is unknown; 
He was esteemed a very able divine, and was remarkably 
skilled in cburch-niusic. He not only revived and improved 
church music, but inti*oduced the use of many Latin 
bymns hitherto unknown in the northern churchesof England. 
Acca wrote the following pieoes; ^^ Passiones Sanctorum ;" 
or the Sufferings of the Saints.; ^^ Oflicia suaei Ecclesise ;^' 
and '^ EpistplsB ad Amicos :'' a treatise also for explaining 
the Scriptures, addressed to Bede, which occurs, or at 
least part of it, in tbe catalogue of the Bodleian library. 
He died in the year 740, having governed the church of 
Hexham 24 years, under Egbert king of the Northumbrians. 
His body was buried with great solemnity in tbe church at 

1 Moreri. — Baillet, Vies de Saints, — Socrates, lib. 7. c. 21. — Gibbon notices 
this prelate, with his usual regard for ecclesiastics. 
* Cave, Tol. 1.; but a morecopioas account in Chaufepie. 
) Biog. Brit — ^Tanner.— Bale. — ^Pitts.— Cave, vol. I. « 

ACCAItlftI (AttERT), « native df Centbin the dueby cf 
Ferrara, lived in the sixteenth century. He publisliea in 
1545, a '^ Vocabulary, Grainoiar, and Orthography of the 
Vulgar Tongue/* which Fontanini praises very bighly, 
but is wrong in supposing it the first Italian vocabulary^ 
liUcilio Minerbi having published a Vocabulary from hot* 
cacio in 1535, and Fabricio Luna another in 1536. Ac<* 
earisi also wrote ** Observations on the vulgar Tongue)** 
which were printed by Sansovino in 1562, 8vo, with oiher 
observatbns on the same subject by Bembo, Gabrielio^ 
Fortunio^ and others. ' . 

ACCARISI (FRANCisy, an eminent Italian civilian, born 
in Ancona, studied at Sienna, where Bargalio and Ben-* 
iFolente taught the law with considerable reputation. Bar* 
galio very much promoted bis studies, and appears to have 
entertained a high opinion of his talents. I'tie first public 
employment Accarisi obtained, was that of explaining 
Justinian*s institutes in Sienna, which he continued for t^ix 
years. H« was afterwards desired to explain- the Palideets : 
and as several foreigners resorted to Sienna, for the pur-* 
pose of pursuing their studies, the great duke Ferdinand 
^e first ordered that a professor should^ be appointed to 
explain the civil law, in the sanie mannei^ as Cujacius had 
done. Accarisi was chosen for this purpose, and acquitted 
himself very honourably ; after which he was raised to the 
ehair of law-professor in ordinary, vacant by xbie death of 
Sargalio, and filled it with great reputation for 'iO years. 
Hift fame spread so far th&t every university in Italy wished 
to have him, and made him very liberal offers, which Im 
long resisted. At length his patron duke Ferdinand -no- 
minated him law-professor in the university of Pisai wbkdi 
he occupied until bis death, Oct. 4, 1622.* 

ACCARISI (JAMts), of Bologna, was professor of rbe« 
topic a( lyi^ntua in the academy fouiMled by tbeduke Fet** 
dinand in 1627, ^nd died bishop of Vesta in 1654. A 
volume b^ been published of his discourses, ororatiptis 
on various subjects of divinity. When lecturing at Rome 
in 1636, fipom A^^^etle^s book on the beaveux, be main- 
tained tbat the sun mov^ |iouf|d the earthy and published 
his opinion 1637, 4ta Mi^ny of his other works yet re* 
main in manuscript, ampilg whicl| are : I. *^ De nMitibUs 

1 Diet. HitL 18ia— Biognipbie UiiiirerMlli^ ISiU 
I Q«a. Oict.<M;bJiuf«pif .•*^Moftrt. 

L ♦* ■ ** 

ACQ AVLtSt t* 

VirgUa.? S. ^ Pt eoMcnbenda Tragcedia.'* 91 ^< His- 
tQfia rerum gestarum a aacra congregaltotie de fide pmpa^^ 
gaaikt &c. diiobus anmt laSO et 163 K** 4. ^* Epistoto 
iAtinas.*' 3. <* Benttvoglio'a Hialoty of the Wars in Flan- 
ders, translated into Latin.'* * 

AGCIAIOLI (DuNATu) was of an iHnstrious famihfi 
being descended on tbe fatber^s side frooi Justin, nepbev 
to Justinian emperor ot Constantinople, ani also from the 
dukes of Athens, Bohemia^ and Corinth. His ancestors 
bad eiijojf ol: very hononrabie posts in the kingdom of 
Naples, and bad also been Ticeroysof ^ioilj, and generals. 
Some oi them bad Ailed very high employments in the re^ 
pubiic of Florenee, bati been ambassadors to several po^i^rs 
of Europe^ were related to ail the princes of the Morea 
and adjacent islands, raised to the dignity of cardinal ; and 
had erected several splendid Car^usian monasteries in Fkn 
rence, Naples, &;c. Our anUior, theson of Neri Aociaioli 
and Lena Stroszi, was born at i^lope&ce in 1428. His first 
preceptors were James Amraanati, afterwards cardinal of 
ravia, and Leonard d^AreasRO. He afterwards studied 
Greek under Arvyropiltts^ and became one of the first 
Creek scholars of bis time. He was one of the telebrated 
literary parties at which Lorenao de Meciici presided. E>« 
celling in rhetoric, philosophy, and mathematics, he would 
have attained a very high rank in the re{>ublic of letters, 
if his weak state of healthy and tbe part he took in the 
aiairs of his country, had not interrupted his studies* He 
filled several employments in tbe state, and gave universal 
.saftistaotion* In I4TS he was gonfi^lpnier, or ensign of 
tbe repul^lic^ and died in 1498 at Milan, when on his way 
to Paris as ambassador from tbe Florentines; This cir** 
enmbtaaee was- a subject of the sincerest grief to the Fio« 
leatitif sy who well know how to appreciate tbe virtues of 
their £aikow-^tiaens, and omitted no opportunity of in« 
citing the patriotism of the living, by tbe honours they 
bestowed on -ttio memory of the deadi A sumptu^s fu-* 
nerat was decreed to bis remains, which were brought to 
Fk^fcnce for that purpose. Lorenzo de Medici and three 
other eaa inwit oitieons W€ve appointed curators of his 
l^biHfeB, and the daughters bad considerable portions as« 
•^pgM4 fM^ ' from the public treasury. Tbe celebrated 
Angdo Potitiaa wvote his epitaph, and Christopher Lan*^ 
dino pronounced tbe funeiul oration. Ub works are : 

* ]ioiirir-^Biosra|»luc tJnhreneUe, 1811; 

90 A; C C I A I a L I 

1. ^'E^positio super libros. Ethicorum Aristotdis, iu uovaoEi 
tcaductionem Argjropili," Florence, 1478, fol. 2. *Mn . 
Aristoteiis libros pcto Polkicorum commeotarii,*' Venice, 
1566, Svo.. 3. la the Latin transtatba of Plutarch, he 
translated the lives of Alcibiadestyaid Demetrius, and added 
to the same collection those of Hannibal and Scipio from 
hisownpenji with a Jiifeof Charletuagne. 4. ^^ The Latin 
hi^ory of Floreace, by Leonard d^Arezzo, translated into 
Italian," Venice, 147 3 j foj. and :oft«n reprinted. He left 
some other works, . orations, • letters, and mificellanies, both 
in prose and verse, which have not been committed to 
the press. » ' 

ACCIAIOLI (John), son to Marcellus, of the same family 
with the former Acoi^ioli, was a native of Florence, first 
educated to the bar, where .he presided in quality of se« 
natpr, but afterwards acquired a prodigious stock of ge- 
neral learning and $qience. He took a journey to Padua, 
and because SQ distinguish^, as a. disputant in scholastic 
knowledge, that the Venetian nobility crowded to bear 
him. Nor did he acquire less -reputation in FlcNrence in 
1565, where he disputed publicly for several days befcnre 
a great coiico.urse of .le$ucned men^ . He .left only the foU 
low:ing work, ^^ MuUa doctissimorum probieinatum monu- 
mental magno studip et iug^nio ^ucubrata.'V He is men- 
tioned with great honour by. Francis Boccbi^ in his Eiogia 
of the most celipbr^^ed FJonentine writers. ^ 

ACCIAIOLI, ^or ACCIAIUQLI (Zanobio)* probably 
of the same family with tb€^ preoeding, was born at Florence ; 
in 1461, and having b^en bapished in his infancy with his 
relations, was rec^led when about 16 years of age by Lo-* 
renzo the magnificent, . and educated by his directions with 
Lorenzo, the son of Pier- Francesco de Medici, to whom ^ 
Zanobio was nearly related. He became very eminent. as. 
a. Greek and Latin scholar, and had much intercourse witb 
Angelo Politian, Marsilius Ficinus, and other eminent- 
Florentine scholars.. After the death . of Lorenzo ,tbe 
magnificent, he became disgusted with the eonunotions 
which agitated his native place, .aigid . devotiog ^ himself to , 
a monastic life, received from the fampus Savpnarola^ aJbout 
1494, the habit of a DominicaD. At this time he studied 
Hebrew with great industry; but bis chief .^mploymeMtwaa:^ 
I the examination of the Gr^ek manuscripts in the library <£ 

* -J . . * 

I Gen. Diet.— Moreri.— Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo. — Sax. OnomaSticoD.-*-* 
Biographic Univers«Ue. ' Gea. J[)ict.--ChaufFpi^. 

A C C I A I O L L 91 

the-Medici, and in that of St Mark at Flpirtice. On the 
elevation of Leo X. he went to Rome, anpl was enrolled 
by Leo among his constant attendants, with an honourable 
stipend, and a residence in the oratory of S. Silvestro. In 
1518 Leo appointed him librarian to the Vatican, where 
he undertook the laborious task of selecting and arranging 
the ancient public documents, of which he formed an in- 
dex, published since by Montfaucon, in his Bibl. Biblio- 
thecarum MSS. vol. L p. 202. His industry probably 
shortened his days, as he did not long enjoy his office^ 
having died July 27, 1519, and not 1^36, as Fabricius 
asserts. Saxius gives 1520 as the date. 

While attending a general chapter of his order at Naples 
in 1 5 1 5, he made an oration in Latin in praise of the cijty 
of Naples, which he afterwards published. H^ also trans- 
lated into Latin, Eusebius of Caesarea, Olympiodoriis, and 
Theodoretji and is supposed to have been the translator ot 
the greater part of the works of Justin Martyr, Among 
bis remaining works is an oration in praise of the city of 
Rome, printed in 4to, without place, printer, or date; but 
the dedication to the cardinal Julio de Medici is dated 26 
May 1518. In 1495. he published Pqlitian's Greek epi^. 
grams, which were recommended to his care by the author 
in his last moments. He translated also into Latin verse 
the Greek address of Marcus Musurus to Leo X, prefixed 
to the first edition of Plato. Giraldi, in his first dialogue 
** De Poetis nostrorum temporum,'' admits him among the 
good poets of his age y and others have bestowed great ap- 
plause on ^is verses, a specimen of which may be seen in 
the work first quoted below. * 

ACCIO-ZUCCO (surnamed Da SuMMA Campagna), an 
Italian poet of the fifteenth century, was born at Verona, 
and flourished about 1470,. His principal work was printed 
at Verona, 1479, 4to, and entitled " Acci Zucchi Summa,. 
Campanese, Veronensis, viri eruditissimi in £sopi Fabulas 
interpretatio per rhythmos, in libellum Zucharinum in- 
scriptum,, &c.'' In this work each fable is preceded b)"^ a 
Latin epigram, and followed by a sonnet containing the 
moral. It was a work of .considerabje popularity, as there 
were no less than three editions in the sam,e century; viz. 
in 1491^ 1493, and 1497.. MafFei speaks of him i^ his 

** Verona illustrata." ' . 

f . • ♦ • , ' . 

> jinetH^n Life^ofLeb.-^Geik. Diet— Biographic UnirerseUe,— >Moreri. 
* Bio8MpM« lAiiverMUt. 

#t A C O I U S. 

ACCIUS (Lucius)^ a Latin tragic poet/tbe son of n 
Ireed-man, and according to St Jerome, bom in the con^ 
aulship of HostiUus M^ncinus and Attilius Serranus, in t)ie 
year of Rom^ 583 ; but there appears somewhat of confii- 
$ion and perplexity in this chronology. He made himself 
]tnown before the death of Pacuvius, a dramatic piece of 
his being exhibited the same year that Pacuvius brought 
one upon the stage, the latter being then 80 years of age, 
and Accius only 30, We do not know the name of this 
piece of Accius, but the titles of several of his tragedies^ 
are mentioned by various authors. He wrote on the most ce- 
lebrated stories which had b^en represented on the Athenian 
stage, as Andromache^ Andromeda, Atreus, Clytemnestra, 
Medea, Meleager, Philocletes, the civil wars of Thebes, 
Tereus, the Troades, &c. He did not always^ however, 
take his subjects from the Grecian story ; for he composed 
one dramatic piece wholly Roman ] it wasi entitled Brutus, 
Slid related to the expulsion of the Tarquins, It is af- 
firmed by some, that he wrote iilso comedies; which is 
not unlikely, if he was the author of twq pieces, " The 
Wedding," and ** The Merchjint,*' which have been as- 
cribed to him. He did not confine himself to dramatic 
writing; for he left other productions, partipularly his 
Annals, mentioned by Macrobius, Priscian, Festus, and 
Konius Marcellus. Decimus Brutus, ^ho was consul \n 
the year of Rome 6 1 5, and had the honour of a triumph 
for seterai victories gained in Spaii^ was his particular 
fiiend and patron. This general was so highly pleased 
with the verses which Accius wrote in his praise, that ha 
had them inscribed at the entrance of the temples and mo- 
numents raised out of the spoils of thevanauished. Though 
this might proceed from a principle of vanity^ ^nd may not 
be so much a proof of his affection for the poet as his love 
of applause ; yet it proves that Bri^tus had an opinion of 
Accius's poetry, and Brutus was far from being a con-, 
teroptible judge. He has been censured for writing in too 
liarsh a style, but was in all other respects es^emed a v-erv 
sreat poet. Aulus Gellius tells us, that Accius, being on. 
bis way to Asia, passed through Tarentum, wherp- he paid ^ 
a visit to Pacuvius, and read to him his play of Atreus ; 
that Pacuvius told him his verse was lofty and sonorous, 
but somewhat harsh and crude. ** It is as you observe,*' 
said Accius j *^ nor am I sorry for it, since HQ^y fi>tMTe.|Hrp* 
ductions will be better upon this account ; £cir at w £nai 

AC CI us: ft 

V> 1^ geniuses, those whicb are at first harsh' and soiiri be** 
eome meliovr and agreeable ; but such as are at first sofi 
and sweet) grow in It short time not ripe, but rotten.'* 
Accius vras so much esteemed by the public, that a come-* 
dian was punished for only mentioning bis name on the 
stage. Cicero speaks with great derision of one Accius 
who had written a history ; and, as our author wrote an- 
oals, some insist that he is the person censured ; but as 
Cicero himself, Horace, Quintilian, Ovid, and Paterculus^ 
have spoken of our author with so much applause, he can« 
not be supposed the same whom the Roman orator censures 
with so much severity. Nothing remains of Accius, but some 
few fragments collected by Robert Stephens, and the titletf 
of his pieces. He is supposed to have died at an advanced 
'age, but the precise time is not known. ' 

ACCOLTI (BfiKEDETTO), an eminent lawyer and his«^ 
torian of the fifteenth century, and tlie first of that ancient 
Tuscan family who acquired a name for literary talents, 
was bom at Areaeo, ia 1415. His father was Michei 
Accolti, a civilian of Florence, and his mother a daughter 
of Roselli of Areszo, also a lawyer. After a classical 
education, he studied the civil law, and was made professor 
at Florence^ where his opinions acquired him much popu* 
larity. The Florentines^ after conferring on him the rights, 
ofettisenship, cbose him in 1459 to be secretary of the 
i^poUio^ in the room of Poggius, which office he retained 
until Us death in 1466. The account of his transactions 
in pablifi afiurs are preserved in four books, with a great 
collection of his letters to foreign princes^ which evince 
his sagacity as a statesman, and bis politeness as a vmter* 
He married Laura Frederigi, t^e daughter of a lawyer and 
patrician of Florence, by whom he hs^ a numerous family, 
of whom Bernard and Peter will be noticed hereafter. His 
memory is said to have been so retentive, that on one 
occasion, after bearing the Hungarian ambassador pro* 
nounce a Latin address to the magistrates of Florence, hn 
repeated tibe whole wtird for word. His inclination for the 
study of history made him rdax in the profession of the 
law, and produced : l . ^ De bello a Christianis contra Bar« 
bares gesto, pvo Christi sepulchro et Judsea recuperandis^ 
libri quatuor,*' Venice, 1 S32, 4to, and reprinted at Basle, 
Venice, and Florence, the latter edition with notes by 
'Ekamm Daipsicr, 1623, 4to, and at Groninguen, by Henrys 

9i A C C O L T I. 

Hoffnider, 1751, 8vo. It was also translated into Italian^ 
by Francis Baldelli, and printed at Venice, 1 549, 8 vo. Yves 
Ducbat of Troyes in Champagne, translated it into 
French and Greek, and printed it at Paris, 1620, 8vo. This 
is a work of considerable historical credit, and in the suc- 
ceeding century, served as a guide to TorquatoTasso, in his 
immortal poem, the Gerusalemme liberata. It was dedicated 
to Piero de Medici, and not to Cosmo, as Moreri asserts. 
Paulo Cortesi, a severe censor, allows that it is a work of 
great industry, and that it throws considerable light on a 
very difficult subject. A more recent critic objects to the pu- 
rity of his style, and the length of the speeches he puts in 
the mouths of his principal personages. 2, " De prasstantia 
virorum sui aevi," Parttia, 1689, or 1692, the tendency of 
which is to prove that the moderns are not inferior to the 
ancients. It appeared originally in the Bibliotheque of 
Magliabechi, and has been often reprinted since, particu- 
larly at Coburg, in 1735, in the first volume of John Ge- 
rard Meuschen's " Vitae summorum dignitate et eruditiohe 
virorum." ' 

ACCOLTI (Bernard) was one of the sons of the pre- 
ceding, and, on account of the great fame of his poetry, 
called Unico Aretino ; but such of his works as have de- 
scended to our days are not calculated to preserve the very 
extraordinary reputation which he enjoyed from his con- 
temporaries. According to them, no fame could be equal 
to what he obtained at the court of Urbino and at Rome, 
in the time of Leo X. When it was known that the Unico 
was to recite his verses, the shops were shut, and all bu- 
siness suspended ; guards were necessary at the doors, and 
the most learned scholars and prelates often interrupted 
the poet by loud acclamations. The testimony of his con- 
temporaries, and among them, of the Cardinal Bembo, will 
not permit us to doubt that his merit was extraordinary; 
but it is probable that he owed his fame more to his talents 
at extempore verse, than to those which he prepared by 
study. In the latter, however, there is an elegance of 
style, and often the fancy and nerve of true poetry. His 
poems were first printed at Florence in 1513, under the 
title ^^ Virginia comedia, capitoli, e strambotti di messer 
Bernardo, Accolti Aretino, in Firenze (al di Francesco 
Rossegli)," 8vo; and at Venice, 1519, " Opera nuova del 
preclarissimo messer Bernardo Accolti Aretino, scrittore 

1 Moreri.— Bioffraphie UniyeneUe, 1811^->— Koscoe's Lorenzo, 

AC C O L T X. &5 

apostolico ed abbrefiatore, &t.'^ S^Oy and have been often 
• re-printed. In tliis Volume, his comedy "Virginie/* writ- 
ten, according to the custom of the age, in the ottava 
rima, and other .measures, obtained its name from a natu- 
ral daughter, whom he gave in marriage to a nobleman, 
with a large dowry. Leo X. who had an esteem for him, 
•gave him the employment of apostolic secretary; and is 
likewise said to have given him the duchy of Nepi; but 
^ccoki informs us, in one of his letters to Peter Aretin, 
that he purchased this with' his own money, and that 
Paul lit. afterwards deprived him of it. The dates of his 
birth and death are not known ; but he was living in the 
time of Ariosto, who mentions him as a person of great 
consideration at the court of Urbino. ■ 

ACCOLTI (Francis), the brother of Benedetto, aitd 
usually called Francis D'Arezzo, or Aretin, from the 
place of his birth, was born in 1418. The celebrated 
Francis Philelphus was his preceptor in polite learning ; 
after which he studied law under the ablest professors, 
and became himself one of their number, teaching that 
faculty at Bologna, Ferrara, and Sienna. He was for five 
years secretary to the duke pf Milan, and died of the 
stone at the baths of Sienna, in 1483. He has been ac- 
cused, but without proof, of the grossest avarice. If he 
Irft vast wealth, it was owing to the profits of, his profes- 
sion, of which he was acknowledged to be the ablest and 
most successful practitioner. A journey which he made 
-to Rome, when Sixtus IV. was Pope, has given rise to 
another story, equally without proof, that he solicited to 
be made Cardinal, which the Pope refused, on pretence 
of the injury that would accrue to leai^ning from such a 
promotion. - Another story is recorded, more to his honour. 
While professor of law at Ferrara, he had occasion to lec- 
ture to his scholars on the advantages of a character known 
for ^probity and honour ; and, in order to exemplify his 

• doctrine, he went in the night, accompanied by only one 
servant, broke open the butchers' stalls, and took away 
some pieces. The law-students were immediately sus- 
pected of the robbery, and two of them, of indifferent 

• character, were imprisoned. The Professor then went 
before the Duke, demanded their release, and accused 

• himself:, having proved the fact, which was with difficulty 

> Biofraphie Uaivenetle, 1811.-^Ginguene, Hist. Litteraire d'ltalie, toI. IIL 
p. 5i6<<-^a]< additional particulars are ia Roscoe's Life of Leo. 

^ I 

99 AfJCOLTt 

1>eliei^4 he took the op^ortiinity to thoir tke aidiNuitigi 
of a good churacter, 9im the xlangers of e bad one. 

He left several works. The principal are : 1. ^^ S4 Cbty^ 
sostomi homiUas in Evangeiium S. Joaanis^^nterprete F.A.? 
|loaiei 1470, fuL Erasmus b of opinion tiiat this transla^ 
ti6n is deHcient in fidelity^ and that the author was^ not 
mfficientiy acquainted with the Greek language, l^* *' Pha^ 
Jaridis Epistolie,^* Rome, about 146d» 8vo}*afterwar«ds 
re*printed in 1471| 1474, 1475. 8. '^Diogenis Cyniu 
philosopbi Epistol®.^* 4 ^^ Autboris iiu:erti libeilus de 
Thermis Putedloruoi, et victnis in ftalia^ aFr* de Accoltt$ 
A^tino repertus, pubiicatus^ &;c.^' Naple^^ 1475, 4to. 
iSome writers, not attending to the title of this work^ have 
considered him as the author of it. 5. ^ Consilia aeu Ue>* 
iponsa/' Pisa, a collection of consultations on questions 
of l^w. 6. << Cooimentaria super Lib. IL Decretalium," 
3onon. 1481. 7. '^Commentaria," Pavia, 1495, fol. He 
also cultivated Italian poetry, and the libraries of Chigi and 
Strozzi contain several of his poetical pieces in manu^ 
scripi Crescembini inserted some of his sonnets in his 
history of Italian poetry. His Latin letters are in the Am* 
brosian library at Milan.* 

ACCOLTl (Peter), another of the sons of Benedetto 
the historian, was bom at Florence in 14*55, and studied 
law at Pisa, where be became doctor and professor. He 
afterwards went into the church, was promoted to the 
bishoprick of Anoona^ and six years after, to be Cardinal, 
uuder the title of St. Eusebius, but is better known by the 
title of Cardinal of Ancona. He afterwards held seven 
bisbopricks in Spain, Flanders, France, and Italy; and 
attained the higher honours of oardinaKvicar and legate* 
He died at Rome Dec. 12, 1532, aged 77 ; and left some 
worirs on law of no great importance. He tvas the author 
of the bull against Luther, which condemned forty-one 
propositions of that reformer. One of his natural sons,. 
Benedict Accolti, was, in 1 564, the chief of the Florentine 
eonspiracy against Pius IV. for which he was executed. ^ 


ACCORSO, or ACCURSIUS (FiANCis), an eminent 
lawyer, who first collected the various opinions and deci«* 
sieas of hb predecessors, in the Roman law^ into oae body^ 

1 Biographie Uiiitene1le« 1811. 
• Ibid.— Q«a. DicC-^Mwefi, 

AC caR s q: »? 

was bb^n at Florence^ in llSl/or, according to some 
writers, in 1182. He was the scholar of Azzo, and soon 
became more celebrated ttian his ipaster. Yet it is thought 
that he' did not begin the sjtudy of law before he was forty 
years old. When professor at Bologna, he resigned his 
office in order to complete a work on the explanation of 
the ikwsy which he had long meditated, and in which he 
was noiv in danger of being anticipated by Odefroy. By 
dint of perseverance f oi; seven years, he accumulated the 
Vast collection known by the title of the " Great Gloss," 
or the **'.Contiriued Gloss'' of Accursius. He may be con- 
sidered as the first of glossators, and as the last, since no one 
has attempted the same, unless his son Cervot, whose 
work is not in much esteem; but he was deficient in a 
.proper knowledge of the Greek and Roman historians^ 
and the science of coins, inscriptions, and antiquities, 
which are' frequently necessary in the explanation of the 
Roman law. On this account, he was as much undervalued 
by the learned lawyers of the fourteenth and sixteen^ 
centuries, as praised by those of the twelfth and thirteenth, 
who named him the Idol of Lawyers. They even esta- 
blished it as a principle^ that the authority of the Glosses 
should be. universally received, and that they should rally 
round this perpetual standard of truth. The different stu- 
dies pursued in the ages of Accursius' friends and enemies, 
will account for their different opinions of his merits ; the 
one consisted o:!^ accumulated learning, interpretation, and, 
commentary, the other approached nearer to nature and > 
facts, by adding the study of antiquities, and t)f the Greek 
and Latin histbirians. Another reason probably was, that 
Accursius. who has been careless in his mode of quotation, 
became blamed for many opinions which belong to Irne* 
rius, Hugoliuus, Martinus Bulgarus, Aldericus, Pileus, &c, 
and otbiers his predecessors, whose sentiments be has not 
accurately distinguished. The best edition of his great 
work is that of Denis Godefroi, Lyons, 15S9, 6 vols. fol. 
Of his private life we have no important materials. He 
lived in splendour at a magnificent palace at Bologna, 
o^ at his villa in the country ; and died in his 78th year, in 
1229. l^ho^e who fix his death in 1260 confound him 
with one of his sons of the same name. All his family, 
without exception, studied the law ; and he had a daugh- 
ter, a lady of great learning, who gave public lectures on 
the Roman law in the university of Bologna. Buiyle doubts 
Voul. H 

H A C C H S O. 

this ; btit it is confirmed by Pancirollus, Fravenldbius, and 
Paul Freyer. The tomb of Accm^ius, in the church of 
the Cordeliers at Bologna, h remarkable only for the. 
simplicity of his epitaph — " Sepulchrum Accursii glossa* 
toris legum, et Francisci ejus filii." * 

ACCORSO, or ACCURSIUS (Francis), eldest son of 
the preceding, was professor of law at Bologna, where he 
attained great reputation. When Edward I. king of Eng- 
land passed through Bologna, in 1275, after his return 
irom the Holy Land, he wished to engage Accursius to 
teach law in the French provinces under his dominion ; 
but the government of Bologna, unwilling to part with so 
iible a professor, threatened to confiscate his goods if he 
dared to leave the city. Accursius, however, took his 
leave, and after having taught law at Toulouse for three 
years, was invited to Oxford by king Edward, and lodged 
in his palace at Beaumont. The king gave him also the 
manor of Martlegb, and in the grant styles him " dilectus 
et fidelis Seciretarius noster ;'* and in another charter, ** il- 
lustris regis Angliae consiliarius." In 1275, he read law 
lectures at Oxford, or more probably in 1276, if he re- 
mained thi'ee years at Toulouse. In 1280, he returned to 
Bologna, and was restored to his chair and his property. 
His death took place in 1S21. None of his writings remain.* 

His brother Cervot published some glosses in addi- 
tion to his father's, but they are hot macfa esteemed. 
He studied law with such success as to be admitted doctor 
in that faculty in his seventeenth year, but not without a 
serious discussion in the academy of Bologna, on the le- 
gality of this degree. • . 

ACCORSO, or ACCURSIUS (Mariangelus), a native 
t){ Aquila, in the kingdom of Naples, and one of the mo^t 
eminent critics of his time, flourished in die beginning of 
the sixteenth century, and lived for thirty-three y^rs in 
the court of Charles V. who had a great respect for him. 
He was well acquainted with the Greek, Latin, French, 
Spanish and German languages, was one of the most inde- 
fatigable antiquaries of the age, tmd enriched Naples with 
a great number of monuments of antiquity. His favourite 
employment was to t^drtect the editi6tis of ancient atithors 
by the aid of manuscripts, Nvbich be sbught out with great 

1 Biographte tJnhenetfo.s—GiiigQene Hist. Lit. D' Italic, vol. L.p^ 371.*. 
Gen. Diet. 

s Blogri^pliie X7nlv«rs«ll«, tSl I.^Woo^'s Atfnftis Of'O^M. \ Ibid*. ' 

A C C O R S O. 9& 

care ; and his first work is a lasting proof of his industry 
and acutene&s. This was his '^ Diatribae in Ausonium, 
Solinum, et Ovidiuno," Rome, 1524, fol. The frontispiece 
is an engraving of antique statues, among which are the 
Apollo Beividere, and a Minerva, and two bas-reliefs of 
the rape of Proserpine and the death of Meleager. At the 
end of the work is a fable entitled " Testudo." . The Dia- 
tribae have been reprinted, but not entirely, as the title- 
page asserts, in the variorum edition of Ausonius, printed 
at Amsterdam, 1671, 8vo. They are also incorporated 
in the Delphin edition, by John Baptist Soucfaay, Paris^ 
1730, 4to. 

This writer has left an example of an author^s jealousy^ 
and fear of being thought a plagiarist, which is too curions 
to be omitted. Having been accused of owing his notes 
on Ansonius to Fabricio Varano, bishop of Camarino, he 
endeavoured to clear himself by the following very solemn 
oath : ^* In the name of God and man, of truth and sin- 
cerity^ I solenmly swear, and if any declaration be more 
binding than an oath, I in that form declare, and I de-* 
sire that my declaration may be received as strictly true, 
that I have never read or seen any author, from which my 
own lucubrations have received the smaUest assistance or 
improrement: nay, that I have even laboured, as far as 
possible, whenever any writer has published any observa* 
tions which I myself had before made, immediately to blot 
them out of my own works. If in this declaration I am 
foresworn, may the Pope punish my pei^ury ; and may an 
evil genius attend my livritings, so that whatever in them is 
good, or at least tolerable, may appear to the unskilful 
multitude exceedingly bad, and even to the learned trivial 
and cont^nptible ; and may the small reputation I now 
possess be given to the winds, and regarded as the worths- 
less boon of vulgar levity." This singular protestatipn, 
which is inserted in the Testudo, has been often quoted. 
in 1533, he published at Augsburgh a new edition of ^^Am- 
niianus Marcellinus," fol. more CQmplete than the pre* 
ceding editiou (which is the princeps), and augmented by 
five books, not before known, and, as stated in the title, 
with the correction of above five thousand en'ors* In the 
same year and place, he published the ^^ Letters of Cassio* 
dorus," and his " Treatise on the Soul." This is the first 
complete collection of these letters, and, with the Trea- 
tisci is improved by many corrections. He also had made 


ioo A C C O R S 0. 

preparations for an edition of Claudian, and had corrected 
stbove seven hundred errors in that author ; but this has not 
been published. At his leisure hours, he studied music, 
optics, and poetry. We have a specimen of his poetry in 
his " Protrepticon ad Corycium," of eighty-seven verses, 
which is printed in a very rare work, entitled " Coryciana,'* 
Rome, 1524, 4to. This Cory cius, according to La Mon- 
noie, was a German of the name of Goritz. The volume 
contains the poems of various Neapolitan authors^ as 
Arisio, Tilesio, &c. 

In Accorso's time, it was the fashion with many Latif> 
writers to make use of obsolete words. This he endea* 
Toured to ridicule, and with considerable success, in a 
dialogue entitled " Osco, Volsco, Romanaqne eloque^- 
tia interlocutoribus, dialogus ludis Romanis actus, &c.** 
153l, 8vo, without place, or the name of the author ; but 
La Monnoie thinks it miist have been printed before, as it 
is quoted by Tori in his " Champ- Fleuri," which appeared 
in 1529. At the end of this volume is a small work, en« 
titled " Volusii Metiani, jurisconsulti antiqui distributiow 
item vocabula ac notse partium in rebus pecuniariis, pon- 
dere, numero, et mensura." The Dialogue wasTeprinted 
at Rome, 1574, 4to, with the author's name, andwitiitbe 
title of '^ Osci et Volsci Dialogus ludis Romanis. actus a 
Mariangelo Accursio.^' There is another 4to edition, with-* 
out date or name of the author. In the imperial librarj* 
of Paris are two editions, both of Cologne, 1598. It ap^ 
pears by the dedication of the fable Testudo, that Accorso 
was employed on a history of the bouse of Brandenbourg ; 
but this, and his other works, were lost on the death of 
his son Casimir, who was a man of letters, and had intend- 
ed to publish all'his father^s works. Toppi, in bis Bib- 
lioteca Napolet. among other inaccuracies, attributes to 
Accorso a work entitled " De Typographicae artis luven* 
tore, ac de libro primum omnium impresso ;'' but the mis- 
take seems to have arisen from a few manuscript noticei^ 
on the subject, written by. our author in a copy of Dona- 
tus' grammar, a very early printed book. ' 

ACERNUS (Sebastian Fabian), a native of Poland, 
whose real name was Klonowicz, was born in 1551, and 
became burgomaster of Lublin. His Latin poem, *^ Vic- 
toria Deorum, in qua continetur veri Herois educatio,'* 

1 Gea. Diet.—- Biograpbie Universelle, 1811. — Saxii Onoma&ticoii.— Moreri. 
— For Ums CoryciaMA, see Rossoe'a Life of Leo, and art. Gonizio in this work 

A C E R N U S. 101 

cm which he spent ten years, procured him the name of 
the Sarmatian Ovid. This poem, which was printed at 
Bacow by Sebastian Sternacius, the Socinian printer, in 
1600, is become very rare, as the impression was ordered 
to be burnt. He wrote also in the Polish language, a 
poem on the Navigation of the Dantzickers, 1643 ; a Me- 
morial of the Dukes and Kings of Poland, and other works, 
and " Disticha morali^ Catonis, interprete Seb. Fab. Klo- 
nowicio," Cracow, 1595. He died in 1608 in great dis- 
tress, owing to the extravagance of his wife. * 

ACH^US, a Greek poet, a native of Eret^ia, the son 
of Pythodorus, flourished, according to Saxius, between 
the 74th and 8 2d olympiad, or between 484 and 449 
before the Christian sera, and consequently was the con- 
temporary of ^schylus. He was both a tragic and satirical 
poet, having, according to some, composed thirty trage- 
dies, and according to others, more than forty. These 
are all lost, except some fragments which Grotius collected 
in his " Fragmenta Tragic, et Comicorum Graecorum.** 
AchsBus carried off the poetical prize only once. His 
satirical pieces have likewise perished, but Athenaeus 
quotes them often. There was another Greek poet of the 
same name, quoted by Suidas, who also composed trage- 
dies, of which there are no remains. » 

ACHARD, bishop of Avranches in Norm«.ndy, usually 
sumamed St. Victor, flourished in the twelfth century. 
His biith-place is much contested; but it appears most 
probable that he was a Norman, of a noble family ; and as 
Normandy was at that time subject to the King of England^ 
it was supposed he was an Englishman. He was, how- 
ever, a Canon-regular of the order of St. Augustine, and 
second abbot of St. Victor at Paris. He was preferred to 
the bishoprick of Avranches in 1162 by the interest of 
.King Henry II. of England, \iith whom he appears to 
have been a favourite, as he stood god-father to Eleanor^ 
daughter to that prince, and afterwards wife of Alphonso 
IX. king of Castile. He died March 29, 1172, and was 
interred in the church of the Holy Trinity, belonging to 
the abbey of Luzerne, in tbe diocese of Avranches. His 
epitaph, which, the authors of the General Dictionary say, 
is stiU remaining, speaks his character : ^' Here lies bishop 
Achard, by whose charity our poverty was enriched." H^ 

1 Biogr. Univenelle, 1811. 

f_ Jbid.-^Saxii Ooomasticoii.— Fabric. Bibl. G)r»c. 

102 A C ft A It D. 

was a person of great eminence for piety and learning. 
His younger years he spent in the study of polite litera- 
ture and philosophy, and the latter part of his life in 
intense application. His works were : " De Tentatione 
Christi," a MS. in the library of St. Victor at Paris. 
* De divisione Animse & Spiritus,'* in the same library ; 
copies of which are in the public library at Cambridge, 
and in that of Bene't. His " Sermons" are iti the library of 
Clairvaux. He likewise wrotie " The Life of St. Geselin,*' 
which was published at Douay, 12mo, 1626.' 

ACHARD (Anthony), a learned Prussian divine, was 
bom at Geneva in 1696, took orders in 1722, and in 1724 
was promoted to the church of Werder in Berlin. He en- 
joyed the protection of the prince-royal of Prussia ; and 
having in 1730 accompanied the son of M. de Finkenstein 
to Geneva, was admitted into the society of pastors. 
Eight years after, the king of Prussia appointed him coun- 
sellor of the supreme consistory, and in 1740, a member 
of the French directory, with the title of Privy -counsellor. 
Having been received into the academy of Berlin in 1743^ 
he was also appointed inspector of the French college, and 
director of the Charity-house. He died in 1772. He was 
long the correspondent of the Jesuits Colonia, Toume- 
mine, Hardouin, Poreus, and of father Le Long, and 
Turretine, Trouchin, and Vernet of Geneva. He often 
preached before the royal family of Prussia ; and such were 
his powers of oratory, that a celebrated French come- 
dian at Berlin, who there taught the theatrical art, recom* 
mended his pupils to hear Achard. He was of a very 
feeble constitution, and for twenty years subsisted entirely 
on a milk-diet. In the Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin, 
for 1745, there is the outline of a very considerable work, 
in which he proves the liberty of the human mind against 
Spinosa, Bayle, and Collins. Two volumes of " Sermons 
sur divers textes de TEcriture Sainte," were published at 
Berlin after his death. 

His son Francis, born at Berlin in 1753, a member of 
several academies, has furnished many dissertations for 
the Literary Journal of Berlin, and other Memoirs of 
learned societies. Senebier in his literary history of Ge-- 
neva gives a list of all his pieces, and a collection of them 
was published in German, in two volumes. ^ 

* Gen. Diet.— Moreri.— Tanner. 

* Bi<^raphie Universelle, 1811. See Monthly Review, vols. 72, 75, 77, 80, &u 

A C H A B D. 10? 

ACHARD (Claude Francis), a French physician, 9^- 
cretary to the academy of Marseilles, and librarian of that 
city, was born in 1753, and died in 1809. He published, 

1. " Dictionnaire de la Provence, et du Comtat Venaissin,'* 
Marseilles, 1785 — 87, 4 vols. 4to. The first two volumes 
contain a French and Provenjal vocabulary, and the last t^wo 
the lives of the celebrated characters of Provence. Bouche, 
the abbe Paul, and some other authors, assisted in this work. 

2. " Description historique, geographique, et topogr^- 
phique de la Provence et du Couitat Venaissin," Aix, 1787, 
4to. ; one volunie only of this has been published. 3. " Ta- 
bleau de Marseilles,'* intended to be comprized in two 
vols. ; of which one only h^s appeared. 4. '^ Bulletin des 
Societ^s savantes de Marseilles et de departements du 
Midi/* 1802, 8vo. 5. " Cours elementaire de Bibliogra- 
phie, ou la Science du Bibliothecaire,*' Marseilles, 1807, 
3 vojs. 8vo, very incorrectly printed, and little more than 
a compilation from Fournier's " Manuel Typographique,'* 
and ^ Peignoj's " Dictionnaire de Bibliolpgie ;" and it is 
objected to him that the immense knowledge he requires 
in a librarian would repder bibliography impossible, and 
tiresome. He also published a Catalogue of the Abbe 

*Rive*s library, 1793, 8vo, and another of the library of 
Marseilles; and had published four numbers of the first 
volume of a Catalogue of the Museum of Marseilles. * 

AC HARDS (ElsiA^ar-Fkancis de tA Baume pe) was 
born at Avignon, Jan. 29, 1679, of a noble and ancient 
family. After having embraced the ecclesiastical profes- 
sion, he became not only distinguished by the excellence 
of his doctrines, but particularly by his charitable exertions 
during the plague in 1721 ; and bis subsequent promotions 
had no other etiect on him than to increase his zeal and 
his piety. Pope Clement XII. informed of his talents and 
conciliating spirit, employed hiin in the capacity of apos* 
tolic vicar, to settle the disgraceful disputes that had ariseii 
among the missionaries of China. Achards, who was then 
bishop of Halicarna^sus, undertook this commission ; an4 
after a tedious voyage of two years, ?ind two years' resi- 
dence in China, where he ineffectually laboured to accom- 
plish the object of his mission, died at Cochin, April 2, 
1741, a martyr to his indefatigable and benevolent zeal. 
The Abbe Fabre, his secretary, published an account of 
this mission, entitled '^ JLettres edifiantes et curieuses&ur la 

1 Biographic Universelle, 13 11. 

104 A C H A R D S. 

visite apostolique de M. de la Baume, eveque d*Halicar« 
nasse, a la Cochinchine," Venice, 1746, 4to, & 1753, 
3 vols, l^mo, with the translation of a funeral oration de-> 
livered on his death by a Chinese priest. * 

ACHEN, or ACH (John Van), an eminent painter, 
was bom at Cologne, in 1556, of a good family. He 
discovered a taste for his art from his earliest years, and at 
the age of eleven, painted a portrait with such success, as 
to induce his parents to encourage his studies. After hav- 
ing been for some time taught by a very indifferent pain- 
ter, he became the disciple of de Georges, or Jerrigh, a 
good portrait-painter, with whom he remained six years ; • 
and afterwards improved himself by studying and copying 
the works of Spranger. In his twenty-second year he went 
to Italy, and was introduced at Venice to a Flemish artist, 
named Gaspard Reims. This man no sooner learned that 
Van Achen was a German, than he recommended him to 
an Italian who courted necessitoua artists that he might 
make a trade of their labours. With him Van Achen 
made some copies, but, being unable to forget the recep- 
tion which Reims had given him, he painted his own por^ 
trait, and sent it to him. Reims was so struck with the per- , 
formance, that he apologised to Van Achen, took him 
into his house, and preserved the portrait all his life with 
great veneration. At Venice, he acquired the Venetian 
art of colouring, and thence went to Rome to improve his 
design, but never quitted the mannered forms of Spranger. 
His best performances at Rome were a Nativity for the 
church of the Jesuits, and a portrait of Madona Venusta, 
a celebrated performer on the lute. His talents, however, 
and polite accomplishmei^ts, pecpipmended him to several 
of the gjreatest princes of Europe, and particularly to the 
elector of Bavaria, and the emperor Rodolph, by both of 
whom he was patronized and honoured. He was one qf 
that set of artists who, in the lapae of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, captivated Germany and its princes by the intro- 
duction of a new style, or rather , manner, grossly com- 
pounded from the principles of the Florentine and Vene-^ 
tian schools. He died at Prague in 1 62 1. • 

ACHENWALL (Gqdfriy), a celebrated publicist, 
and considered by some as the father of the science of 
Statistics^ was born at Elbing, a Prussian town, OcU 2^^ 

1 Bingraphie Universelle, IStl;— >Dict. Historique. 

* Biogirapt^ie Uifiverselle, lSn««-»Pilkii^gtoii'8 Diet, by Fusdu 

A C H E N W A L L, 105 

1719. He receired his academical education at Jena, 
Halle, and Leipsic. In 1746 he took up his residence at 
Marbourg, where he taught history, the law of nature and 
nations, and statistics, of which he appears to have formed 
very jui&t notions, but at first confined himself to a know- 
ledge of the constitutions of the different states. In 
1748 he went to Gottingen, where, some years after, he 
became one of the professors of that university, and one of 
its greatest ornaments : here he remained until his death. 
May 1, 1772. He had often travelled in Switzerland, 
France, Holland, and England ; and published several works 
on the states of Europe, and political law and oeconomy. 
Those in highest estimation are, his ^^ Constitution des 
royaumes et etats d' Europe," and " Elementa Juris Na- 
turae,'* of which six editions were printed in a very short 
time, each retouched and improved with great care. Ill 
his researches on the subjects of national wealth, resources, 
and means of prosperity, he availed himself of the qbser* 
vations of all historians and travellers, and was much as« 
sisted by Hermann Conring, of Helmstadt, and Eberhard 
Otto, who had made large collections for the same purpose. 
Achenwall gave his new science the name of Statistics j or 
Scientia Statisiica. His last work was *^ Observations sur 
les Finances de la France.*' " 

ACHERI (Luc D*), a Benedictine of the congregation 
of St. Maur, was bom at St. Quintin, in Pioardy, in 1609. 
He became celebrated as the editor of valuable manuscripts 
which lay buried in libraries. The first piece he published 
was the epistle ascribed to St. Barnabas. Father Hugh 
Menard, a monk of the same congregation, intended to 
publish this epistle, and for that purpose had illustrated it 
jwith notes, but having been prevented by death, D*Acheri 
gave an edition of it under the title of ^^ Epistola Catho^ 
hca S. Barnabae Apostoli, Gr. & Lat. <;um notis Nic. Hug. 
Menardi, fst elogio ejusdem auctoris,*' Paris, 1645, 4to. 
In 1 648 he collected into one volume the ^* Life and Works 
of LanfVanc, archbishop of Canterbury," Paris, fol. The 
Life is taken from an ancient manuscript in the abbey of 
Bee ; and the works are. Commentaries on the epistles of 
St. Paul, taken from a manuscript in the abbey of St. 
Melaine de Rennes, and a treatise on the Sacrament, 
jftgainst ^erenger. The appendix contains the Chronicle 
, pf the Abbey of Bee from its 'foundation in 1)04 to 1437 } 

1 Biograpfaie Uniyerselle. — ^Pict Hi8tori(|ae, 1810. 

106 A C H E B t 

ibe li/e of St* Heduiniis, founder snd 6ni abbot, of aomtf 
ef his successors, a^d of St. Austin the apostle of England^ 
9nd some treatises on the eucharist. His catalogue of asce- 
tic works appeared the same year, entitled ^ Ascetico- 
rum, viilgo spiritualium opusculorum, quae^ inta* Patrunr 
opera reperiuntur, Indiculus,'' Paris> 1648^ 4to. This 
curious work was reprinted by father Reani, at Paris, in 
1^71. In 1651, D'Acheri published the " Life and Works 
of Guibert, abbot of Nogent-sous-Couci/' and the lives of 
^me saints, and other pieces, Paris, foL There is much 
antiquarian knowledge in this work, respecting ti>e foun-* 
dation, &c. of abbeys, but the dates are not always cor* 
lect. In 1653 he republished father Grimlaic's " Regie 
dcfii Solitaires," 12n)o, Paris, with notes and observations* 
Bis most considerable work is ^^ Veterum aliquot scrip* 
tommy qui in Gallise bibliothecis, maxime Benedictino-* 
ruott, latuerunt, Spicilegium, &c." 1653 — ^1677, 13 vpls. 
4to. Under the modest title of Spicilegium, it contains a 
very curious collection of documents pertaining to eccle* 
siastical affairs; as acts, canons, councils, chronicles, lives 
of the saints, letters^ poetry, diplomas, charters^ &c. taken 
from the libraries of the different monasteries. This work 
)>ecoming scarce and much sought after, a new edition 
was published in 1725, in 3 vols. foL by Louis-Francis* 
Joseph de ia Barre, with some improvements in point of 
arrangement, but at the same time some improper liber-i^ 
ties taken with the text of D' Acheri, and particularly with 
his learned prefaces* D'Acheri contributed also to Mai* 
billon's ^^ Acta . Sanctorum ordinis S. Benedict],'* &c.*<-^ 
fie lived a life of much retirement, seldom going out, or 
admitting triSiug visits, and thus found leisure for those 
vast labours already noticed, and which procured him th« 
esteem of the popes Alexander VII. and Clement X« who 
honoured him with medals. Although of an infirm habit^ 
be attained the age of seventy- six, and died in the abbey 
of St Germain-des-Pres, April 29, 1685. He was in- 
terred und^ the library of which he had had the care for 
so many y'ears, and where his literary eorrespondence is 
preserved. There is a short eloge on him in the Journal 
de Trevoux f^r Nov. 26, 16B&; bjat that of Maugendre^ 
printed at Amiens in 1775, is more complete. Pupin says 
be was one of the first learned men that the congregation 
of St. Maur produced. ' 

1 Biographic UniirctrieUe, lSll.*--Dict. Hist l8lO.«^Mm«ri.ii-Geii. Diet-* 


ACHILLES (Alexander), a nobleman of Prussia, liweii 
4t the court of Uladislaus, king of Poland, and died at 
Stockholm in 1675, in the ninety-first year of his age. 
The king of Poland sent him as ambassador to Persia, and 
die elector of Br&ndenburgh employed him on a similar 
mission to the Cossacks. He wrote, in German, a trea- 
tise on Earthquakes, and left some manuscripts political 
and philosophical. ■ 


ACHILLINI (Alexander), a native of Bologna, where 
he was bom Oct. 29, 1463, was a philosopher and physiciaut 
and professed both those sciences with great reputation. He 
had scholars from all parts of Europe. He died in his owa 
country, August 2, 1512, at the age of 40, with the sur« 
name of The great philosopher, after having published va- 
rious pieces in anatomy and medicine. To him is ascribed 
the discovery of the little bones in the organ of hearing. 
He adopted the sentiments of Averroes, and was the rival 
of Pomponacins. These two philosophers mutually de^ 
cried each other, and Pomponacius had generally the ad- 
vantage, as he had the talent of mixing witticisms with his 
arguments, for the entertainment of the by^standers, while 
Achillini lowered himself with the public by his singular 
and slovenly dress. His philosophical works were printed 
in one vol. folio, at Venice, in 1 506, and reprinted with 
considerable additi<His in 1545, 1551, and 1568. . His prin- 
cipal medical works are:.l. ^^ Annotationes Anatomic®,'* 
Bonon. 1520, 4to, and Venice, 1521, 8vo. 2. <^ De hur 
mani corporis Anatomia,^' Venice, 1521, 4to. 3. ^' In 
Mundini anatomiam annotationes,'* printed with Kathanrs 
** Fasciculus Medicinse,*' Venice, 1 522, fol. 4. " De subr 
jecto Medicinoe, cum annotationibus Pamphili Montii,^* 
Venice, 1568. 5. ** De Chirpmanti» principiis et Physi- 
ognomisB,'' foL without place or year. 6. *^ De Univer- 
salibus,'' Bonon. 1501, fol. 7. *^ De subjecto Chiromantite 
et Physiognomiee,'' Bonon. 1503, fol. & Pavia, 1515, fol. 
-—Achillini also cultivated poetry ; but if we may judge 
from some verses in the collection pubhshed on the death 
of the poet Seraphin dall' Aquila, not with much success.* 

ACHILLINI (John Phjlotheus), youngBr brother of 
the preceding, was born at Bologna in 1466, where he 
died in 1558. He was learned in the Greek and Latin 

1 BiOfraphie Univ^rselle. 

f Oeu. I^et—- Moreri.— -fiiographie UnirerieUe^ 1811. 

lOS A C H I L L I N L 

languages, in theology, philosophy, and music, and the study 
of law and antiquities, but is most celebrated as a 
poet, although his works are not free from the faults pe- 
culiar to his age. Yet he gave even these a turn so pecu- 
liarly original, that they appear to have been rather his 
own than acquired by imitation. He published, among 
many other works: 1. A scientific and moral poem, writ- 
ten in the ottava rima, entitled " II Viridario,*' Bologna, 
4to, which contains eulogiums on many of his learned con- 
temporaries. 2. " II Fedele," also in heroics. These are 
both scarce, as they never were reprinted. 3. " Annota- 
2ioni della lingua vdlgare," Bologna, 1556, 8vo. Thi$ 
was intended as an answer to those who complained of the 
provincialisms in his style. 4. He also published a collec- 
tion of poems on the death of Seraphin dall' Aquila, men- 
tioned in the preceding article, Bologna, 1 504, 4to. He 
has more stretch of mind than most of bis contemporaries, * 
ACHILLINI (Claude), grandson of the preceding, and 
son of Clearchus Achillini andPolyxena Buoi, was bom at 
Bologna in 1574, After studying grammar, the belles 
lettres, and philosophy, he entered on the study of the 
law, and prosecuted it with so much success, that he was 
honoured with a doctor's degree at the age of twenty, 
Dec. 16, 1594, and became a professor of that science at 
Bologna, Ferrara, and Parma, where he acquired great 
reputation. His learning was so much admired that an 
inscription to his honour was put up in the public schools, 
and both popes and cardinals gave him hopes, which were 
never realized, of making his fortune. Towards the end 
of his life he lived principally in a country house called II 
Sasso, and died there Oct. 1, 1640. His body was car- 
ried to Bologna, and interred in the tomb of his ai>cestoi*& 
in the church of St. Martin. He is principally known now 
by bis poetry, in which he was an imitator of Marino, and 
with much of the bad taste of his age. It has been asserted 
that he received a gold chain worth a thousand crowns 
from the court of France, for a poem on the conquests of 
Louis XIII. ; but this reward was sent him by the Cardinal 
Kichelieu, in consequence of some verses he wrote on the 
birth of the dauphin. His poems were printed at Bologna, 
1632, 4to, and were reprinted with some prose pieces, 
under the title "Jftime e Prose," Venice, 1651, 13mo. 

1 Biogmphie Universelle, ISIL^-Hist. Litteraire d' Italie, par G)n£;ucne4 
Tol. ill. p. 548.^-Gcn. Dict—Moreri. 

A C H I L L I N L 109 

He published also in Latin ^^ Decas Epistolarum ad Jaco« 
bum Gaufridum/* Parma, 1635, 4to. > 

ACHMET, an Arabian author, who is supposed to bare 
lived about the fourth century, and is styled the son of 
Seirim, wrote a book ^^ On the interpretation of Dreams, 
according to the doctrine of the Indians, the Persians, and 
the Egy^ians,'' which, with all its absurdities, has been 
translated into ^^reek and Latin, and published, together 
with ^' Artemidorus on Dreams and Chiromancy,^^ by M« 
Rigault in Paris, 1 603, 4to. The original is lost. * 

ACIDALIUS (Valens), a young man of great erudi- 
^on, whom Baillet has enrolled among his << Enfans cele- 
ores," and who would have proved one of the ablest critics 
of his time, had he enjoyed a longer life, was born at 
Wistock, in the march of Brandenbiirgh, in 1567. In his 
seventeenth year he composed some poetical pieces in 
Latin, which are not very highly esteemed. In 1589, he 
went to Helmstadt to pursue Iiis studies, and there pub- 
lished some of his poemi, which were reprinted after his 
death, at Leibnitz, in 1605, with tlu)se of Janus Lemu- 
tius and Janus Gulielmus. They are also inserted iuithe 
first volume of the "Deliciae Poetarum Germanorum ;** 
znd several of his pieces are in the second volume of Cas«- 
par Dornavius' *^ Amphitheatrum sapientiae Soicraticae Jo- 
coseriiB,'' Hanau, 1619. From Helmstadt, Acidalius went 
to Italy in 1590, and acquired the esteem and friendship 
of the most distinguished scholars ; and here he studied 
medicine, but does not appear to have entered into prac- 
tice. Before he went to Italy, he had begun his commen- 
tary on Paterculus, and published his edition of that au- 
thor at Padua, in the above-mentioned year, 12mo. He 
adopted the text of Schegkius, but introduced corrections^ 
and such new readings as appeared well founded. For 
this, however, he has been censured by Boeder, J. Mer- 
rier, and Burmann; and it has been said that he himself 
condemned this early production. His contemporaries 
appear to have thought more favourably of liis labours, a« 
his notes were adopted in the edition of Paterculus pub- 
lished at Lyons, 1595, dvof and they were again added 
to an edition of Tacitus printed after his death, at Paris, 
in 1608, folio. After remaining three years in Italy, he^ 
returned to Germany ; andatNeiss, the residence of the 

' 1 Chaafiepic'.— Moreri. -^ Diet. Hist.— Bio; raphie Unirerseile. 
« l^kU lii«t« 

no A C I D A L r U S. 

bishop of Breslaw, he embraced the Roman Cathplic reli- 
gion. At this place he continued hi» critical researches 
on Quintus Curtius, Plautus, the twelve ancient Panegy- 
rics, Tacitus, and some other authors. In 1594, he pub- 
lished, at Francfort, his " AnimadVersiones in Quintuni 
Curtium,'* 8vo ; which have been adopted in the Francfort 
edition of thjit author, 1597, and Snakeriburg's edition, 
Leyden, 1724, 4to. His sudden death, May 25, 1595, 
at the age of 28, put a stop to his useful labours. At that 
time his observations on Plautus were in the press, and 
wei'e published the following year at Francfort, 8vo, and 
again in 1607 ; and they are inserted in J. Gruter's 
**Lampas Critica." They conferred upon him a well- 
earned reputation ; and Barthius and Lipsius, with others, 
bore testimony to his growing merit as a critic. His re- 
marks on the Ancient Panegyrics and on Tacitus were 
published in 1607, and the former were added to J. Gru- 
ter's edition, Francfort, 1607, 12mo. They are, likewise, 
examined and compared with those of other scholars, in 
the fine edition of the Panegyrics published at Utrecht by 
Arntzenius, in 1790, 4to. His notes on Tacitus are in 
the edition of that author printed at Paris, 1608, fol. 
(where he is by mistake called Acidalus) ; in that of Gro- 
novlus, Amsterdam, 1635, 4to, and 1673, 2 vols. 8vo. 
We also owe to Acidalius, some notes on Ausonius, given 
in ToUius' edition of that author, Amsterdam, 1671, 8vo. 
and notes on Quintilian's dialogue de Oratoribus, added 
to Gronoyius' edition of Tacitus, Utrecht, 1721, 4to. It 
appears by his letters, that he had written observation^ on 
Apuleius and Aulus Gellius, but these have not been 
printed. His letters were published at Hanau, 1606, 8yo, 
by his brother Christian, under the title of ** Epistolarum 
centuria una, cui accesserunt apologetica ad clariss: virum 
Jac. Monavium, et Oratio de vera carminis elegiaci natura 
et constitutione.'' In the preface, his brother vindicates 
his character against the misrepresentations circulated in 
consequence of his embracing the Roman Catholic reli-» 
gion, particularly with regard to the mannfer of his death. 
Some asserted that he became suddenly mad, and others 
that he laid violent hands on himself. It appears, how- 
ever, that he died of a fever, brought on by excess of 
"study. — It still remains to be noticed, that he is said to 
have been the author of a pamphlet, published in 1595, 
entitled, ^^ Mulieres non esse homines,'' </ Women are not 

A d I D A L I U S, 111 

men ; i. e. not thinking and reasonable beings ;'^ but he 
had no other hand in this work than in conveying it to his 
bookseller, who was prosecuted for publishing it. It was, 
in fact, a satire on the Socinian mode of interpreting the 
Scriptures; and a French translation of it appeared in 
1744, l2mo.' 

ACKEIIMANN (John Christian Gottlieb), a physi- 
cian and medical writer of considerable note in Germany, 
and professor of medicine at Aitdorf, in Franconia, was 
born in 1756, at Zeulenrode, in. Upper Saxony. His 
father was a physician, and initiated bis son in that science 
at a very early age. When scarcely fifteen, he prescribed 
with saccess to many of his friends during a dangerous epi- 
demic which prevailed at Otterndorf. He afterwards fi- 
nished his studies at Jena and Gottingen, under Baldinger, 
and became a v^ry excellent classical scholar under the 
celebrated Heyne. After having practised medicine in hi^ 
own country for some years, and distinguished himself bj 
various translations of Italian, French, and English work^ 
as well as by bis original compositions, he was appointed 
to the professorship at Altdorf. He was also a member of 
various medical societies ; and his practice is said to have 
been as successful, as his theory of disease was sound. He 
died at Altdorf in 1801. His principal works are : 1. **In- 
stitutiones Historic Medicinae," Nuremberg, 1792, 8vo. 
2. " A Manual of Military Medicine, 2 vols, 8vo, Leipsic, 
179^^95, in German. 3. ^'he Life of J. Conr. Dippel,'* 
Leipsic, 1781, 8vo; also in Geraian. For Harles' edition 
6f Fabricius* Bibl. GraDca, he furnished the lives of Hippo- 
crates, Galen, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Aretaeus; 
which are said to be well executed.' 

ACKWORTH (George), LL. D. an English divine 
and civilian, of whose birth and family we have no account. 
During the reign of queen Mary, he travelled in France 
and Italy, where he studied the civil law. In 1560, he 
was public orator at Cambridge ; and, in the following 
year, created doctor of laws. In 1562, he was admitted 
an advocate in the Arches court ; and afterwards lived in 
the family of archbishop Parker, who gave him a prebend, 
probably that of Southwell. In 1567, he was vicar-general 
to Home, bishop of Winchester ; and, in 1575, the arch- 
^ bishop of Canterbury permitted him to hold ihe rectory of 

* Bi<%riipbie Unnrtrselte, 1811. — Gen. Diet — Moreri.— >Saxii Ooomaiticon. 

* Biograpbie Uuivenelle, l811.«^SaxiiQaoaiaitit;oa, tol. 8, 

112 A C K W O R T H. 

Elington, alias Wrougfaton, in the diocese of Sarum, wittii. 
any other benefice. In- 1576, he was appointed master of 
the faculties, Setnd judge of the prerogative court, in Ireland, 
after he had been turned out of all the situations he held 
in England^ on account of his dissolute conduct. Whea 
be died is not known. He wrote, in bis better days ; 

1. *^Orationem encomiasticam in restitutione Buceri et 
Fagii,'* printed in "Hist. Buceri," Argentor. 1562, 8vo. 

2. The preface to Book 11. of Bucer's works, fol. Basil, 
1577. 3. **De visibili Romanarchia, contra Nic. Sandert 
Monarchiam," Lond. 1622, 4to. This was written while 
he lived with archbishop Parker, and probably at his insti*^. 
gation. At one time* he enjoyed the confidence of thig 
great and good prelate, and assisted him in his Antiquitates 
Britaimicae. ' 

ACOLUTHUS (Andrew), a learned Orientalist, and 
professor of divinity at Breslaw, was born at Bernstadt, 
March 6, 1654. It is said that, at six years of. age, he 
could speak Hebrew* He died Nov. 4, 1 704. His most 
celebrated works are some chapters of a polyglot Koran^ 
which he intended to have completed. The specimen, 
which is very scarce, is "Tetrapla Alcoranica, sive Speci- 
men Alcorani quadrilinguis Arabici, Persici, Turcici, et 
Latiui,'' Berlin, 1701, fol. He published also, '^ Obadias 
Armenus et Latinus, cum annotationibus,'^ Leipsic, 1680, . 
4to. In printing this work, in which he followed as his 
guides Ambrose Theseus and Francis Rivoli, he was 
obliged to have the Armenian types cast at his own ex- 
pence. He corresponded with many learned contempo- 
raries, as Longuerue, Spanheim, and Leibnitz, who, how- 
ever, did not approve his notion of the Armenian, being the 
ancient language of Egypt. » 


ACONTIUS, or ACONZIO (James), a divine, philo^ . 
sopher, and civilian of the sixteenth century, was born at 
Trent, where he was afterwards in orders ; but, being dis- 
posed to a liberality of sentiment not tolerated there, he ; 
went to Switzerland in 1557, and made profession of the 
Protestant religion on the principles of Calvin. From 
thence he went to Strasburgh, and .lastly to England, 
where he was hospitably received. Queen Elizabeth ^ave^ 
him a pension, not as a divine, but as an engineerii In 

> Tanner Bibl. — Masters' IGst of Corpus Christi Coll. Cambridge.' ~ ~ 

! Biof rapbit UniT«ri«Ue, ISi;.— Moreri. 

A C O N T I U S. 113 

gratitude,;he addressed to her his book on the *^ Stratagems 
of Satao," a work in which are unquestionably many senti-. 
ments of greater Uberality than the times allowed^ but^ at 
the same time, a laxity of principle which would reduce all 
religions into one, or rather create an indifFerence about 
the choice of any. It was first printed at Basle, in 1565, 
under the title of " De stratagematibus Satanae in reli- 
gionis negotio, per superstitionem, errorem, heresim, 
odium, calumniam, schisma, &c. libri VIIU' It was after- 
wards often reprinted .and translated into most Europeaa 
languages. His latest biographer say^, that this work ^may 
be considered as the precursor of Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury, and those other English philosophers who have re- 
duced the articles of religion to a very small number, and 
maintain that all sects hold its essential principlesi. Aeon- 
tins, however, had his enemies and his supporters;. and 
even the former could allow that, in many respects, he 
anticipated the freedom and liberality of more enlightened 
times, although he was, in many points, fanciful and un- 
guarded. A better work of his is entitled ^^ De methpdo sive 
recta investigandarum, tradendarumque artium, . ac scien- 
tiarum ratione, libellus,'' Basle, 1558, 8vo. This has often 
been reprinted, and is inserted in the collection '^ De Stu- 
diis bene instituendis,^' Utrecht, 1658. His ^'Ars muni- 
eudorum oppidorum,*' in Italian and Latin, was published 
at Geneva in 1585. In one of the editions of his '^ Strata- 
gemata,^' is an excellent epistle by him, on the method of 
editing books. He had also made some progress in a trea- 
tise on logic, as he mentions in the above epistle, and pre^- 
diets the improvements of after-times. 

Tanner gives 1566 as the date of his death, but we have 
no account of it. . We only know that he died in England^ 
and that, in 1560, he belonged to the Dutch church m 
Austin Friars ; and, with Hadriati Hamstedius, wa§ accused 
of Anabaptist and Arian principles, and fell under the cen- 
sure of excommunication pronounced by Grindall, then 
bishop of London, and bishop-superintendant of the fo- 
reigners' churches. On this occasion Acontius wrote a 
long expostulatory letter to the Butch church, which is 
still extant in the library at Austin Friars. Our authority 
does not state how this matter ended ; but Hamstedius re- 
fused subscription to certain articles drawn up by the 
bishop pireviously to the ceremony of absolution. ' 

1 Biographie tniTenelle, 18Ll.-^Qen. Diet.— T«ii^tr.'«»8tryp«'t IJf« «| 
iTriDdall, pp. 49. ^« 

YQL.i. 1 

114 A b O S T A. 

ACOS'fA (Joseph b*), a celebrated . Spanish anthofv 
Born at Medifia del Campo, about the year 1539. At tbe 
age of fburt'een, he entered the society of the Jesuits,- 
whefe hd had already four brothers, all of whom he ex- 
celled in knowledge and fentprprlze. In 1571 he went to 
the East Indies, ai^d became second provincial in Peru. 
fn 1^8d, he retiinied to Spain, and acquire^d tbe good 
graces of Philip JI. by entertaining him with accounts of 
tne New World. He then went to Italy, to render a 
^ore pafticuiair Sc^ount to the general of the Jesuits, 
Claude Aquavjva, with whoiU he had afterwards a differ* 
ehce, of little impbrtartc6 now, relative to certain ecctesi* 
astical offices, and became isaperior of the order at Valla*^ 
dotid, and tectolrot Salamanca ; at which last place he died, 
teh. 1 5, 1 606. H^ wrote : 1 . " Historia natural y moral d^ 
• la* Ihdias,^* Seville. 1590, 4to; also 1591,^ 8vo, a cor* 
fected edition ; and ^ain, Madrid, 1603 and 1610; a 
work ih great estrm^tioil, and often quoted by Dr. Robert- 
son. ^Ti has been tY^nslated int6 Latin and French; th^ 
hitter by ttbbert Regii^tilt, who skys that the original be* 
tame sclirde, th'e Spaniai'ds having burnt all the copies^ 
t>ut in this l!e ha& tnisrtakeh Acosta for Acuna. It has ais6 
been translated into Flemish, Italian, knd German. IS. ^* D^ 
Katura Ndvi Ofbis, libri duo,*' Salamanca, 1589 and 159-9, 
'Svo. I'his was ttan^ltited by the author into iSpantsh, and 
iidded to the preeeditig woVk. S. "De Promulgation^ 
^vangelii a|>ud Barbafos,*' Salamanca, 1588, 8 vb, Cologne, 
15b6. 4. ''^ De ChfiStb revdato, libri novem," Home, 15&0, 
416; Lyohs, 1391, SV6. S. *^Conciones, tomi tres,** Sa** 
lamanca, 1596, 4to, atid t>ften teprinted. * 

ACbSTA (URfEL|, 2i Portuguese, born at Oporto to- 
Vrards the d6s6 of the sll^eenth century. He was ed#. 
cated in the Rombh raigion, which his father also sin*- 
cerely professed, though descended from one of those 
i^Tewidi families Who hud heel) forced to receive baptism* 
Uriel had a liberal education, h^ing been insh*ucted iu 
several sciences ; and at last sliudied the law, He bad by 
nature a good temper and disposition ; and religion had 
made so deep an impression on his mind, that h^ ardehtfy 
desired to coufotiti to all the precepts of the church. He 
applied with constant assiduity to re&ding the ^cnptut^saik^ 
rdigtous books, Carefully consulting also the creed f^ the 
confessors ; but difficulties occurred, which perples^ him 
to such a d^ree, that, unable to ;SoIve them, he thought 

> <Biflvraphie UoiT^Kelle, lSU.«>*Moreri. 

A CO ST A, 111 

it impossible to fulfil his duty, with reg^d to the cofidi# 

ttoDs required for absoiutioni according to gopd oasiii^Ui 

At lengtb) he began to inquire, whether se^erii particulftrt 

mer^tioned about a future Kfe were agreeable to reason^ 

aud imagined that reason suggested many argumeatf 

a|?^ thetn. Acosta was about riwo-and-'twenty when hf 

entertaiiea these doubts; and the result was,- that hjs 

thaaght he could not be saved by. the reHgion »^hich h^ 

had imbibed in his infancy. H^ stiK, however, prosecuted 

hh studies in the4aw ; and, at tlie age of tive-and-tweuty 

years, was made treasurer in a coliegiate church. Being 

saturaHy of an inquisitive turn, and now oiade utieasy by 

tiie popibh doctrines, he began to study Moses and thf 

prophets; where he thought he found more satisfaetioa 

dian in the Gospel, and at length became convinced thai 

Judaisno was the true religi9n/. but, as he could not pro* 

less it in Portugal, he resigned his place, and einbiurked for 

Amsterdam, with his mother aiid brothers; .whom be had 

'ventwred to instruct in the principles of lihje Jewish ^!;elli* 

gion, even when in Pc^rtugaL Soon aftei* .their arrival itx 

^is city they became members of the synagogue, and 

were circnmctsed according to custom ; Aud on thia oaoaif 

^on, he changed bis name of Gabriel for ib»t of LTneL 

A little time was suffieient to shew hioit ^^ ^^ ^Jewa dad 

•Deitber in their rites nor morals conform to the^ law of 

JMoses, und'of this/ he de«rlared his disappisobfiftioni hut 

-the chiefs of thf^ synagogue gav/e him to understands that 

ihe must exactly observe their tenets and ou$toms ; aod 

^at he wotrld be excommnndcated' if he deviated eviar aij^ 

:little from them. This thereat, however, did not ih Am 

Jttst deter him ; for he thought it would be beneath hiniy 

irfao had left the aweets of his native coanHtry piMtdly for 

Jftberty of nonseience, to submit to a set of labbtt mbo had 

<>» jurisdiction : and that it wouki shew b^h want 0f cou/- 

irt^e.and piety, to stifle his sentiments on this cuBOifcsioa* 

He thei^fore persisted in his ibvectives,'and, in Qons^*- 

tquence, ivas exoomfmunicated. He thto^ wrote a book in 

•^if justification ; wherein he endeavours lx> j^faew, tba^ the 

tsities and traditions of the Pharisees are oontrary io the 

•writings of > Moses; and soon after adopted the opinions of 

«Ae 8addiics6es, aasemng, that the irewatds .and puniab- 

•Btjbnts of the old law relate only to this life ; because Mos#s 

'Boliiiere mentioM' 'th^ joys of heaven or A» tonncnis ^f 

jbaU; \Bi»Adv«msiei wete ^oivegoyad at JbttiMihmoing ^a 

116, A C S T A. 

tenet J forfesefeing, tliat it wonM tend greatly to JQstify, in 
the sight of Christians, the proceedings of the synagogue 
tgainst him. Before his book was priuted, there appeared 
a piece upon the immortality of the soul, written hy a 
physician in 1623, who omitted nothing he could sug-> 
east to make Acosta pass for an atheist. This, however^ 
aid not prevent him from writing a treatise against the 
physician,, wherein he endeavoured to confute the doctrine 
of the soul^s immortality^ The Jews now made application 
to the magistrates of Amsterdam ; and informed against him^ 
as one who wanted to undermine the foundation of both Jew- 
ish and Christian religions. Hereupon he was thrown into 
prison, but bailed out within a week or ten days after ; but 
all the copies of his pieces were seized, and he himself iined 
300 florins. Nevertheless, he proceeded still farther in his 
scepticism. He now began to examine, whether the laws 
of Moses came from God ; ^nd he at length found reasons 
to convince him, that it was only a politics^l invention. 
Yet, such was iiis inconsistency, that he returned to the 
Jewish church, after he had been excommunicated 15 
years; and, after having made a recantation of what he 
had written, subscribed every thing as they directed. A 
few days after, he was accused by a nephew, who lived in 
bis hoiise, that he did not, as to his eating and many other 
points, conform to the laws of the synagogue* On this he 
was summoned before the grand council of tlie synagogue ; 
and it was declared to him, that he must be again excoin- 
municated, if he did not give such satisfaction as should 
be required; but he found the terms so hard, that he 
could not comply. The Jews then again expelled him 
from their communion ; and he afterwards suffered various 
hardships and persecutions, even from his own relations. 
After remaining seven years in a most wretched situation^ 
he at length declared he was willing to submit to the sen-^ 
tence of the syns^ogue, having been told that he might 
easily accon^modate matters ; for, that the judges, being 
satisfied with his submission, would soften the severity of 
the discipline ; they made him, however, undergo the pe- 
nance in its utmost rigour. These particulars, reUting to 
the life of Acosta, are taken from his piece, entitled ^Ex- 
emplar humanae vit^,'^ published and refuted by Lim- 
borch. It is supposed that he composed it a few days be* 
fore his death, after having determined to lay . violent 
hands on hiinself. He executed this horrid resolution a 

A C O S T A. 1^7 

little after be hud failed in his attempt to kill his principal 
etiemy ; for the pistol, with which he intended to have 
shot him as he passed his house, having missed fire, he 
immediately shut the door, and shot himself with another 
pistol. Tlus happened at Amsjterdam, but in what year is 
J^ot exactly known ; but most authors are inclined to place 
it in 1640^ or 1^47. » 

ACREL (Olaus), a very eminent Swedish surgeoa au4 
physician, was born near Stockholm in the beginning of 
the eighteenjth century. He studied first at Upsal, aQ4 
afterwards at Stockholm, under the ablest practitioners in 
physic and surgery. In 1741 he travelled to Germany 
and France, and served as surgeon iu the French army 
for two years. In 1745 he took up his residence ia Stock- 
holm, where for half a century he was con^dered as the 
first man iu bis profession* HJb introduced many valuable 
improvements in the army-hospitals, ajid his general ta« 
lents and usefulness procured him the most flattering 
marks of public esteem. He wa« appointed director ge- 
neral of all the hospitals in the kingdom, had titles of 
nobility conferred upon him, was created a knig^ht of 
Vasa, and became commander of tliat order. In 1764^ 
the university of Upsal made him doctor in n^edicine by 
diploma, and he was enrolled a member of various learned 
societies.. He died in 1807, at an advanced age. He 
published various works in the Swedish language, the 
principal of which are : 1 . " A treatise on Fresh Wounds,** 
Stockholm, 1745. 2. " Observations on Surgery,'* 1750. 
3. " Dissertation on the operation for the Cataract," 1766 ; 
and 4. « A Discourse on reforms in Surgical Operations^ 
J767.« . _,. 

ACEON, a celebrated physician of Agrigentum in bi- 
eily, Jived., according to Plutarch, at the time of the great 
plague at Athens in the beginning of the Peloponnesiap 
war, in the eighty-fourth olympiad, or 444 B. C. He is 
said to have stopped the progress of the contagion by scatr 
taring perfumes in the air ; but while doubts may be enters 
tained of the efficacy of this practice, it was at least no,t 
new, hafingbeen tried before his time by the t-gyptian 
priests, according to Suidas. Pliny considers Acroii as 

. Tb. re« Life of Acosta ; f wH^^jJ. •^t'', fvS, "i^n^n' n^Sl 
fea.ce of Christianity, in answer to Acosta's o^y«c^^^^^^ ^^ ^„ 


A C R O N. 

the thitf tf the empirical sect, but that sect were not 
knowA for tw6 hundred years after. Suidas $ays he wrote 
1^ treatise on medicine, and another on food, neither of 
which is now known. * 

ACRON, Of ACRO (Helenius), the name df an an* 

• tient scholiast on Horace, who flourished in the seventh 

century* His scholia were published under the title *^ £t- 

ritte in Horatii Flacci Opera," Mediolani, 1474, 4tor 
form^ the third edition of Horace, according; to Dr. 
{{arwood, and is so scarce 4s to have escaped the notice 
6f Maittaire. A copy was purchased at Dr. Askew^is sale, 
hy Mr. Mason, for nine guineas and a half; or, according 
l6 the editor of the Bibliographical Dictionary, for £6. \0s. 
It was reprinted at Venice in 1490, fol. Michael Ben* 
tius added the scholia to his edition, Basil, 152*7, 8 vo. 
Fabricids enumerates Acron among the ancient commen* 
tatofs on Terence and Persius. * 

ACROPOUTA (George), one of the writers in the 
Byzantine history, was born at Constantinople in the yeat 
mOj and brought up at the court of the emperor John 
)>ucal^ at Nice. He studied mathematics, poetry, and 
ffaetoric under Theodorus Exapterygus, and learned logic 
of Nieephorus Blemmldas. In his one-and-twentiedi year, 
lie maintained a learned dispute with Nicholas the phy- 
sician-, concerning the eclipse of the sun, before the em* 
{)eror John. He was at length appointed great iogothete, 
and employed in the most important affairs of the empire. 
tJfohn Ducas sent him ambassador to Larissa, to establish 
u peace with Michael of Epirus. He was also constituted 
judge by this emperor, to try Michael Comnenus on a 
suspicion of being engaged in a conspiracy. Theodorus 
'Lascaris,, the son of John, whom he had taught logic, ap- 
trtiinted him governor of all the western provinces of his 
empire.' When he held this government, in the year 
125$, being engaged in a war with Michael Angelus^ he 
^Kras tbken prisoner by him. In 1260, he gained his li- 
berty by means of the emperor Palaologus, who sent him 
ambassador to Constantine prince of Bulgaria. After his 
teturn, he applied himself wholly to the instruction of 
youth, in which einployment he acquitted himself with 
great ho]K>ur fqr many years ; but being at last weary of 

f Biograpbite tTnt^ridlt, lSM.->-Blbreri^«-*MftiigMi Biblistii. 

s Fabr. Bib]. JUtw0ict. Hirt.— Moreri.-^iltrwood.-*BU>liog. ])i«t.«i 

A C R O P O L I T A. .119 

the fjftUgue, he resigned it tQ Holgbpli^s. In 1272, be 
wit as one of the judges upon the cause of John yecchnii, 
patria,rcb of Constantinople. The year following he was 
sent to pope Gregory, to settle a ppace and re-uniqn be- 
tween the t.wo churches, which was accordingly con- 
cluded > and he swore to it, in the emperor*s nan^f , at this 
second council of Ly0T|s, in 1274. IJe wai? sent ambass^ 
dor to John prince pf Bulgaria in 1282, and cUed soon 
after bis return. His principal wor)c is his ^^ Historia By^- 
zautina," Gr. Lat P^ris^ fol. 1651. Thi^ hiptory, whiph 
he was well qualified to write, ^s )ie tpbk an active p^rt |n 
public affairs, contains the history of about fifty-eiglit 
.years; i.e. from 120?^ when ^aldwin, earl pf Flinders, 
was crowned emperor, to 1261^ when M. P^lscolpgus put 
himself in the place of Baldwin II. A in%nu;^ci;^pt trans- 
lation of it, by sir Williaoi Petty^ was in Mr. Anxes^^ cpl- 
lectioi). The original wj|$ found in the ^ast ^y Bouz^, 
9nd ^rst published in 1£ 14 ; but the Pari^ edition is supe- 
rior, aod now yery scarce. His theological writings were 
never printed. His son Constantine succeeded him ^ 

.g^A4 logothete^ and was called by the Greeks, the 
ypuagiie^ Metaphrastes, from his having written the lives of 
some of t^ s;i^i;nts in thq piianqer of Simeon Metaphrasteis* 
There is little ej§^e in his history that is interesting. * 

i^CTUARIUS (Joijn). The name Actuarius was given 
to ^11 the court physici^Qs pf Constantinople, althoura the 

.^bject of thi$ article is th^ pply one known by it. His 

. fE^ther's nam^ was Zacharjias. Authors are "not a^re^ed as 

,jto }lie tl|^6 ii> which l^e lived. Wjolfgaiig Justus places 
him in the eleven tU cpji|u^y ; Morieau in the twelfth ;* F^- 
bricius in thp thirteenth, a,n4 L^^becius in the fovrteentjhi, 

, He was ;tlie first Greek s^^tbor who recommended the use 
of cassia, senna;^ mar>na^ apd otl^^r mild purgatives, and 
the ^rst who- mentions distilled w?it^,rs. He is reckoned 
superior tp the Arabiai) physicians, but inferior to the 

.^reat pby^ci^^ns pf iiis nation. H^ wrote : 1. A work on 
" Tlusrapeutics," in six books, pf winch there \$ no Greek 

^ edition^ but a Lathi ,$r^nslation by Henry Mathisius of 
Bruges, entitled " Me^tlwidi AJedendi libri Sex," Venice, 
4to, 1554; Paris, 156^, 8vo. The wprk was composed 
by Actuarius fojr the use of an ambassador in the noxj^ 

» Geow Diet— Pab. Bibl. Gr»c, Y9L VI. 9. 448.— Diet BiJ)UQg.-TW«rd'i 
Ore than Professors, 

no A C T U A R I U S. 

3. Two books on " Animal Spirits,'* of which Goupil pub- 
lished Br. Greek edition, Paris, 1557,. 8vo, with a Latin 
version by Mathisius. This was reprinted by Fischer, Or. 
and Lat. Leipsic, 1774, 8vo, with th^ addition of two 
books of Actuarius on regimen. 3. Seven books " On 
Urines," of which there is no Greek edition ; but Am- 
brose Levon de Nole published a Latin version, 1519, 4to. 
and this was revised by Goupil, illustrated with note^, 
and reprinted under the title " De Urinis libri septem.'* 
Paris, 1548, 8vo; Basil, 1558, 8 vo; Utrecht, 1670, 8vo. 

4. A Treatise on the " composition of Medicines," with 
the commentaries of John Ruellius ; but this is little more 
than the fifth and sixth books of the Therapeutics. The 
medical writings of our author were collected and printed, 
Paris, 1526, 8vo ; and again in 1556. In 1567, Henry 
Stephens published an edition of the whole of his works, 
fol. translated by different authors, among the ** Medicae- 
artis Principes.'* We have also " Actuarii opera," Paris, 
8vo; Leyden, 1556, 3 vols. 12mo. There are some of 
his works in many libraries which remain in manuscript. ^ 

ACUNA (Christopher), a Spanish Jesuit and mission- 
ary, was born at Burgos, 1597. He was sent on a mission 
to the American Indians, and on his return in the year 
1641, published in Spanish, by permission of the king, 
^^ Nuevo Descubrimiento del gran rio de las Amazones,*? 
. 4to; but the projects expected from his discoveries rer 
specting this river, were discountenanced afterwards by 
the house of Braganza, and Philip IV. ordered all the 
copies of this curious work to be destroyed, so that for 
many years two only were known to. exist; one in the 
Vatican library, and another in the possession of Marin 
Leroi de Gomberville, who translated it into French, and 
published it, under the title of *^ Relation de la riviere des 
Amazones,*' Paris, 1682, 2 vols. 12mo, with a curious 
dissertation ; but some passages of the text are not very 
faithfully translated. This was afterwards xeprinted in 
the second volume of Wood's Rogers*s Voyage round the 
world. Acuna went to the East Indies some time after 
the publication of his work, and is supposed to have diecl 
at Lima about or soon after 1675. * 

ACUNA (Fernando de), a Spanish poet, born at M^r 
drid in the beginning of the sixteenth century, was at 

1 Biographie UniTeriene.*-i<7eD. Dict,«— Moreri.*-*Pab. Bibl. Griec. 
* Biographie Uiiiver8«lle/-*Moreri. ' ' ' 

AC UN A. Ill 

first remarkable for his military talents in the service of 
Charles V. but more so afterwards for bis poetieal merits 
which has been extolled by Louis Zapata and Lope da 
Vega. His first attempt was a translation of Olivier de la 
Marchess ^ Chevalier deliberS," under the title of " £1 
Cavallero determinando ;'' to which be added an entire 
book of his own composition, Antwerp, 1555, 8vp. He 
also composed in Italian verse, sonnets, eclogues, and 
other smaller pieces, in which the thoughts are natural^ 
and the Expression elegant. He succeeded in translating 
Ovid in verse of nine syllables, which the Spaniards con* 
sider as the most difficult in their poetry ; and before his 
death he had begun a translation of Roland from Boyardo^ 
and added four chants, which were thought equal to the 
original. His translation of the " Chevalier delibere*^ 
was reprinted at Salamanca, 1575, with alterations and 
additions. He died at Grenada in 1580; and in 1591, a 
collection of his pieces was published at Salamanca, <^ Ya* 
rias Poesias." * 

ACUSILAS, or ACUSILAUS, a Greek historian, the 
son of Cabas, bom at. Argos, lived, according to Josephus, 
a little before the expedition of Diirius against Greece, 
and near the time when Cadmus the Milesian wrote the first 
prose history. Acusilas' work was entitled " Genealogies,** 
as they related to the chief families of Greece. Many 
authors quote this work, but the only fragments preserved 
are added to those of Pfaerecydes by M.. Sturz, printed at 
Gera, 1798, 8yo.^ 

ADAIR (Jamss), an English lawyer, and sometime re« 
isorder of London^ was born in that city, and educated at 
Peter-house, Cambridge; wliere he took the degree of 
B. A. 1764, and of M. A. IH&J* After prosecuting his law- 
studies, he was admitted to the bar, and began to distin^ 
guish himself about the year 1770, when he took s^n active 
part in the political contentions of that period. Having* 
sided with Mr. Wilkes in the memorable dispute between 
that gentleman and his co-patriot Mr. Home, Mr. Wilkea 
spoke of him at political meetings in such a i^anner as to 
draw the public eye upon him ; ^and in 1779 he was chosen 
recorder of London, although liot widiout a contest with 
his opponent Mr. Howarth. ThJb situation he retained for 
some years, while his advancem^t at the bar was rapids 

U * Bipfraphie Uifir^rwUc* ? Ibid.— DicU Hist. 

I« A JD A 1 ^ 

recoffdership he di^acged witb much ability, strict ju$>» 
Uce» and humam^f. iTh^ situation, howfiyer, was reiiderefl 
hi some degree irlcsome .by the changes of political. nenti* 
tDeiit which had. tiv ken place wioog his constituents^ tb^ 
BMtnibers of the c<vrporaM^n« When he was chosen into 
this ofl^ce, the city 'was pvit 4>f huoiour yi^ith the court, and 
Mr; A^ur probably owed his election to. his being reput- 
edly of Wilkes^s p^trt^v, who was still the idol of the citj. 
A grea^ revolution, ht>weyer, tpok place, when the cQali^ 
tiodi-^administratton (th at of Iprd North apd Mr* Fo;^) was 
cwerthrown. Mr* Pitis and his friend^ and by cons^uepce 
tiie King, and court, l^ec»me highly popular in the aity, 
while. Mr. Adair retained his old opioions, took the pa^t of 
the dismissed ministers, and became a zealous assertc»r of 
tiie whig principles which were then divulged from a 
newly-erected club^^ called the Whig club. This could 
not pl€^ise his city friends ; akboiigh su^h was bis impar«> 
tiality and integrity, that no fault could be foppd with thgs 
nanaer in which he .discharged the diiti^s of his office* 
The CommoQ^cQuncil, however, requiring a closer attend* 
anee at their eomrts dban he thought requisite, or was per- 
haps cosisistent with bis uumeroiis prof|^$^onal engage^ 
iuents in the court ol* Comtoon piea^ he chose ti> resigp 
the vecordership in 1799 ; and upQu this Qccasioo received 
the thanks of the Couit of Aldermen, and the fireed^Mn ȣ 
^e jcity in a gold boi^ of one hundred guineas vplue^ for 
bis able and upright conduct m that o^^; aud he wjis 
ordered to be letaioed, with tbieaitt^niey. and solicitor- 
IpenerBl, in all causes in which the ciliy .was concerned.. 

In the parliament of HftO he sat as me^nber ftur Codsier- 
•mouth, but afterwards for Hi^fafrnft Jeirars^ He w^ olso 
<»ie of bis majesty's serjeaats at law;, and wi^ nipidly »d- 
Taaeing in bis profession, whea tbil revohatjjoaf^ry p^io<|- 
pies of France, making gfeat progr«3s$ iu this kf^gdoni, 
•larmed the minds of every weU^rwisher to, th^ cpinfl^ttt- 
tional monarchy. Mr* Adair, among lOthers of higb ^^4ftk 
<aod weight, now witMrew from sUi oofineotipi) with d|^ 
'Whigclub; but, not before he had jpetil^iusiyproii^Qted the 
aubscription which some ttoblemen aud gentl^pi^fi. set Qn 
foot to purchase an annuity for Mr. Foi:. Wh^n xkft ^x\i^% 
«f Hardy, Tooke, &.c. and ^ersaecus^d^high jtr^fmPy 
were instituted in 1794-5, Mr. Adair appeared as one of 
the counsel for the crown, and was a) lowed to haie ac« 

A' D A I R^ tfS 

fitted himself with great abilitjr. In t79B, w)»eii tb^ 
eosntry was menaced with threats of iRT^sion, volunteer 
^ffurs of service were made to governmem throughout the 
wbote kingdom, and I^^mdon and its environs raised a force 
ef about twelve thousand men, fully armed} equipped, and 
trained at their own expence* Mr. Adair, although hit 
age miglit have formed a sufficii^nt excuse, thought proper 
to join this patriot band ; and, it is tiiougfat, fell a sacrifice 
to the fatigues attending the discipline. The day his cofp$^ 
returned from shooting at a target near London, July 21^ 
1798, he was seized with a paralytic stroke, ^^le walkingr 
along Lincoln's-inn, and died in* a few hours. He was in« 
lierred on the 97ib in Bunhill-fields* burying«ground, near 
the ashes of bis father and mother* At his death, he was 
king'^ prime serjeant at law, M. P. for Higham Ferrars^ 
«nd chief justice of Chester. 

'Mr. Adair was not distinguished for luminous talents, 
hat was esteemed an able constitutional lawyer; his elo- 
quence was vigorous and icn^iressive, but his voice was liarsh, 
and manner uncourteous. He is said to have been the author 
H>f ^'Thoughts on the dismission of Officers^ civil and mi- 
htary, for their conduct in Parliament,'*' 1764, Svo; which 
^ we much doubt, as at that time he had hut just taken hb 
bachelor's degree, and was probably too young to interest 
•himse>f much in the contests of the times. On better au* 
tfaority, we find attributed to. him, *' Observations on tbe 
power of {^nation in the Crown before the first of queea 
'Anne, supported by precedents, and the opinions of many 
.learned judges ; together with some remarks on tbe con- 
duct of administration respecting the case of tbe duke of 
Pwtland,?' 17es, eve.* 

ADAIR (James Makfttrick), a physician; a native ef 

.Scotlaiidt, but many years settled at Bath, was afterwards 

'l^ysician to the commander in chief, and the colonial 

troops, of tbe island of Antigua, and subsequently of the 

Leeward islaods, and also -one of the judges of the court 

of King^s Bench and Common pleas iu Antigua. His abi- 

fittea aa a phyaietan have never been questioned, and his 

-^ivate character is said to have been in some respects 

amiable ; b^ut he possessed an irritability of temper, joined, 

'AS it generally is, with extraordinary self-conceit, which 

Mcaaioiied bia being constantly engaged in disputes^ and 

1 Gent. Msy. ^U UEVIU^^AliBaa^ Anecdotes, vol. 1. p. ^9, 

*84 A n A I R 

often, wiih "men, stich as Philip- Thickftesse, equally qne* 
grulous aud turbulent. Towards the end of his life, hU 
:wriungs partook much of his temper, and although read 
•with 3ome degree of pity, were soon tlirowu aside, Scwe 
faccQunt of one of his last quanrels may be seen in the de- 
;dication to the first volume ot Thicknesse's Memoirs. He 
-died at a very s^dvanced age, April 24, 1802, at Harrow* 
•g^te in Yorkshire. His first publications were on Regimen 
^^nd the Materia Medica, in vol. VHI and IX of Duncan^s 
Medical Commentaries : 2. ** Medical Cautiions for the con- 
;sideration of Invalids, those especially who resort to Bath," 
.8vo, 1786, an4 a much enlarged edition, 1787. 3. '-^ A 
-philosophical and medical sketch of the Natural History of 
;the Human Body and Mind," 8vo, 1787.. 4. " Uaanswer-* 
,able objections against the Abolition of the Slave-Trade," 
8vo, 1789. He was examined on this subject by the 
,privy- council ; but his objections have been long since 
.ftflly answered. 5. " Essays on Fashionable Diseases,^ 
.8vo, 178^. 6. "An essay on a Non-descript, or newly- 
invented Disease," 8vo, 1790. 7. " A candid inquiry 
jnto the truth of certain charges of the dangerous consie- 
quences of the Suttonian or Cooling regimen, und^r Iif- 
.oculation for the Small Pox," 8vo, 1790. 8. "Anecdotes 
.of the Life, Adventures, andVindication of a Medical 
.Character, metaphorically defunct, by Benjamin Goose- 
squill and Peter Paragraph," 8vo, 1790. This rambling 
.and incoherent production contains some particulars of 
..his life, but more of his quarrels with his contemporaries. 
S, " Two Sermons ; the first addressed to British seamen, 
th^ second to the British West India slaves," 8vo, 17.91. 
Most of these were published for the benefit of the Bath 
' hospital^ or the tinrminers of Cornwall. • 

ADALARD, or ADELARD, born about the year »53, 
was son of count Bernard^ grandson of Charles Martel, 
and cousin-german of Charlemagne. He had been in- 
vited to the court in his youth, but, fearing the infection 
. of such a mode of life, liad retired ; and, at the age of 20 
; years, became a monk of Corbie in Picardy, and was at 
, length chosen abbot of the monastery. His imperial rela* 
, tion, however, forced him again to attend the court, where 
he still preserved the dispositions of a recluse, and took 
. every opportunity, which business allowed, for private 

' Gent. If^S*"^^^^^^^ ^^ living authon> n99. 

A A L A R I]r. 12* 

prayer and meditatioii. After the death of (^harlemagtii^ 
be was, on unjust suspicions^ banished by Lewis the Meek; 
td a monastery on the coast of Acqmtaiue, in the isle of 
Here. After a banishment of five years, Lewis^ sensible 
of his own injustice, recalled Adalard, and heaped on him 
the highest honours. The monk was, however, the same 
man itr prosperity and in adversity, and in the year 823 
obtained leave to return to Corbie. Every week he ad^ 
dressed each of the monks in particular ; he exhorted 
them in pathetic discourses, and laboured for the spiritual 
good of the country around his monastery. His liberality 
seems to have bordered on excess ; and his humility in-> 
duced him to receive advice from the meanest monk; 
When desired to live less austerely, he would frequently 
say, <* I will take care of your servant, that he may be en-» 
abled to attend on you the longer." Another Adalaid^ 
who had governed the monastery during his banishment, 
by the direction of our Adalard, prepared the foundation 
of a distinct monastery, called New Corbie> near Pader- 
born, as a nursery for ecclesiastical labourers, .who 
should instruct the northern nations. Our Adalard now 
completed this scheme ; went himself to New Corbi^ 
twice, and settled its discipline. Tbe success of this 
truly charitable project was great: many learned and 
zealous missionaries were furnished from the new semi^ 
nary, and it became a light to the north of Europe, Ada- 
lard promoted learning in his monasteries, for . he was 
himself a man of great learning ; and instructed the people 
both in Latin and French : and after his second return 
from Germany to old Corbie, he died in the year 827; 
aged 73. - Such is the account given us of Adalard; 
a character, there is reason to believe, of eminent 
piety and usefulness in a dark age. To convert monas-^ 
teries into seminaries of pastoral education, was- a 
thought far above the taste (^ the age in which he 
lived, and tended to emancipate those superstitious in-^ 
ctitutions from the unprofitable and' illiberal bondage 
in which they had long subsisted. His principal work 
work was <^ A treatise on the French Monarchy ;" but 
fragments only of any of his works have come down to our 
thnes. Hincmar has incorporated the treatise on the 
'Frenph monarchy in his fourteenth Opusculum, ^^ for th^ 
instruction of king Carloman." The ancient statutes of 

MS ADA t A R D, 

ftf tiie tbbey of Corbie, by oar autbof, aafe in tb^ fovffth 
Tdliime of D^Achcry's Spicilegium. * 

ADALBERON (Abcelinus) was consecrated bisbop of 
Leon in the year 977. He was an ambitious pr^lat^ an4 
a servile courtier ; be bad ^be baseness to deliver up to 
Hugh Capet^ Arnoul, arcbbisbop of Rheims, and Cbarle^ 
duke of Lorrain, competitor of Hugh^ to wboin be had 
pveA an asylum in bis episcopal city. He died in 10S0« 
[e 'U dse author of a satirical poem in 430 bexametear 
verseS) dedicated to king Robert. Adrian Vaiois g^ve an 
edition of it in 1663^ in 8yo, at the end of the Panegyric 
on the emperor Berenger. But it i^ more correctly giveu 
in the lOth vol. of '< the Historians of France.'' AJthough 
the style is obscure and in a bad taste, it' contains many 
eniious faets'and anecdotes of the mannas of tiie age* 
In the library of the abbey of Laubes is a MS poem >. by 
Adalberon, on the Holy Trinity, which is likewise dedi*** 
eated to king Robert. * ^ 

ADALB£RON, arcbbisbop of Rbeims, and chancellor 
of France, under the reigns of Lotbaire and Louis V. wal; 
mte of the most learned French prelates of the tenth cen* 
tury. Havifig attained the archbisboprick: in the year 96 9^ 
be called aeveral councils for the establishment 'of 0oclei» 
tiastical discipline, which be enforced by his e%a.mfiemth 
much firmness of mind. He also induced men of lje9'niing 
to resort to RheimS, and gave a bi^ renown to the ^choola 
of that city. In the year 967, be consecrated HtlghjCa** 
pet, who continued him in his office of grand chancellor^ 
He died Jan< 5, 98 8» Several of his letters are iimon|^ 
those of Gerbert, afterwards pope Sylvester H. ; and tw# 
of his discourses are an Moissac^s Chronicle. Th^ ca- 
thedral of Rheims was indebted to him for the greater 
part of its sumptuous furniture. ' 

ADALBERT, a German divine^ of the tenth cen^Hiry^ 
arcUbishop of Mi^deburg, was educated in the monasierjp 
of St. Maximum of Treves, and promoted to the above aee i^ 
the year 968. Previous to that, in the year 961, be vtaa 
employed by the emperor Otho I., to preach the gospel 40 
&e people along the Baltic sea, and the Schivontanji : wilii 
tiie latter he had considerable success. « > ^ ^ 

ADALBERT, archbii^op of Prague, in the tenth •oetkt' 
tmyf was one of the first founders^ol the Christa^Mi n^i^0lk 

* Bi ogriphie Pniyergelie.»*Milner'g ehardt History, vol. HI. -p. 2M« 
f J^iographit Univertelie.~Moren. \ Ibid. « Pupio. 


ib Hungary. He also preached ^e gospel in IVmim^ 
and Lithuania, where he was murdered by Sego, a pag«ii> 
priest. His death was ts^XDf]j revenged by Bole»laiM| lung 
of Poland. ^ 

ADAM (Alexander)^ LL,D. an eminent schoolnMwtdc 
and useful writer in Scotland, was born June 1741^ M 
Coats, of Burgie, in the parish of Rafibrd, in the countjf 
gf Moray, ^is parents were poor^ but gave him sucb 
education as a parish school afforded; and s^ter having un^ 
Successfully endeavoured to procure au exhibition at fCinglf 
cdiege, Aberdeen^ he was encoaraged^ i^ 175S, to gOM 
the. univel'sity of Edinburgh^ where he surmount pecut 
niary diihculties with ^ a virtuous and honourable perse^ 
veifance, such as are rarely to be found ; and improyed his 
/Opportunities of knowledge with great assiduity and snor 
te9$. In 1761 he was elected schooliBaster to Watson^jp 
hospital^ an -establidiraent for the education of the ppof^ 
and continued to improve himself in classical knowledge 
by a Careful perusal of some of the best and most diffipuk 
authors. In 17^7, be was appointed assistant to the rector 
of the h^ school of Edinburgh^ and in 1771 successor t^ 
the same gentleman^ and fiU§d this - honourable staUom 

, during the remainder of his life, raising the reputation of 
ihe sebool much higher than it had been known for many 
yeai^t He would have perhaps raised it yet higher,. had 
ke not involve^ himself, not only with his ushers, but wiiti 
the patrons and trustees of the school, in a dispute xer 
specting the proper grammar to be taught 4 Dr. Ad^bn 
fM^eferring one of his own compiling to that of Ruddimai% 
idhidi bad long -been used in all the schools in Sccyihmd^ 
and %iras esteemed as near ^perfection as any work of the 
kiod that had ^yer been puUishod. . The ushers,. or undari- 
knaaters, wercunanimous in ]»etakiiog;ftuddimaa3k>gramm9Jb 
for whij^'th^y assiigned their reasons; and Dr. Adamwae 
wm moiute in teaching from his own. The consequence 
^waa» that ]?n Adam taught his class by oq0 gr$m>mar, an^ 
4)w four und^r-mastef s theirs hy anothen The inconv^ 

aoence of this mod^ v^as soon felt; and thi^ patrons of 
th^ school, who were the Magistrates of Edinburgh, after 

deferring ite question sit issrue so the principal of th« uni^ 
versity, the celebrated t>r. Robertson^ together with iht 
^fc^MOfsof the Greek and Latin laiiguaf|(es| issued an 

128 ADA m: 

erder in 1786, ditcctirig the rector and bthei* itiitet^A of 
the High School, to instruct their scholars by Ruddiman's 
Iludiments and Grammar, and prohibiting any other gram** 
sxiar of the Latin language from being made use of* Dn 
Adam, however, disregarded this and a subsequent order 
to the same purpose, and continued to tise his own rules^ 
in his daily practice with the pupils of his own class, and 
without being any furthejr interrupted *• The work which 
gave rise to this dispute was published in 1772, under the* 
title of "The Principles of Latin and English Grammar,"' 
and is undoubtedly a work of very considerable merit, and 
highly useful to those who are of opinion that Latin and 
English grammar should be taught at the same time* 

Soon after this dispute was apparently terminated, Dn 
Adam compiled " A Summary of Geography and History** 
tor the tise of his pupils, which he afterwards enlarged and 
published in 1794. In 1791, he published <^ Roman An- 
tiquities; or, an account of the manners and customs of the 
Bomans, 8vo. This useful work has been translated into 
German, French, and Italian, and has been very generally 
recomn>ended in preference to Dr. Kennet's work on. the 
shthe subject. In 1800 he published his *^ Classical Bio-* 
graphy,'* which was originally intended a» the appendix to 
a Latin dictionary on which he had been employed for some 
years ; btit the high price of paper, and the great expence 
of printing such works, discouraged him from carrying into 
effect his original design. He printed, however, in 1805^ 
an abridgenaent of his dictionary, under the title of *' Lex- 
icon Linguae Latinas compendiarium," 8vo. All these 
works have attained a high degree of popularity, and are 
tised in the principal schools o.t this kingdom. Dr. Adam 
died Dec, 18, 1809, of an apoplexy, in the 69th year of 
his age, universally x'egretted as an able and successful 
teacher, a man of high rank in. classical literature,: and ia 
private life benevolent and amiable. At one period of 
his life, when the French revolution distracted the political 
opinions of his country, he incurred some degree of cen- 
sure for hating inti^oduced matters of a political kind into 

* Hia biographer itoforms us that be use. There are a few questions which I 
took (he following curious method of wish io propose, and if you can answer 
reeommeBding bis gnimmar. When them, I am content j but if yon. caw- 
be wished bis pupils to use it, he used not, I must refer ^ou to my gratnmar, 
to say, *< this is a prohibited book, for the means of enabling you to gite 
and I do not wish, nor have I erer been me a rep}y»" * 
under the necessity, to force it into 

ADAM. 129 

• • 

fis school. For this no apology can be valid ; but it ap- 
pears that he became afterwards more cautious: and at the 
period of his death, his character was so universally es- 
teemed, that his remains were honoured with a public fu- 
neral. * 


ADAM OF Bremen, so called because he was a canon 
of that church. He was born, according to some writers, 
at Misnia in the eleventh century ; he devoted himself 
early to the church, and in 1067, was made a canon by 
Adelbert, archbishop of Bremen, and at the same time 
placed at the head of the school of that city, a situation 
equally important and honourable at a time when schools 
were the only estabfishments for public instruction. Adam 
employed his whole life in the functions of his oflSce, in 
propagating religion, and in compiling his.history, ** His- 
toria ecclesiastica ecclesiarum Hamburgeiisis et Bremensis 
viicinorumqne locorum septentrionalium, ab anno 788 ad 
knnum 1072,*' Copenhagen, 1579, 4to ; Leyden, 1595^ 
4to; Helmstadt, 1670, 4to : the latter, edited by John 
Mader, is the best edition. This work contains the most 
accurate account we have of the establishment of Chris- 
tianity in the north of Europe. As Bremen was the centre 
of the missions for this purpose, in which Adam was him- 
self engaged, and had travelled over the countries visited 
by Anscharius about 200 years before, he had the farther 
advantage of making valuable collections from the archives 
of the archbishoprick, the library of his convent, and the 
conversations he held with the missionaries. He lived in 
an age when the dignified clergy wer^ not inattentive to 
temporal affairs, and yet acquitted himself with much im- 
partiality in writing the history of his patron Adelbert, a 
man of intrigue and ambition. He made a tour in Den- 
mark, where he was favourably received by the reigning, 
sovereign ; and on his return wrote a geographical treatise, 
which was published at Stockholm, under the title of 
*' Chronographia Scandinaviae," 1615, 8vo, and afterwards 
at Leyden, with the title " De situ Daniae et reliquarum 
trans Daniam regionum natura," 1629. This short work 
is added to Mader's edition of his history, and although 
not without a portion of the fabulous, is curious as the first 
attempt to describe the North of £urope, particularly Jut- 

I Account of the Life of Dr. Adam, Svo, 1810.— Cbalners's Lift of Ruddi- 
man, p. 91.^— British Cntic, toL 36, p. 542 ; 37, p. 95, 

Vot. I. K 

130 ADAM. 

land, and^ome of the islands in the Baltic. We also owe 
to Adam ^Bremen the first accounts of the interior of 
Sweden, and of Russia, the name of which only was then 
known in Christian Europe. He even speaks of the island 
of Great Britain, but chiefly from the accounts of Solinus 
and Martian us Capella, as his visits did not extend so far. 
This description of the North has been preserved by Lin- 
denbrog in his " Scriptores rerum Germ, septentrional." 
Hamburgb, 1706; and Muray, one of the most distinguished 
professors of Gottingen, has enriched it with a learned 
commentary. The time of our author's death is not 
known. * 

ADAM (James), a French translator of some note, was 
born at Vendome in 1663, and after finishing his studies, 
entered into the service of the prince of Conti, who ap- 
pointed him to be his secretary. He was elected into 
the French academy in 1723, in room of the abb6 Fleury. 
He translated part of De Thou'^s history, which has Lon- 
don on the title, but was printed at Paris, 1734, 16 vols. 
4to. This he undertook with Charles Le Beau, the abbes 
Mascrier, Le Due, Fontaines, Prevost, and father Fabre* 
He translated also the memoirs of Montecuculli, Amster- 
dam, 1734, I2mo; an account of the cardinal Tournon; 
Atheneus; and other works. He died Nov. 12, 1735." 

ADAM (Lambert-Sigisbeut), an eminent French sculp- 
tor, was born at Nancy, Feb. 10, 1700. He was the son 
of Jacob-Sigisbert Adam, also a sculptor of considerable 
note. At the age of eighteen, he came to Metz ; but a desire^ 
to extend his reputation made him repair to Paris, where 
he arrived in 1719. After exercising his profession abou^ 
four years, he obtained the first prize, and then went to 
Rome, with a royal pension, where he remained ten years. 
While here, he was employed by the cardinal de Polignac 
in restoring the twelve marble statues known as the " familj^ 
of Lycomedes," which had been discovered among the 
ruins' of the villa of Marius, about two leagues from Rome^ 
and acquitted himself with great success in a branch of the 
art which is seldom rewarded or honoured in proportion to 
its difficulties. He afterwards restored several antique 
sculptures, of which the king of Prussia had got possession, 
aiid which he conveyed to Berlin. When an intention was 

' ' Biographie Unirerselle.-— Moreri.-.-*Voss. II. de Hist. Lart-^Gave Hist. 
EgcI. vol. II. — Fab. Bibl. Latt Med* Tol. I.— Saj^ii Onomasticoa. 
« Diet Hut. 1810. 

ADAM. 131 

formed of erecting that vast monument at Rome known by 
the name of the " Fountain of Trevi,'* he was one of the 
sixteen sculptors who gave in designs ; but, although bis waft 
adopted by pope Clement XII. the jealousy of the Italia 
artists prevented bis executing it. At this time, however, 
advantageous oifiers were made by his own country, to 
which be returned, after being chosen a member of the 
academies of St. Luke, and of Bologna. His first work, 
afte^ his return to France, was the groupe of the " Seine 
et Marne'* for the cascade at St. Cloud. He was then em* 
ployed at Choisi; and, in May 1737, was elected a mem*- 
ber of. the French academy, and professor. The piece he 
exhibited on his admission was ** Neptune calming the 
waves,'* with a Triton at his feet ; and not " Prometheus 
chaiped to the rock," as some biographers have asserted, 
which was the production of his brother Nicholas. He 
then executed the groupe of " Neptune and Amphitrite'* 
for the bason at Versailles, on which he was employed five 
years, and was rewarded, besides the stipulated price, 
with a pension of 500 livres. One of his best works was 
the-figure of " St. Jerome," now at St. Roch. His other 
works are, a groupe of five figures and of five animals, 
at Versailles, in bronze ; the bas-relief of the chapel of 
St. Elizabeth, in bronze ; two groupes in bronze of 
hunting and fishing at Berlin ; •* Mars caressed by Love,'^ 
at Bellevue ; and a statue representing the enthusiasm of 
poetry. In all thei^e there are undoubted proofs of ge- 
nius, but proofs likewise of the bad taste in sculpture 
which prevailed in his time, and induced him, after the 
^^example of Bernini and others, to attenxpt efforts which 
can only be successfulin painting. In 1754, he published 
*' Becueil de Sculptures antiques Grecques et Romaines,'' 
fol. for which he made the designs. Most of these he bad 
purchased from the heirs of cardinal de Polignac. He di«d 
of an apoplexy. May 15, 1759.* 

ADAM (Nicholas-Sebastian), brother of the pre- 
ceding, and likewise an eminent artist, was born at Nancy, 
March 22, 1705. He studied under his father at Paris, and 
in 1726 went to Rome.^ Two years after he gained one of 
the prizes of the academy of St. Luke. At this time his 
brother, the subject of the preceding article, and Francis^ 
a younger brother, were at Rome, and assisted each other 

f Argtmraif Vi«i 4% fiiiii. Scu^t— -Biographie Vni^enelle, 

K 2 

132 ADA M- 

in their labours. After a residence of nine years, ' he re* 
turned to Paris, and wi^fa some opposition - was admitted 
ixjto the academy, where he exhibited his model of " Pro* 
xnetheusy" but did not ei^ecute it until long after. Nexfc 
* year be executed the " martyrdom of St. Victoria," a bas* 
relief in bronze, for the royal chapel at Versailles. For 
l»ome time he assisted his brother in *< the Neptune ;'* but, 
^ disagreement occurring, quitted this, and employed 
himself at the hotel Soubise, the chamber of accounts, and 
thp abbey of St. Dennis. He was a candidate for the 
mausoleum of the cardinal de Fleury, and the public ad- 
judged him the prize ; but Lemoyne was employed. The 
tomb of the queen of Poland, wife of Stanislaus, is esteemed 
one of bis best works. His Prometheus was finished ia 
1763, and' the king of Prussia offered him 30,000 franks 
for it ; but Adam said it was executed for his master, and 
no longer his own property. He died March 27, 1778, in 
his 75th year. His merits as a sculptor b^ve been thought 
iequal to those of his brother. It is said to have been his 
constant prayer that he might be -neither the first nor the 
last in his a^t, but attain an honourable middle rank, as 
the surest way to avoid jealousy on the one hand, or con- 
tempt on the other; and his last biographer thinks his 
prayer was heard. The younger brother, Francis- Gaspard, 
exercised his profession as a sculptor for some years with 
considerable reputation, and obtained a prize from the 
French academy, but no important works of his are nien<- 
tioned ; he died at Paris in 1759. ' 

ADAM DE Marisco. See MARI8CO. 

ADAM (Mblchior), a very useful biographer, lived 
in the 17th century. He was. born in the territory of Grot»- 
kaw in Silesia, and educated in the college of Br^eg, 
where the dukes of that name, to the utmost of their power, 
encouraged learning and the reformed religion as professed 
by Cialvin. Here he became a' firm Protestant, and was 
enabled to pursue his studies by the liberality of a person 
of quality, who had left several exhibitions for young stu- 
dents. He was appointed rector of a college at Heidel- 
bierg, where he published his first volume of Illustrious 
Men in the year 1615. This yolumey which consists of 
philosophers, poets, writers on polite literature, hi^toarians, 
(Sec. was followed by three others; that which treats' ef 

1 Biofctiplufi UoivenitlH lAlL^AfSCnsOUe. ^ 

A I> A M. 13S 

divmes was printed in 1 6 1 9> ; that of the lawyers came next ; 
aiid finally, that of the physicians : the two last were pubr- 
lished in 1 620. All the learned meRy whose lives are con* 
tained in these four volumes, lived in the 16th, ot beginning 
of the i7th*century, and are either Germans or Flemings ; 
but he published, in 1618, the lives of twenty diviiles ot 
other countries, in a separate volume. All his divints are 
Protestants. He has given but a few lives, yet the work 
cost bim a great deal of time, having been obliged to 
abridge the pieces from whence he had materials, whether 
they were lives, funeral sermons, eulogies, preface, or me-' 
moirs of families. He omitted several persons who dc;- 
served a plaee in his work, as well as those be had taken! 
notice of; which he accounts for, from the want of proper 
materials and authorities. The Lutherans were not pleased 
with him, for they thought him {^rtial; nor will they allow 
his work to be a proper standard whereby to judge of the 
learning of Germany. His biographical collections weref 
last published in one vol. fol. at Francfort, under the title, 
^* Dignorum laude Virorum, quos Musa vetat mori,.immor- 
talitas.'' His other works were, 1. " Apographum Monu- 
mentorum Heidelbergensium,'' Heidelberg, 1612, 4to. 2. 
*^ ParodiiB et Metaphrases Horatianse,'' Francfort, 1616, 
8vo. 3. " Notse in Orationem Julii Csesaris Scaligeri pro 
M. T. Cicerone contra Ciceronianum Erasmi,'' 1618; and 
he reprinted Srasmus's dialogue '* De optimo genere di* 
cendi," 1617. The Oxford catalogue erroneously ascribes 
to him the history of the churches of Hamburgh and Bre* 
men, which, we have just seen, was the work of Adam d^ 
Bremen. His biographical works are, however, ^ose which 
have preserved his name, and have been of great import* 
ance to all subsequent collections. He died in 1622.' 
-' ADAM (NicuLAS)^ a' French grammarian, born at Parisj 
in 1716, was the pupil of Loiiis Le Beuu, and many years 
professor of rhetoric in the college of Lisieux. The duke 
de Choiseul, who had a friendship for him, sent him to Ve* 
nice as charge d'afiaires to that republic, where he resided 
twelve years. On his return to France, he published his 
various elementary treatises, which have been much ap«- 
proved by teachers. 1. ^' La vraie maniere d^apprendre 
une Langue quelconque, vivante ou morte, par le moyen de 
la langue Frangaise,'* 1787, 5 vols. 8vo, and often reprinted. 

I Gen. Did.— Moreri.— Saxii OnomasticoD. 

134 ADAM. 

This work iucludes a French, Latin, Italian, Eneli&h, and 
German graoimar. 2. ^\ Les quatre chapitres, de la Rai«- 
son, de PAmour de soi, de 1' Amour du prochain, de la Vertu,^* 
17j80. Besides these, he published literal translations of 
Horace, 1787^ 2 vols. 8vo. Phcedrus, and Dr. Johnson^s 
Basselas. He died in Paris, 1792, leaving behind hint the 
character of a man of talents, an able linguist, and of ami- 
able manners.' 

ADAM (Robert), an eminent architect, wais bofn iu 
1728, at the\own of Kirkaldy, in Fifeshire, Scodand. He. 
was the second son of William Adam, esq. of Marybmrghy 
an architect of distinguished merit. He received his edu<* 
cation at the university of Edinburgh. The friendshipa 
which he formed in that seat of learning were with men of 
high literary fame, among whom were ' Mr. Hume,- Dr. 
Bobertson, Dr. Adam Smith, and Dr. Ferguson. As he 
^.dvanced in life, he had the happiness to enjoy the friend- 
ship and intimacy of Archibald duke of Argyle, Mr. Charlea 
Townsend, and the celebrated earl of Mansfield. To per- 
fect his taste in the science to which he had devoted him- 
self, he went to Italy, and th^re studied, for some titee, the 
inagnificent remains of antiquity which still adorn that 
countr}'. He was of opinion, that the buildings of the an- 
cients are, in architecture, what the works of nature are 
with respect to the other arts; serving as models for our 
imitation, and standards of oar judgment. Scarce any 
monuments, however, of Grecian or Roman architecture 
now remain, except public buildings. The private edifices, 
however splendid and elegant, in which the citizens of 
Athens and Rome resided, have all perished : few vestiges 
remaining, even of thpse innumerable villas with which 
Italy was qrowded, although, in erecting them, the Romans 
lavished the spoils and riches of the world. Mr« Adam, 
.therefore, considered the destruction of these buildings with 
particular regret; some incidental allusions in the ancient 
poets, and occasional descriptions in their bistoiiansi con- 
veying ideas of their magnificence, which astonish the art^ 
ists of the present age. He conceived his knowledge of 
architecture to hp imperfect, unless he should be able to 
add the observation of a private edifice of the ancients to 
his study of their public works. He therefore formed the 
fchenie of visiting the ruins of the emperor Dioclesif^i\-|| 

I BiograpUe UniTerselle* — Dict» Hiit, 

ADAM. 135 

palace, at Spalatfo, in Venetian Dalmatla. To that end, 
having prevailed on M. Clerisseau, a French artist, to ac- 
company him, and engaged two draughtsmen to assist him 
in the execution of his design, he sailed from Venice, in 
June 1757, on his intended expedition, and, in five weeks, 
he accomplished his object with much satisfaction. 

In 1762, he was appointed architect to their majesties. 
In 1764, he published the result of his researches at Spa- 
latro, in one volume large folio : it was entitled, ^* Ruins of 
the Palace of the Emperor Dioclesian, at Spalatro, in Dal- 
matia." It is enriched -with seventy-one plates, executed 
in the most masterly manner. He had at this time been 
elected a member of the Royal and Antiquary Societies. 
In 1768, he resigned his office of archijtect to th<2^r majes- 
ties, it being incompatible with a seat in parliament, and 
he being this year elected representative fpr the county of 
Kinross. By this time, in cQnjunction with his brother 
James Adam, he had been much employed by the nobility 
and gentry, both in constructing many noble modem edi- 
fices, and in embellishing ancient mansions: and, in J 773, 
they first began to publish " The Works in Architecture 
of R. and J. Adam," in numbers, four of* whigh appeared 
before 1776, and contain descriptions of Sion House, 
Wood, Luton Park House, and some edifices at Whitehall, 
Edinburgh, &c. That noble improvement of the metro- 
polis, the Adtiphiy will long remain an honour to the bro^ 
thers; but, as a speculation, it was not so fortunate. In 
1774, however, they obtained an act of Parliament to dis- 
pose of the houses by way of lottery. 

The many other elegant buildings, public and private, 
erected in various parts of the kingdom by this ingenious 
architect, display a great variety of original designs. To 
the last moment of his life, he evinced an increasing vigour 
of genius, and refinement of taste: for in the space of one 
year preceding his death, he designed eight great public 
works, besides twenty-five private buildings, so various in 
their style, and so beautiful in their composition, that they 
have been allowed by the best judges, sufficient of them- 
selves to establish his fame as an architect. His talents, 
too, extended beyond the line of his own profession; and. 
in his numerous drawings in landscape, we observe a luxu- 
riance of composition, and an effect of light and shadow, 
«. which have scarce ever been equalled. 

His death, which hajppened a^ his house w Albemarle^ 

136 ADAM, 

street, London, March 3, 1792, was occasioned by the 
bursting of a blood-vessel in his stomach. His remains 
were interred, on the 10th of the same month, in the south 
aile of Westminster Abbey. 

His brother James died Oct. 20, 1794, also very eminent 
as an architect, of which that magnificent range of build- 
ings called Portland-place, afford an undeniable proof. — 
Mo;^t of his other works were executed in conjunction with 
his brother. * 

ADAM SCOTUS, a famous Sorbonnic doctor, flourished 
in the 12th century. This author, who is well known as a^ 
monkish writer, and a voluminous author of biography, was 
born in Scotland, and educated in the monastery of Lindis* 
feme, now called Holy Island, a few miles south 6f Berwick 
on Tweed, at that time one of the most famous seminariesr 
of learning in the north of England. He went afterwards 
to Paris, where he settled several years, and taught school 
divinity, in the Sorbonne. In his latter years he returned 
to his native country, and became a monk in the abbey of- 
Melrose, and afterwards in that of Durham, where he wrote 
the life of St. Columbanus, and the lives of some other 
monks of the 6th century. He likewise wrote the life of 
David I' king of Scotland, who died 1153. He died in 1 1 95. 
His works were printed at Antwerp in foL 1659»* 

ADAMANTIUS, a Greek physician and sophist of the: 
fifth century, was originally a Jew, and lived at Alexandria. 
He then went to Constantinople, and became a Christian. 
He dedicated to the emperor Constantine a work in two 
books on Physiognomy, which has descended to our days, 
and has often been reprinted, particularly in Sylburgius's 
edition of Aristotle, and among the ^^ Physiognomoniae 
veteres, Gr. Lat. cura J. G. Franzii," Altenburgh, 1780, 
8vo, a work of great accuracy.' 

ADAMANUS, or ADAMNANUS, abbot of the mo- 
nastery of Hey, or Icolmkil, was born in 624, but whether 
in Scotland or Ireland is uncertain. He appears to have 
been a man of considerable learning, and, according to 
Bede, of a peaceable disposition; yet he enforced the dis- 
cipline of the church with much severity, and partook of 
the credulity of the times. He died Oct. 23, 704, in the 
eightieth year of his age. Having hospitably entertained 

' Gent. Mag. 1792, &c. « Cave.— Tanner. 

> £iographie Univcrselle.— Fabr. Bibl. Gr. . 

A D A M A N U S. 137 

t French binliop, the latter, who had been in Palestine^ 
communicated such particulars to him, as enabled him to 
write a description of that country, " De locis Terrae 
SanctaB, lib. tres," This was j&rst published by Serrarius, 
at IngoMstadt, 1619, and afterwards by Mabillon, ^< Ssbc« 
Benedict.'* . He wrote also a life of St. Columba, pubr 
Ushed by Canisius and Surius.^ 

ADAMI (LiONAROo), an ingenious classical scholar, 
was born Aug. 12, 161^0, at Bolsema in Tuscany. When 
an infant, he was sent to Rome, to his uncle the abb6 An- 
drea Adami, an excellent musician, in the service of car- 
dinal Ottoboni. At eleven years of age, he was placed by 
the cardinal in a school at Rome, where he made surpris- 
ing progress in his studies ; but, having taken an active 
part in some disturbances in that school, he fled to Leg- 
horn to escape punishment, and went on board a French 
privateer. Having experienced n umerous vicissitudes in this^ 
service, he became tired of a wandering life, and, after an 
absence of twenty-six months, was forgiven and received 
by his uncle. He now resumed his studies, applied to the 
Hebrew, Arabic^ and Syriac, but particularly the Greek, 
of which he acquired a critical knowledge. Such was his 
reputation, that cardinal Imperiali made him his librarian 
in 1717; but he did not enjoy the situation long, as he 
died of a pulmonary complaint, brought on by incessant 
study, Jan. 9, 1719. His principal work, " Arcadicorum,*' 
vol.1, was published at Rome, 1716, 4<to, dedicated ^to 
cardinal Ottoboni, who defrayed the whole expence. This 
work contains, in four books, the history of Arcadia, from 
the earliest times to the reign of Aristocrates, the last 
king; and is replete, with valuable quotations from ancient 
authors, and « learned digressions; which occasioned his 
friend Facciolati to say, that it was like a city in which there 
were more foreigners than natives. His untimely death 
prevented the conti;iuation of it. Among his manuscripts, 
which he bequeathed to cardinal Imperiali, were a history 
of Peloponnesus : the works of Libanius, with many ad^ 
ditiont^; a collection of inscriptions, for the most part un- 
published, &c.' 

ADAMS (FiTZHERBERT), D. D. a man of learning, and 
benefactor to the university of Oxford, was born in 1651, 

' Mackenzie's Scotch writers, vol. I. p. 338. — Cave Hist. — Waraeos de Script, 
Hibern. — Nicoison's Scotch Historical Library. — But principally Taimer* 
' Biograpbie Umverseile.— -^axii Ouoaiasticou, 

138 ADAMS. 

arid educated at Lincoln College, where he took his mas- 
ter's degree, June 4, 1675; that of bachelor of divinity, 
Jan. 23; and doctor of divinity, July 3, 1685. He was 
inducted to the rectory of Waddington, Sept. 29, 1683 j 
and elected rector of Lincoln College, May 2, 1685. The 
same year he was installed a prebendary of the sixth stall, 
Durham, was removed to the tenth in 1695, and from- 
that to the eleventh, in 1711. He served the ofBce of 
vice-chancellor in 1695, and died June 17, 1719. As rec- 
tor of Lincoln, he held the living of Twiford; and hsiving' 
received 'of. i 500 for renewing the lease, he laid out the 
whole in beautifying the chapel of his college, and the 
rector's lodgings. He bequeathed his library also to the 
college, and was a benefactor to All Saints cTiurch, Ox- 
ford, where he lies buried, contributing ^.200 to purchase 
a parsonage house. He deserves yet more praise for his 
activity in promoting discipline and learning during the 
long time he presided over Lincoln College, and for the 
excellence of his life, and the urbanity of his manners.* 

ADAMS (John), D. D. Provost of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, was born in London, and educated at Cambridge, 
where he was admitted of King's College in 1678 ; took 
ilie degree of A. B. 1^682, and A. M. 1 686. He afterwards 
travelled into Spain, Italy, France, and Ireland; and in 
1687 was presented by the lord chancellor Jeffries to the 
living of Hickam in Leicestershire. In London, he was 
lecturer of St. Clement's; rector of St. Alban's Wood- 
street, in the gift of Eton College; and Rtector of St. Bar- 
tholomew, presented by Lord Harcourt, the chancellor. He 
was also a prebendary of Canterbury, chaplain in ordinary 
to Queen Anne, and in 1708, canon of Windsor. In 1711 
he was presented to the living of Hornsey, by Gompton^ 
bishop of London ; and in the following year elected pro- 
vost of King's College, which he held until his death in 
1719. He was considered as an eloquent preacher, and 
often employed on public occasions, Fifteen of his ser- 
mons were printed from 1695 to 1712.^ 

ADAMS (John), fate president of the United States of 
America, and a politicrl writer of considerable reputation, 
was descended from one of the families who founded the 
colony of Massachusets, and was born at Braintree, in that 
colony^ Oct 1 9, 1 7 35. Before the revolution which separated 

* Wood*8 Colleg^es and Halls. — Athens. — Hutchinson's Durham, vol. U.p. 139. 

* Aluoini' £toaenses, p. 48.— Cooke's Preacher's Assistant* 

ADAMS* 139 

America from Great Britain, be had acquired much repu« 
tation in tiie profession of the law ; and on the eve of that 
event, he publisiied ^^ An essay on canon and feudal Law.** 
He afterwards employed his pen in the American papers, 
and contributed essentially to widen the breach between 
the mother country and her colonies. He was still, how* 
ever, a friend to loyal measures; and when captain Preston 
was tried for his life,, for ordering the soldiers to fire upon 
a mob, pleaded his cause with spirit and eloquence, and 
Preston was acquitted. This in some measure injured Mr. 
Adams's character with the more violent party, but had so 
little effect on the more judicious, that he was elected a 
member of Congress in 1774, and re-elected in 1775. He 
was one of the first to perceive that a cordial reconciliation 
with Great Britain was impossible ; and was therefore one 
. of the chief promoters of the resolution, passed July 4, 1 7 76, 
declaring the American States free, sovereign, and tnde-^ 
pendent. When, in the course of the war, the States en- 
tertained hopes of assistance from the courts of Europe, 
Mr. Adams was sent, with Dr. Franklin, to that of Ver- 
sailles, to negociate a treaty of alliance and commerce^ 
On their return, he assisted in forming a constitution for 
the state of Massachusets. He was then employed by 
America as her plenipotentiary to the States General of 
Holland; and contributed not a little to bring on the war 
between those States and Great Britain. He afterwards 
went to Paris, and assisted in concluding the general peace« 
His temperate advice, on this occasion, respecting the loy- 
alists^ again alarmed the republican party, who began to 
consider him as a partizan of England. He was the first 
ambassador America sent to this country, where, with true 
republican simplicity, and in a manner suitable to the em- 
barrassed finances of his: country, he resided in the first 
floor of a bookseller in Piccadilly, and afterwards as a 
lodger in the same street 

Although America had obtained independence, she still 
required a form of government or constitution adapted tp 
her rank among other nations, and calculated to concen- 
trate the powers of sovereignty. Mr. Adams was among the 
first who proposed the present form, and was seconded by 
Washington, Hamilton, and others, who were termed fede- 
ralists; and the change took place in 1787. Washington 
was elected president, and Mr. Adams vice-president, 
^ut i^e party in opposition to this measure were not 

1c40 A DA M a 

silenced ; and when the French revolution took place, tfaey 
in general were found to attach themselves to the interests 
of France, in opposition to those of Great Britain. Mr. 
Adams, however, pursued his even course, and vindicated 
his principles and theory in an able publication, entitled^ 
** A defence of the Constitution of Government of the 
United States of America," 1787 — 88, 3 vols. 8vo^ whicb 
he afterwards republished under the title of " History of 
the principal Republics," 3 vols. 8vo, 1794. The leading 
idea which runs through this work is, that, a mixture of the 
three powers, the regal, the aristocraticaU and the demo* 
cratical, properly balanced, composes the most perfect 
form of government, and secures the greatest degree <^ 
kappiness to the greatest number of individuals. 

When Mr. Washington was a second time chosen presi-* 
dent, Mr. Adams was again chosen vice-president; and 
when the former intimated his intention to retire, Mr. 
Adams was elected his successor, in preference to Mr. Jef- 
ferson, who was the idol of the republican or anti-federalist 
party. At the concluMon of his term of president, Mr. 
Adams, now advanced in years, retired from public affairs^ 
and died at New York Oct. 2, 1803, aged 68, if our date 
of his birth be correct, but most of the journals fixed bis 
age at 82. His vigour and independence of mind, firmnesa 
and moderation, have placed him in the first rank of Ame- 
rican statesmen; and his death was justly considered aa a 
public loss.' 

ADAMS (Richard), M. A. an English Non-conformist^ 
of a Cheshire family, was originally educated at Cam-* 
bridge, where he was admitted M. A. in 1 644. He after*^ 
wards went to Oxford, then in the power of the Parliament 
army, and was admitted a student at Brasen-nose college 
ii) 1646, when about 20 years of age ; and soon after ob- 
tained a fellowship. In 1655, he left his fellowship, and 
was presented to the living of St. Mildred's, Bread-street, 
London, where he continued until he was ejected for non^ 
conformity, in 1662. He afterwards preached, as he had 
opportunity, to a small congregation in Southwark, aad 
died in 1684, at Hoxton. Hi& only original work^ are^ 
some Sermou&in the collection called the Morning Exer**- 
cise at Cripplegate, and a Sermon at the funeral of Henry 
Hurst; but he assisted in the publication of some of hia 

* Variotts public jounials^and a sketch ia Morse's Aooberican Geograpby*. 

' 4 

AD AU 9. I4i 

inroth^r'sy Mr. T. Ad^uns, works, aad those of Mr. Char* 
nock; and he compiled the commentary on Philippians 
and Colossiaos in Poolers bible. He appears to have been 
an able scholar, a pious and indefatigable preacher, and a 
man of moderate sentiments in public affairs.^ There was 
another of both his names ejected from the living of 
Humberstone, in Leicestershire, afterwards an Anabaptist 
teacher in London.* 

ADAMS (Thomas), brother to the above, became also 
a student of Brasen-nose college, Oxford, in July 1649, 
and was made fellow in June 1652. He performed all 
his college exercises with approbation, and was much 
esteemed for his learning, piety, diligence, and good-hu- 
mour, and very much employed as a tutor. He was ejected 
in 1662 from the university, and resided for a considerable 
time in the family of sir Samuel Jones, and afterwards was 
chaplain to the countess dowager of Clare. He wrote a 
few practical tracts on the ^^ Principles of Religion,'* and 
one on the controversy between the Church and the Dis- 
senters^ He died Dec. 11, J 670.* 

ADAMS {Sir Thomas), citizen and lord mayor of Lon- 
don, was a man highly esteemed for his prudence and 
piety, his loyalty and suf&rings, and his acts of munificence : 
he was born in 1586, at Wem, in Shropshire, educated in 
ihe university of Cambridge, and (Fuller says) bred a dra- 
per in London. In 1609, he was chosen sheriff, when he 
gave a. striking proof of his public spirit, by immediately 
giving up his business, and applying himself wholly to 
public affairs. He made himself complete master of the 
customs and usages, rights and privileges of the city of 
London, and succeeded to every honour his fellow-citizens 
had in their power to bestow. He was chosen master of the 
ckapers' company, alderman, and president of St. Thomas's 
hospital, which institution he probably saved from ruin, by 
discovering the frauds bf a dishonest steward. He was often 
returned member of parliament; but the violent politics of 
the times would not permit him to sit there. In 1645 he 
was elected lord mayor of London^ in which office be gave 
a shining example of disinterestedness, by declining the adv 
vantages usually made by the sale of places which become 
vacant. His loyalty to Charles I. was so well knowhj that 

' Cmlam^.-^Wood'i Ath. Ox.-^Fiuteral Sermoii by Howe. — Crosby's Hist, of 
Baptists, vol. III. p. S7. — Nichols's Leicestershire, Yol. III. p^ ^^15, 
s Wood's Fasti, vol. II.«— Calamy. 

142 ADAMS. 

his house was searched by the republican party, to find the 
king there ; and he was the next year committed to the 
Tower by the same party, and detained there some time. 
However, at ^ength he became the oldest alderman upon 
the bench, and was consequently dignified with the honour- 
able title of father of the city. His affection for his prince 
was so great, that during the exile of Charles II. he remitted 
him 10,000/. ' 

When the restoration of the king was agreed on, Mr. 
Adams, then 74 years of age, was deputed by the city to 
accompany General Monk to Breda in Holland, to congra- 
tulate and accompany the king home. For his signal ser- 
vices the king knighted him at the Hague ; and soon after 
the restoration advanced him to the dignity of a baronet, on 
the 13 th of June, 1661. 

His merit, as a benefactor to the public, is highly con- 
spicuous : he gave the house of his nativity, at Wem, as a . 
free-school to the town, and liberally endowed it ; he founded 
an Arabic professorship at Cambridge ; both which took 
place before his death; By desire of his friend, Mr. 
Wheelock, fellow of Clare-hall^ he was at the expence of 
printing the gospels in Persian, and sending them into the 
east. He was equally benevolent in private as in public 
life ; and, although he suffered great losses in his estate, he 
gave liberally in legacies to the poor of many parishes, to 
hospitals,. and ministers' widows. He was particularly dis- 
tinguished for his Christian patience and fortitude in ad- 

In his latter years he was much afHicted with the stone^ 
which hastened his end.; he died Feb. 24, 1667, at 81 years 
of age. The stone was taken from the body, and was of 
such extraordinary magnitude . as to weigh 25 ounces, and 
is preserved in the laboratory at Cambridge. He felt no 
reluctance at ^ the approach of his dissolution, and seemed 
perfectly prepared for death, often saying '^ Solum mihi 
mperest sepukhrumy'* — All my business is to fit me for the 
grave. His funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Hardy, at , 
St« Catharine Cree Church, before his children and. many 
of his relations. His descendants enjoyed the title down to 
the late sir Thomas Adams^ who. died a captain in the toyal 


1 Bios. Britamuca.-«FuUcff't Wdrthit8.-*>Wilford's MenotitiU.— Pe(dc*s De* 

ADAMS. 143 

ADAMS (William), D. D. master of Pembroke College, 
Oxford, was born at Shrewsbury in 1707, of a Shropshire 
family, and at the early age of thirteen was entered of Pem- 
broke college, where he took his master's degree, April 18^ 
1727, and obtained a fellowship. It has generally been re- 
ported, that he was afterwards tutor to the celebrated Dr. 
Samuel Johnson; but Dr* Adams very handsomely contra- 
dicted this report) by saying, that had Johnson returned to 
College after Jordan's (his tutor's) death, he might have 
been his tutor: ^^ I was his nominal tutor, but he was above 
my mark." A friendship, however, commenced between 
them, which lasted during the life of Dr. Johnson, to whose 
memory Dr. Adams did ample justice. 

In 1732, he was presented to the curacy, or, as usually^ 
called, the vicarage of St. Chad's in Shrewsbury, and on 
this occasion quitted the college. In 1756 he visiled Ox- 
ford, and took his degrees of.B. D. and D. D. and then 
went back to Shrewsbury, where he discharged the duties 
of his ministry with exemplary assiduity, patience, and af- 
fection ; and contributed a very active part in the foundation 
of the Salop infirmary, and in promoting its success. The 
year before he went last to Oxford, he was presented to the 
rectpry of Counde in Shropshire, by Mrs. Elizabeth Cressett 
of that place, and. retained it during his life. In 1775, 
about 43 years after he left college. Dr. Ratcliffe, master of 
Pembroke college, died; and although Dr. Adams had out- 
lived almost all his contemporaries, the gentlemen of the 
college xame to a determination to elect him, a mark of re- 
spect due to his public character, and highly creditable to 
their discernment. He accordingly became master of Pem- 
broke, July 26, 1775, and in consequence obtained a prebend 
of Gloucester, which is attached to that office. He now 
resigned the living of St. Chad, to the lasting regret of his 
hearers, as well as pf the inhabitants at large, to whom he 
had long been endeared by his amiable character, and pious 
attention to the spiritual welfare of his flock. He was soon 
after made archdeacon of LlandafF. Over the college he 
presided with universal approbation, and engaged the affec- 
tions of-the students by his courteous demeanour and affa- 
bility, mixed with the firmness necessary for the preserva- 
tion of discipline. In his apartments here, he frequency 
cheered the latter days of his old friend Dr. Johnson, whom 
he survived but a few years ; dying at his prebendal house 

at Gloucester, Jan. 13, 1789, aged 82. He wa:» interred 
in Glouqester cathedral, where a monument was erected. 

144 ADAMS. 

^ith an inscription^ which celebrates his ingenuity^ learn- 
ing, eloquence, piety, and benevolence. Dr. Adams mar-* 
ried Miss Sarah Hi^nt, by whom be left a- daughter, mar* 
ried, in 1 788, to B. Hyatt, esq. of Painswick, in Gloucester- 
shire,, who died July 1810. 

Dr. Adams's first publications were three occasional ser- 
mons, printed 1741, 1742, 1749; but his principal work. 
was an "Essay on Hume's Essay on Miracles," 8vo, 1752, 
which was long considered as one of the ablest answers that 
appeared to Mr. Hume^s sophistry, and was tlistinguished 
for acuteness, elegance, and urbanity of style. Hume, 
whom he once met in London, acknowledged that he had 
treated him much better than he deserved. This work was 
followed by other occasional sermons, which the author 
collected into a volume, and published in 1777.- One only 
of these sermons involved him in a controversy. It .was 
entitled " On true and false Doctrine,'* preached at St. 
Chad's Sept. 4, 1769, and touched upon some of the prin- 
ciples of the Methodists, in consequence of Dr. Adams 
having lent his pulpit to the Rev. William Romaine, who 
bad there preached a sermon, the tendency of which our' 
author thought it his duty to counteract. This produced a 
series of pamphlets between the friends of the respective 
parties ; but it is somewhat singular that neither our au- 
thor nor Mr. Romaine took arty part in the controversy, 
nor did Mr. Romaine publish the sermon which had occa- 
sioned it. The dispute turned principally on the deg^e 
, of Calvinism to be found in the Articles, &c. of the Cfatirch 
of England.* 

ADAMSON (Patrick), a Scottish prelate, archbishop 
Tof St. Andrew's. He was born 1543, in the town of Perth, 
where he received the rudiments of his education, and 
afterwards studied philosophy, and took his degree of 
M. A. at the university of St. Andrew's. In the year 1566 
he set out for Paris, as tutor to a young gentleman. In the 
month of June in the same year, Mary queen of Scots 
being delivered of a son, afterwards James VI. of Scotknd, 
and first of England, Mr. Adamson wrote a Latin poem ou 
the occasion, in which he styled him king of England and 
France. This proof of his loj-alty involved him in some 
difficulties, causing him to be arrested in France, and con- 
fined for six months ; but he escaped by the intercession 
of queen Mary, and some of the principal nobility. As 

} Geat. Mag. 17S9 ; aod prirate inforai&tiQa.«»BoswelPg Lili^ of JolmsOii, 

A D A M S O ]^: 


soon as he recovered his liberty, be retired with his pupil 
to Bourges. He was in this city during the massacre at 
Paris ; and, the same bloody persecuting spirit prevaiUng 
amongst the Catholics at Bourges as at the metropolis, he. 
hved concealed for seven months at a public-chouse, the 
master of which, upwards of 70 years of age, was thrown 
from the top of the building, and had his brains dashed out, 
for his charity to heretics. Whilst Mr. Adamson lay thus 
in his sepulchre, as he called it, hef wrote his Latin poeti- 
cal version of the book of Job, and his tragedy of Herod^ 
in the same language. In 1573, he returned to Scotland; 
and, having entered into holy orders, became minister of 
Paisley, In 1575, he was appointed one of the commis-' 
sioners, by the general assembly, to settle the jurisdiction 
and policy of the church ; and the following year he was 
named, with Mr. David Lindsay, to report their proceed-* 
ings to the earl of Moreton, then regent. About this time^ 
the earl made him one of bis chaplains, and, on the death 
of bishop Douglas, promoted him to the archiepiscopal 
see of St. Andrew*s^ a dignity which brought upon him 
great trouble and uneasiness ; for he was extremely obnoxi« 
ous to the Presbyterian party, and many inconsistent ab- 
surd stories were propagated about him. Soon after his 
promotion, he published his Catechism in Latin verse, a 
work highly approved, even by his enemies ; who, never-, 
theless, continued to persecute him with great violence. 
In 1578, he submitted himself to the general assembly^ 
which procured him peace but for a very little time ; for, th^ 
year following, they brought fresh accusations against him. 
In &ke year 1582, being attacked with a grievous dis« 
ease, in which the physicians' could give him no relief, he 
happened to take a simple medicine from an old woman^ 
which did him service. The woman, whose name was 
Alison Pearsone, was immediately charged with witchcraft, 
and committed to prison, but escaped out of her confine-% 
ment : however, about four years afterwards, she was again 
found, and burnt for a witch. In 1583, king James came 
to St. Andrew's ; and the archbishop, being much reco- 
vered, preached before him, and disputed with Mr. An- 
drew Melvil, in presence of his Majesty, , with great repu-. 
tation, which drew upon him fresh calumny and persecu- 
tion. The king, however, was so well pleased with him, 
that he sent him ambassador to queen Elizabeth, at whose 
court be resided fgr some years. His conduct, during his 
Vol. L L 

146 A D A M S O N. 

\ ' ' 

\ * 

embassy, lias been variously reported by different Mihaifu 
Two things he principally laboured, viz. the recommend* 
in^ the king, hi^ master, to the nobility and gentry of" 
England^ and the procuring some support for the episco- 
pal party in Scotland. By his eloquent preaching he drevgf 
after him such crowds of people, and raised in their minds 
Siuch a high idea of the young king, his master, that queem 
Elizabeth forbade him to enter the pulpit during his stay 
in her dominions. In 1584 he was recalled, and sat in tha 
{parliament held in August at Edinburgh. The Presbyte* 
rian party were still very violent against the archbishop. 
A provincial synod was held at St. Andrew^sin April 1586 ; 
where the aiK^hbishop was accused and excommunicated : he 
appealed to the king and the states, but this availed hink 
but little ; foi^ the mob being excited against him, it be-» 
eaune dsuagevous to appear in public in the city of St. An-« 
brew's. At the next general assembly, a paper being pro« 
duced, containing the archbishop's submission, he was 
absolved from the excommunication. In 1588, fresh accu-*^ 
sations were brought against him. The year following, he 
published the Lamentations of the prophet Jeremiah, iQ 
Latin vevse, which he dedicated to the king, complainings 
ef his hard usage. In the latter end of the same year, he 
published a translation of the Apocalypse in Latin verse^i 
and a copy of Latin verses, addressed also to his Maj^ty^ 
when he was in great distress* The king, however, was 
so far from giving him assistance, that he granted the re- 
venue of his see to the duke of Lenox : so that the remain* 
ing part of this prelate's life was very wretched ; he having. 
hardly subsistence for his family, notwithstanding his ne-« 
cessities compelled him to deliver to the assembly a formal 
i^eeantation of all his opinions concerning church goveta^i^ 
Boent. He died in 1591. His works were'printed in a 4to 
volume in London in 1619, with his Life by Thomas Vehim, 
senus, or Wilson. Besides the contents of this volume, oar 
atither wrote many things which were never published ; 
such as, six books on the Hebrew republick, various trans^ 
lations of the prophets into Latin verse, Praelections on St. 
I^aul's Epistles to Timothy, various apologetical and fune-^' 
ral orations ; and, what deserves most to bq regretted, » 
Tery candid history of his own times. His character has* 
been variously represented, as may be seen in Calderwoc^ 
and Spoliswood's Histories, Mackenzie's Lives of Scottisll 
Ai«thors, and the last edition of the Biographia Britaoiuea. 

A D A lit S O N. Ui 

tte 'tppettrs ie haVe been brie of those men of wbom no 
jtist (Estimate ean be fortned, without taking into the ^c- 
fotint the disthiction of the tinies in which he Hired. 

ADArJSON (Michel), an feminent French nattirallst, 
#8ii bbrri at Aik in Prorehce, April 7^ 1727. His father, 
•f Scdteh origin, appears to hav^ bis^n in the iS^rvicb df 
VintimiHe^ then archbishbp of that city. Whfeti the latter 
irtts tirahslated to the see of Paris, Adansoh was bf ought 
thith^t at three years o£ age, educated with great care^ 
fthd soon gave proofs of uncommon application. As he Wa^ 
sifiall of stature, he appeared much younger than he ^as ; 
atid, when he carried off the university prizes, maiiy jokes were 
passed upon him. Needham, however, the celebrated hatd- 
mlist, known by his microscopical discoveries, happening 
to be ii witness of his success, presented him with a iiiicrd- 
ieopd; adding, that one who knew ^he works of ineii sd 
well ought to study those of nature. This circumstancd 
fitst induced hinbi to study natural history, but without 
lieglectlng the usual course pur$ued in the university of 
Paris. In natural history, Reaumur arid Bernard de Jus- 
itieu, were his guides, and he divided his time between the 
i^al gafderis and the museiims of these learned men ; and, 
when the system of Linriseus began to be published, it af- 
feirded him new matter for speculation. Ris parents had 
intended him for the church, and had procured hirii a pre- 
tend ; but such was his thirst for general science, thsit he 
r^gned it, and determined to travel into Soriie eoumtry 
not trsually visited or described. Senegal was the first ob- 
ject of his choice, thinking that its rinhealthy climate had 
prevented its being visited by any other na;turalist. Ac- 
cordingly, he set out ill 174S, in the 2 1st year of his age ; 
and, after visiting the Azores and the Cai^arieS, landed on 
tlte isfanrd of G6ree, 6n the coast of Senegal; wh6r6 h6 
made a vast collection of specimens, ahimaT, vegetable, 
Md mineral, which be classified and described in a man- 
ned #faich he thought an improvement ori the systems of 
To^rnefort arid Linnseus. He extended bis researches 
aSso to tbfe climate, geography, and manners of th6 people. 
Be wiils engaged in this empfoyn^ent for five y^ars, en- 
tlwSy af ^lis own experice; and, in 1757, published the 
vtsnit m His ^ Histoire naturelle de Senegal," 4to ; an 
abridged translation of which, very ill executed', was pub- 
lished in Loridon, 1759, 8v6. His classification of the 
7eSt8M^«r, itt this work, is universally allowed to be ncsr 


148 A D A N S O Ni. 

I - 

and ingenious. In 1756, soon after his return, haviiig 
been elected a corresponding member of the Academy of 
Sciences, he read a paper on the Baobab, or calabasl^ 
tree, an enormous vegetable, that had almost been ac- 
counted fabulous; and afterwards, a history of the tree 
which produces Gum Arabic. He would not, however, 
perhaps, have proceeded in these studies, had it notbeeiji 
for the generous encouragement afforded him by M. de 
Bombarde, a zealous patron of science. This induced hinir 
to publish his "Families des Plantes," 2 vols. 8vo, 1763^ 
a work of vast information, and which would have created 
a new revolution in the botanical world, had not the genius 
of Linnseus been predominant But, although this work 
was neglected at the time, discoveries have since been ad- 
tranced as new, which are to be found in it. About five 
years after, he determined to give a new edition, and had, 
made the necessary corrections, and many additions ; but, 
while employed on this, he conceived the more extensive 
plan of a complete Encyclopaedia, and he was persuaded 
that Lewis XV. would encourage such an undertaking. 
Flattered by this hope, he devoted his whole time to the ; 
collection of materials. In 1775, having got together an 
immense quantity, he submitted them to the Academy,., 
under the title of an account of his manuscripts and plates, 
from 1771 to 1775, arranged according to the method he 
discovered when at Senegal, in 1749. These consisted 
of, 1. The universal order of Nature, in 27 vols. 8vo. 2. The 
natural history of Senegal, 8 vols. 8vo. 3. A course of 
natural history. 4. An universal vocabulary of natural 
history, one vol. fol. of 1000 pages. 5. A dictionary of 
natural history. 6. Forty thousand figures, and as many 
specimens of objects already known. 7. A collection of 
thirty-fouj thousand specimens of his own collection. It 
may easily be conceived that the academicians were asto-. 
nished at this proposal ; but the committee, appointed to 
examine his labours, did not find the collection equally 
valuable in all its branches, and, therefore, he did not 
meet with the encouragement he expected^ His intentioa 
was to have published the entire work at once ; but it was 
thought that, if he had published it in parts, he might 
probably have been successful. He published, however, a. 
second edition of his " Families of the Plants,'* 'which is, 
in fact, an encyclopaedia of botapy. After this, he pub- 
lished no considerable work, but furnished some-papers for 

A D A N S O N. 149 

the Academy, which have not been printed, and wrote 
the articles on exotics in the Supplement to the Encyclo- 
psedia. In 17>53, he laid before the French East India 
Company the plan of forming on the coast of Africa a co- 
lony, where all sorts of colonial produce might be culti- 
vated, without enslaving the Negroes. This first effort, 
however, to procure the abolition of the slave-trade was 
not then attended to. In 1760, indeed, when the English 
were in possession of Senegal, they made him very liberal 
offers to communicate his plan, which he refused, from a 
love for his own country. He was equally disinterested in 
refusing the princely offers made, in 1760, by the emperor 
of Germany, and, in 1766, by Catherine of Russia, and, 
lastly, by the king of Spain, if he would reside in their 
dominions. In France, however, he frequently travelled 
into various parts, in pursuit of his favourite science. 

In 1759, he was appointed royal censor; and the emo- 
luments of thi3 place, that of academician, and the pen- 
sions successively conferred upon him, might have ren- 
dered him easy in his circumstances, had he not expended 
the whole in collecting materials for the vast plan above- 
mentioned. At length, the Revolution stripped him of 
all; and, what hurt him more, his garden, on which he 
bad bestowed so much pains, was pillaged. When the 
Institute was formed, he was invited to become a member ; 
but he answered that he could not accept the invitation, 
"as he had no shoes.^' The minister of the interior, how- 
ever, procured him a pension, on which he s\ibsisted until 
his death, August 3, 1806, after an illness of six months, 
which confined him to his bed. He left behind him an 
immense number of manuscripts, and a new edition of his 
Fanrilies of the Plants is now preparing for the press by 
M. Du-Petit Thouars, whose account of his life is here 
abridged. According to M. Thouars, Adanson was a man 
of many excellent qualities, an indefatigable student and 
collector, but careless of dress and manners, and not a 
little conceited. Although in his seventy-ninth year, when 
on his death bed, he amused himself with the hopes of re- 
covery, and of publishing his grand encyclopedia. In his 
opinions, and particularly where he differed with Linnaeus, 
he was most obstinately tenacious; and gave a curious proof 
in his own case. Bernard de Jussieu, pleased with his ac- 
count of the Baobab, would have named that genus the 
Adansona; but Adanson jivould not allow it, because Linnseua 

IM A n A N S O N. , 

l|pspo.ur^ Vot;^iii4t4 with ^nch naii^ ; vb^f^ea^ bis. plail Mfw 
to give to n^w pUats the oaoie pf the country which pro** 
4uce(l them ifk pieference to every other- StpevA in- 
forms W that LiiiP9iis ^id of Adanson, ^^ be U either mad 
or intoii;icated ;'' hu( QaUer thought him a ^^ riyal wojrthf 
of Linn»ui^*' * 

ADDINGTON (St«p«eh)» D. D. a disputing <:lergym^(a 
of considerable leai^nin^, was born; at Northampton, June 
9^ 1729^ and was educated under Dr. Doddridge, whose 
manner \n the pulpit he closely followed for many years* 
After being admitted to preach, he removed in 1750, ta 
Spaldwicl( in Hi^tipgdonshire ; where, in 175^ he mar<* 
ified am^ Beym^e^ of Norwich, a lady who died in liSi i, at 
a yery advajp^ced age. A few weeks after his marriage, he 
was called to be mipister of a congregation of dissenters at 
Market Harborough, Leicestershire. His receiving this a^Kr 
pointment was. owing to a singular occurrence in the his- 
tory of popular elections. Two candidates had appeared 
who divided the congregation sp equally that a compromise 
wai) impossible, unless^ by each party giving up their 
faypmdte, and elec^ng a third candidate, if one could be^ 
foun^ agreeable to all. At this crisis Mr* Addijagton waa 
repommended, and unanimously chosen. In this place he 
remained abont thirty years, and became highly popular 
to bia increasiAg congregation by the pious discbarge of 
his paitf^aral duties, and by his conci&ktory manners^ In 
I7'5a[ he opened his house 6>k the reception of pupils to 
fill up a vacancy in. the neighbourhood; of Harborough, oc«r. 
c^ipned by the rev. Mr. Aikin's removsd to Waxrington* 
This, scheme sncceeded ; and for many years he devoted, 
nine hours each day to the instruction of his pupils, and. 
compiled several books fpt their improvement ; as, l . ^* A 
system, of Arithmetic,^^ 3 vols. 8vo, 2. ^' The Rudimenta 
of the Greek tongue,'* 176 1, 12mo. 3. " Ensebes to Phi-, 
letus ; or Letters from a Father to his Son, on a devout 
%§mpi^ and life^" 1761, 12nu). 4. ^^ Maxims religious 
Bi^ prudential, with a Sermon to young People,^' 12mo. 
S. "The Youth's Geographical Grammar," 1770, 8vo. 
^ ^^'Qlissertation on the religious knowledge of the ancient 
J^ews and. Patriarchs; to which is annexed a specimen' of n 
Greek and English Concordance," 1757, 4to;. wJiich he 
had; a design of completing, if his health and: tinle had per** 

1 Biogcaphie UaiTerseUe— Stoever's Life of Unnaeas. 

A D D I N G T O N. isi 

nittcd. He published also, ptrtly in the country, and 
partly in London, some occasional funeral and other ser-« 
mons ; two tracts on infant baptism ; a collection of psalm 
tunes, and another of anthems ; and his most popular work> 
**The Life of St. Paul the Apostle," 1784, 8vo.-^At 
length, in 1781, be received an invitation to become pastot 
of the congregation in Miles's-lane, Cannon-street ; and 
^oou after his removal thither was chosen tutor of a new 
dissenting academy at Mile-end, where he resided until his 
growing infirmities, occasioned by several paralytic strokes, 
obliged him to relinquish the charge* He continued, how* 
ever, in the care of his congregation till within a few 
months of his decease, when, from the same cause, he wa» 
compelled to discontinue his public services^ He died 
Feb. 6, 1796, at his house in the Minories. In London 
he waa neither so successful or popular as in the country ; 
and his quitting Harborough after so long a residence ap« 
pears to have displeased his friends, without adding to bisP 
usefulhess among his new connections. ^ 

ADDISON (LANCELOT), son of Lancelot Ad<tison a 
clergyman, born at Mauidtsmeabume in the parish of 
Crosby Ravensworth in Westmoreland, in 1632, wasedu* 
cated at the grammar school of Appleby, and afterwards' 
sent to QodM's college, Oitford, upon the foun^tiOn. H^ 
was admitted B. A. Jan. 25, 1654*, and M^ A« Jiriy 4, 1657. 
As he now.had greatly distinguished himself in the univer- 
^ty, he was chosen one of the terras filii for die act ceie« 
brated in 1658; but, bis oration aJ>ounding in personal 
satire against the ignorance, hypocrisy, and avarice of those 
dieiT in power, he was compelled to make a recantation^, 
and to ask pardon on his knees* Soon after he left Ox* 
ford, and retired to Petwonit iu Snssex, where he resi<led 
till the restoration. The gentlemen of Sussex baling re-^ 
commended him to Dr. King, bishop of Chester, as a maii> 
who had suffered for bis loyalty and attachment to the con-^ 
stitution of church and state ; the bishop received him> 
kindly, and in all probability would have preferred hindl^' 
h»d he not^ contrary to his lordship's approbation,^ aGce|>t- 
ed of the chaptainsbip at Dunkirk ; where he continued- titt 
1-662, when, the place being delivered xxp to the JPrenchy 
)ie returned to England. The year following he went 
chaplain to the garrison at Tangier, where he resided some 

\ '(heologioal aad Protestaat Dinenters Magaeine, vol. IU.-«i43teBt, Mag. IISK 



years; and came back to^ England in 1670^ with a r^solu^ 
tion to return to Tangier. He was appointed chaplain in 
ordinary to his majesty soon after bis coming over; but had 
no thoughts, however, of quitting his chapiainship at Tan- 
gier, until it was conferred upon another, by which Mr.* 
Addison became poor in his circumstances. In this situa- 
tion of his aifairs„ a gentleman in Wikchire bestowed on 
him the rectory of Milston, in Wilts, worth about \20Lper 
annum. Soon after he was also made prebendary of Minor* 
pars altaris, in the cathedral of Sarum ; and took the de« 
grees of^B. and D. D. at Oxford, July 6, 1675. His pre- 
^rments, though not very considerable, enabled hirn to 
live in the country with great decency and hospitality ; and 
he discharged his duty with a most conscientipus diligence. 
In 1683 the commissioners for ecclesiastical affairs, in con- 
sideration of his former service at Tangier, conferred upon 
him the deanry of Lichfield, in which he was installed, July 
3'; was collated to the archdeaconry of Coventry Dec. 8, 
1684, and held it with his deanry in commendam. In the 
convocation, which met Dec. 4, 1689, dean Addison was 
one of the committee appointed by the lower house to ac- 
quaint the lords, that they had consented to a conference- 
on the subject of an address to the king. He died April 
20, 1703, and was buried in the church-yard of Lichfield^ 
at the entrance of the west door, with the following epitaph : 
'^ Hie jacet Lancelotus Addison, S. T, P. hujus ecdesiae 
decanus, necnon archidiaconas Coventrise, qui obiit t^D 
die Aprilis, ann. Dom. 1703, setatis suae 71.'' He was 
twice married ; first to Jane, daughter of Nalbaniel Guls-^' 
ton, esq., and sister to Dr. William Gulston, bishop of; . 
Bristol, by whom he had, Jane, who died ixt her infancy ; • 
Joseph, of whom in the next article; Gulston, who died go-* 
vernor of Fort St. George in the East Indies ; Dorothy, 
married first to Dr. Sartre, prebendary of Westminster^ se<^ < 
condly to Daniel Combes, esq.; Anne, who died young; 
and Lancelot, fellow of Magdalen college, Oxford, unr 
able classical scholar. 

Dean Addison published, 1. " West Barbary, or a short 
narrative of the revolutions of Fez and .Morocco,".' 1671, 
8vo. 2. " The present State of the Jews .(more particu- 
larly relating to those in Barbary), wherein is contained an a 
exact account of their customs secular and religious, &€.**. 
1675, 8vo. 3. " The primitive Institution, or a season* 
able discourse of Catechizing." 4, "A modest plea fof 

ADDIS ON. 153 


tbe Clergy,*' 1677, 8vo. 5. ** The first state of Mahomet- 
ism, or an account of the Author and doctrine of that im- 
posture,^' 167S, 8vo; reprinted afterwards under the titleof 
<^ The Life and Death of Mahomet." 6. ^^ An introduction 
to. the Sacrament, 1681; reprinted in 1686 with the addi- 
tion of " The Communicant's Assistant/' 7. ** A dis- 
course of Tangier, under the government of the earl of 
Tiviot," 4to, 1685, second edition. 8. " XPKTOIATTO- 
OEOD, or an historical account of the heresy denying the 
Godhead of Christ ;" one of the best books that had then 
appeared on the subject. 9. '^ The Christian's daily Sa- 
crifice, on Prayer," 1698, 12mo. 10. *'An account of 
the Millenium, the genuine use of the two Sacraments, 
'&c." And some have attributed to him ^^ The Catechumen; 
or an account given by a young Person to a Minister 
of his knowledge in Religion, &c." 1690, 12mo; but this 
appears to have been only recommended by him and Dr. 
Scot. » 

ADDISON (Joseph), son of Dr. Addison mentioned in 
the last article, and one of the most illustrious ornaments 
of his time, was born May 1, 1672, at Milston near Ambros- 
bury, Wiltshire, where his father was rector. Appearing 
weak and unlikely to live, he was christened the same (|ay« 
Mr. Tyers says, that he was laid out for dead as soon as he 
was bqm. He received the first rudiments of his education 
at the place of his nativity, under the rev. Mr. Naish ; but 
was soon removed to Salisbury, under the care of Mr. Tay- 
lor ; and thence to Lichfield, where his father placed him 
for soitie time, probably not long, under Mr. Shaw, then 
master of the school there. From Lichfield he was sent to 
the Charter-house, where he pursued his juvenile studies 
under the care of Dr. Ellis, and contracted that intimacy 
with sir Rich. Steele, which their joint labours have so ef- 
fectually recorded^ In 1687 he was entered of Queen^s 
college in Oxford ; where, in 1689, the accidental perusal 
of some Latin verses gained him the patronage of Dr. Lan- 
caster, by whose recommendation he was elected into 
Magdalen college as depiy. Here he took the degree of 
M. A. Feb. 14, 1693; continued to culiivate poetry and 
criticism, and grew first eminent by his Latin compositions, 
which are entitled to particular praise, and seem to have had 
much of his fondness ; for he collected a second volume of 

I Bio|;. B|>itanmca<-Atb. Ox. yol II. p. 970. 


the Mnsae Angiicanaey perhaps £ir a.ccmvenietit t^eceptacle^ 
in which all his LaJUn pieces are inserted, and where hift 
poem on the Peace has the first place. He afterward* 
presented the coUection to Boileau, who from that time 
conceiyed ao opinion of t^ English genius for poetry« In^ 
his 22dyear.he first shewed his power of English poetry, hf 
some verses addressed to Dryden; and soon afterwards 
published a translation of the greater part of the fourth 
Georgic upon B^s. About the same time he composed 
the arguments prefixed to the serersd books of DrydenV 
Virgil ; and produced an essay on the Georgics, juveoileit 
superfiicial^ and nninstructire, without much either of the 
scholar^s learning or the critic's penetration. His next paper 
Qfrerses contained a character of the principal English 
poets^ inscribed to Henry SadievercU^ who was tfaen^ if 
not a poet, a writer of versesi as is shewn by bia versiott of 
a small part of Virgil's Georgics, publiedted in the Miscet^ 
lanies, and a Latin encomium on queen Mary^ in the Musae 
Anglicanae; At this time he was paying his addresses to 
Sacheverell's sister. These verses exhibit all the fondness^ 
of friendship ^ but, on one side or the other, friendship was^ 
t#o weak for the mahgnity of facticm. in this poem is; a 
T.ery confident and discrimmative db»racter of Spenser, 
whose work he bad then never read. It is necessary to in^ 
form the reader, that about this time be was introduced bjr' 
Congneve to Montague^ then diancdh^r of the excfaecpier : 
Addison was now learning the trade of a courtier, anid suds* 
joined Montague as a poetical name to those of Cowley and 
of Dryden. By the iniSuence of Mr. B&mtague, concurring 
with his natural modesty, be was direited from hi& original 
dediga of entering into hdy orders. Moutague alleged the 
corruption of men who engaged in civil employments witlfr-' 
out liberal education ; and declared, that, though he wass^' 
represented as an ei^my to the church, be would: nerer do' 
it any injury but by withholding Addison from it. Soon 
after^ in 1695, be wrote a poem tx» kin^ William, usith a 
kind of rhyming introduction addressed to lord Sonsers* 
King WiUdant bad no regard to. elegance or lite^tuna y hn 
study was only war ; yet by a choice of ministers whose dis"> 
position was v«ry different from his own, he pnieured; 
without intention, a very liberal patronage to poetry. Ad*' 
dison was caressed both by Somersvand Moutaigue. Iw Ld97 
he wrote his poem on the peace of Ryswick, which he de«i 
dicated to Montague, and which was* afterwardscalled by 

A D P I $ O K ISA 

Saiilb ^^ t^e bast Lutitt poem mca the JEneid.^' Hwring 
;q( u^ public employment, he obtaincKl in 1 699 a penaaon 
of ^QO^. a year, that be wight be enabled to travel. He 
^id a year at Bloia, probably to learn the French language ; 
si^d then proceeded in his journey to Italy, which he 8ur«» 
vpyed with the eyes of a poet. While he wa3 travelling at 
leisrure^ he was far from being idle ; for he not only col- 
lected bis observations on the country, but found time ta 
wifite his Dialogues on Medals, and four acts of Cato. Such 
is the relation of Ticl^ell. Perhaps he only collected his 
iBj^jtevials, and formed his plan. Whatever were his other 
^PQ^ployments in Italy,, be there wrote the letter to lord 
^ahfs^x, which is justly considered as the most elegant, if 
not the mpst sublime, of his poetical productions. But in 
i^hout two years he found it necessary to hasten home ; 
being, as Swift informs us, ^* distressed by indigence, and 
compelled to become the tutor of a travelling squire.^' At 
h^ retuim he published his travels, with a dedication to 
lord Sonpers. This book, thotigh a while neglected, is said 
in time to have become so much the favonrite of the pub* 
lick, tiiat before it was repr],nted it rose to five times its price. 
Ayhen be returned to England in 1702, with a meanness of 
appearance which gave testimony to the difficulties to. which 
1^ had been reduced, he found bis old patrons out of 
Pf^n^er ;,. but. he remained not long neglected or useless. 
The victory at Blenbeim 1704 spread triumph and confi-« 
dcMp^e over th^ nat^ioi^ ; and lord Godolpbin, lamenting to 
l^ied Hali&x that it had' not been celebrated in a manner 
tE)(|4alit^ the subject, desired him to propose it toscMoebet* 
t§r poet. Halifax nassed Addison; who^ having undeir- 
tak^ei^ tjbe v^ork, communicated it tfy the treasurer, while it 
W^ yet a4v.9Med no fmsther than the simiie of the angel^' 
a^^waa ia^i^ediat^ely rewarded by succ^ding Mr. Locke 
191 the place^of commissioner of appeals. la the* following' 
yie^ir he was at H^noxer winib. lord Halifex ; and the year 
a^car ^^s made undei^s^cretary of state, first to sir Charles 
lledges, and in a few months more to the eatl of Sitnder^ 
I^^d.. AbQut this time, the prevalent taste fbo Italiah operaa 
inclining him to try what would be the effect of a musical 
dw9>a m. oiir own- lapgua^e ; he wrote the opera of Rosa- 
mond, whicb,« w^n exhibited on the stage, waa either 
hissed: Qp n^leqt^ ; but, trust;ing that the Maulers would 
dp biil^'i^^^ justice, he published it, with an inscription t<» 
tiiQ 4Hfib6ss q{. Marlborough* His. reputation had. bee* 

156 Addison. 

gmnewhat advanced by The Tender Husband, a comedy^ 
ivfaich Steele dedicated to bim, with a confession that he 
owed to hjm several ot the most successful scenes. To this 
phiy Addison supplied a prologue. When the marquis of 
Wbaiton was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, ' Addison 
attended him as his secretary ; and was made keeper of the 
records in Bemiingham's tower, with a salary of SCO/, a 
year. The office was little more tlian nominal, and the 
salary was augmented for his accommodation. When he 
•was in office, he made a law to himself, as Swift has record- 
ed, never to remit his regular fees in civility to his friends : 
— r-" I may have a hundred friends ; and if my fee be two 
guineas, I shall by relinquishing my right lose 200 guineas, 
and no friend gain more than two." He was in Ireland 
when Steele, without any communication of his design, 
began the publicatrion of the Tatler ; but he was not long 
concealed : by inserting a remark on Virgil, which Addisont 
had given him, he discovered himself. Steele's first Tatler 
was published April 22, 1709, and Addison's contribution 
appeared May 26. 1'ickell observes, that the Tatler be- 
gan and was concluded without his concurrence. This is 
doubtless literally true ; but the work did not suffer much 
by his unconsciousness of its commencement, or his ab- 
sence at its cessation ; for he continued his assistance to 
Dec. 23, and the paper stopped on- Jan. 2. He did not 
distinguish his pieces by any signature. 
' To the Tatler, in about two months, succeeded the 
Spectator; a series of essays of the same kind, but written 
with less levity, upon a more regular plan, and published 
daily. Dr. Johnson's account of these essays, and of the 
rise of periodical papers is too vahiable to be omitted here. 
'^ To teach the m^inuter decencies and inferior duties, to 
regulate the practice of daily conversation, to correct those 
depravities which are rather ridiculous than criminal, and 
remove those grievances which, if they produce no lasting 
calamities, impress hourly vexation, was first attempted in 
Italy by Casa in his Book of Manners, and Castiglione in 
his Courtier, two books yet celebrated in Italy for purity 
and elegance. 

" This species of instruction was continued, and perhaps 
advanced, by the French; among whom La Bruyere's 
Mannersof the A^e, though written without connection, 
deserves great praise. Before the Tatler and Spectator, \i' 
the writers for the theatre are excepted, England bad bq- 

A I> D I St O N- t5t 

masters of common life. No writers had yet undertakea 
to reform either the savageuess of neglect, or the imperti* 
nence of civility ; to teach when to speak, or to b^ sUent ; 
how to refuse, or how to comply. We wanted not books 
to teach us more important duties, and to settle opinipn^ in 
philosophy or politics; but an arbiter elegant iarum^ a Judge 
of propriety, was yet wanting, who should survey the track 
of daily conversation, and free, it from thorns and prickles, 
which tease the passer, though they do not wound him. 
For this purpose nothing is so proper as the frequent pub- 
Ucation of short papers, which we read not as study but 
amusement. If the subject be slight, the treatise likewise 
is short. The busy may find time, and the idle may find 

" The Tatler and Spectator reduced, like Casa, the un- 
settled practice of daily intercourse to propriety and polite- 
ness y and, like La Bruyere, exhibited the characters and 
manners of the age. 

^^ But to say that they united the plans of two or three 
eminent writers, is to give them but a small part of their 
due praise; they superadded literature and criticism, and 
sometimes towered far above their predecessors, and taught, 
with great justness of argument and dignity of language, 
the most important duties and sublime truths." 

The year 1713, in which Cato came upon the stagre, 
was the grand climacteric of Addison's reputation. Upon 
the death of Cato, he had, as is said, planned a tragedy in « 
the time of his travels, and had for several years the four 
first acts finished, which were shewn to such as were likely 
to spread their admiration. By a request, which perliaps 
he wished to be denied, he desired Mr. Hughes to add a 
fifth act. Hughes supposed him serious ; and, undertaking 
the supplement, brought in a few days some scenes for his 
examination ; but he had in the mean time gone to work 
himself, and produced half an act, which he afterwards 
completed, but with brevity irregularly disproportionate to 
the foregoing parts. The great, the important day came 
on, when Addison was to stand the hazard of the tbeati:e. 
That there might, however, be left as little to hazard as 
was possible, on the first. night Steele, as himself relates, 
undertook to pack: an audience. The danger was soon 
over. The whole nation was at that time on fire with fac-^ 
tion. The whigs applauded every line in which liberty 
was mentioned, as a satire on the tories ; and the tories 

U« A d D t 6 O I^. 

echoed evtty elap, to shew that the satire iMcls uAfelt. Wh^fl 
it was printed, notice was given that the queen would he 
pleased if it was dedicated to her ; ** but as he had desigti- 
ed that compliment elsewhere, he found himself obliged,'^ 
says Tickell, '* by his doty on the one hand, and his ho-»' 
Ikoor on the other, to send it into the worid without any 

At the publication the wits seemed proud to pay theif 
attendance with encomiastic verses. The best ar^ from atl. 
unknown hand, which will perhaps lose somewhat of theit* 
praise when the author is known to bfe Jeffreys. Cato had 
yet other honours. It was censured sis a party plsly by a 
scholar of Oxford, and defended in a favourable exatnina- 
tion by Dr. Sewel. It was translated by Salvini into Ita-* 
lian, and acted at Florei\ce ; and by the Jesuits of St. Otner's 
into Latin, and played by their pupils. While Cato wafc^ 
upon the stage, another daily paper, called the Guardian, 
was published by Steele; to which Addison gave greslt- 
assistaiice. Of thi^ paper nothing is necessary to be said, 
but that it found many contributors, and that it was acon-^ 
tinuation of the Spectator, with the same elegance, and the 
same variety^^ till some unlucky spark from a tory papef 
set Steele^s {>d)itics on fire, and wit at once blazed inta 
faction. He was soon too hot for neutral topics, and 
quitted the Guardian to write the Englishman. The papers 
of Addison are marked in the Spectator by orre of ,th<i let- 
ters in the name of Clio, and in the Guardian by a hand. 
Many of these papers were written with powers truly 6omic, 
with nice discrimination of characters, an accurate obser- 
vation of natural or accidental deviations firom propriety ; 
but it was not supposed that he tried a confiredy on the' 
stage, till Steele, after his death, declared him die atithof 
of " The Drummer ;*' this however he did not know to be 
true by any cogent testimony ; for when Addis(Mr put ther 
play into his hail^, he only told him it was the wor(^ of a 
gentleman in the compai^y ; and wheit it was feceivefd, as isK 
confessed, with cold disapprobatioh, he was probaMy less" 
willing to claim it. Tickell bmittedf it in his coUeCtiiori ; 
but the testimony of Steele, and the tdtal silence of auy 
other claimant, have determined the public to assigii it to' 
Addison, and it is now printed with his other poetry. Steele 
carried "The Dnimmer** to the playhouse, and after- 
wards to the press, and soM the copy* for iO gtiineas. To* 
the opinion of Steele may be^ added tib^e ptoof supplied hf 


tk^ play itself, of which the characters are such as Addiflon 
would have delineated, and the tendency such as Addison 
would have promoted. He was not all this time, an indif« 
ferent spectator of public affairs. He wrote, as different 
exigencies required, in 1707, ^^ The present state of the 
War, and the necessity of an augmentation ;*' which, how-* 
ever judicious, being writterf on temporary topics^ and ex« 
bibiting no peculiar powers, has naturally sunk by its own 
v^ight into neglect. This cannot be said of the few 
papers intituled ^^The Whig Examiner,^' in which is exhibit* 
td all the force of gay malevolence and humorous satire. 
Of this paper, which ju)st appeared and expired, Swift re- 
marks, with exultation, that ** it is now down among the 
dead men.'* His "Trial of count Tariff," written to ex- 
pose the treaty of commerce with France, lived no longet 
than the question that produced it. 

Not long afterwards an attempt was made to revive th« 
Spectator, at a time indeed by no means favourable to 
literature, when the succession of a new family to the throne 
ilied the nation with anxiety, discord, and confusion ; and 
either the turbulence of the times or the satiety of the 
leaders put a stop to the publication, after an experimenli 
of SO numbers, which were afterwards collected into an 
eighth volume, perhaps mote valuable than any one of 
tbos6 that went before it : Addison produced more than a 
fourth part, and the other contributors are by no means 
unworthy of appearing as his associates. The time that 
had passed during the suspensio\i of the Spectator, though 
it had not lessened his power of humour, seems to have in- 
creased his disposition to seriousness : the proportion of 
kis religious to his comic papers is greater than in the for* 
mer series. The Spectator, from its recommencement, 
was published only three times a week, and no discrimina- 
tive marks were added to the papers. To Addison Tickell 
has ascribed 23. The Spectator had many contributors ; 
and Steele, whose negligence kept him always in a tmrry, 
when it was his turn to furnish a paper, called loudly for 
the letters, of which Addison, whose materiak were more, 
made little use; having recourse to .sketches and hiiity, 
tile product of his former studies, which he now reviewed 
and.^ completed : among these are named by Tickell the 
•* Essays on Wit,*' those on the " Pleasures- of the Imagina- 
tion," and the " Criticism on Milton." 

When the bouse of Hltnover took possessigii ^f tim 




AD D 1 S O N, 

tbfone, it wis reasoDable to expect that the zeal of Addisoft 
would be suitably rewarded. Before the arrival of king 
George be was made secretary to the regency, and was 
required by his office to send notice to Hanover that th^ 
queen was dead, and that tbe throne was vacant. To do 
this would not have been difficult to any man but Addison^ 
vrho was so overwhelmed with :the greatness of the event, 
and so distracted by choice of expression, that the lords, 
who could not wait for the niceties of criticism, called Mr. ^ 
Southwell, a clerk in tbe house, and ordered him to dispatch 
the message. Southwell readily told what was necessary, 
in the common style of business, and valued himself upon 
having done what was too hard for Addison. He was hetter 
qualified for the Freeholder, a paper which 'he published 
twice a week, from Dec. 23, 1715, to the niiddle of the 
next year. This was undertaken in defence of the esta*- 
blished government, sometimes with argument, sometimes 
with mirth. In argument he had many equals ; but his 
humour was singular and matchless. 

On the 2d of August 1716, he married the countess 
dowager of Warwick, whom he had solicited by a very long, 
^nd anxious courtship. He is said to have first known h^r 
by becoming tutor to hdr son. The marriage, if uncontra- 
dicted report can be credited, made no addition to his, 
happiness ; it neither found them nor made them equaL 
She always remembered her own rank, and j^ught herself 
intitled to treat with very little ceremony ihe tutor of her 
son. It is certain that Addison has left behind him no en« 
couragement for ambitious love. The year after, 1717, 
he rose to his highest elevation : being made secretary of 
state : but it is universally confessed that he was unequal 
to the duties of his place. In the House of Commons he 
could not speak, and therefore was useless to the defence 
of the government. In the office he could not issue an 
ord^r without losing his time in quest of fine expressions. 
What he gained in rank he lost in credit ; and finding, by 
experience, his own inability, was forced to solicit his dis- 
mission, with a pension of 1500/. a year. His friends pal- . 
liated this relinquishment, of which both friends and enemies 
knew the true reason, with an account of declining health, 
and the necessity of recess and quiet. He now returned to 
his vocation, and began to plan literary occupations for his 
future life. He proposed a tragedy on the death of So* 
crates ; a story of which, as Tickell remarks, the basi9 ii| 


tmrrow, and to which love perhaps could not easily have 
been appended. He engaged in a noble work, a defence 
of the Christian religion, of which part was-pubtished aftei: 
his death ; and he designed to have made a new poetical 
version of the Psalms. It is related that he had once a 
design to make an English dictionary, and that he consi« 
dered Dr. Tillotson as the writer of highest authority. 
Addison, however, did not conclude his life in peaceful 
studies ; but relapsed, when he was near his end, to st 
political question. It happened diat, in 1719, a con- 
troversy was agitated, with great vehemence, between 
those friends of long continuance, Addison and Steele* 
The subject of their dispute was the earl of Sunderland's 
memorable act, called " The Peerage bill," by which th^ 
number of peers should be fixed, and the king restrained 
from any new creation of nobility, unless when an pld 
family should be extinct. Steele endeavoured to alarm the 
nation by a pamphlet called " The Plebeian :'* to this an 
answer was published by Addison under the title of *' The 
Old Whig.'! Steele was respectful to his old friend^ 
though he was now his political adversary ; but Addison 
could not avoid discovering a contempt of his opponent, to 
whom he gave the appellation of '^ Little Dicky." The 
bill was laid aside during that session, and .Addison died 
before the next, in which its commitment was rejected. 
Every reader surely must regret that these two illustrious 
friends, after so many years passed in confidence and endea^-* 
ment, in unity of interest, conformity of opinion, and fel- 
lowship of study, should finally part in acrimonious oppo- 
sition.— The e^d of this useful life was now approaching. 
Addison had for some time been oppressed by shortness of 
breath, which was now aggravated by a dropsy; and find- 
ingj his danger pressing, he prepared to die conformably 
to his own precepts and professions. During this linger- 
ing decay, he sent, as Pope relates, a message by the earl 
of Warwick to Mr. Gay, desiring to see him. Gay, who 
had not visited him for some time before, obeyed the 
aummons, and found himself received with great kindne$9. 
The purpose for which the interview had been solicited was 
then discovered : Addison told hini, that he had injured 
him ; but that, if he recovered, he would recompense him. 
What the injury was he did not explain, nor did Gay ever 
know; but supposed that some preferment designed for 
him had by Addison^s intervention be^n withheld. 
Vol. I. * M 

162 AD D I S O N. 

Lord Warwick was a young man of very irregular life, 
and perhaps of loose opinions. Addison, for whom he did 
not want respect, had very diligently endeavoured to re-^ 
claim him ; but his arguments and expostuls^tions had no 
^ffect; one experiment, however, remained to be tried. 
When he found his life near its end, he directed the young 
lord' to be called ; and, when he desired, with great ten-^ 
derness, to hear his last injunctions, told him, ^* I have 
ftent for you that you may see how a Christian can die.'* 
What effect this awful scene had on the earl's behaviour 
is not known : he died himself in a short time. Having 
given directions to Mr. Tickell for the publication of his 
works, and dedicated them on his death-bed^ to his friend 
Mr. Craggs, he died June 17, 1719, at Holland- house, 
leaving no child but a daughter, who died in 1797, a^ BiU 
ton, near Rugby, in Warwickshire. 

Of the course of Addison's familiar day,^ before his mar- 
riage, Pope has given a detail. He had in the house with 
him Budgell, and perhaps Philips. His chief companions 
were Steele, Budgell, Philips, Carey, Davenant, and col. 
Brett. With one or other of these he always breakfasted. 
He studied alt morning; then dined at a tavern, and went 
afterwards to Button's. From the coffee-house he went 
again to the tavern, where he often sat late, and drank too 
much wine. Dr. Johnson^s delineation of the character of 
Addison concludes by observing with Tickell, that he em- 
ployed wit on the side of virtue and religion. He not only 
made the proper use of wit himself, but taught it to others ; 
and from^ his time it has been generally subservient to the 
cause of reason and trutb. He has dissipated the prejudice 
that had long connected gaiety with vice, and easiness oi 
manners with laxity of principles. He has restored virtue to 
its dignity, and taught innocence not to be ashamed. Thb is 
an elevation of literary character, " above all Greek, above 
all Roman fame." No greater felicity can genius attain 
than that of having purified intellectual pleasure, sepairated 
mirth from indecency, and wit from- licentiousness ; of 
having taught a succession of writers to. bring elegance and 
gaiety to the aid of goodness ; and, to use expressions yet 
more awful, of having "turned many to righteousness.*' 
As a descrlber of life and manners, he must be allowed ta 
stand perhaps the first of the foremost rank. His humour, 
which, as Steele observes, is peculiar to himself, is so 
happily diffused as to give die grace of novelty ta domestic 



scenes and daily occurrences. He never "outsteps the 
modesty of nature,V nor raises merriment or wonder by 
the violation of truth. His figures neither divert by dis* 
tortion, nor. amaze by aggravation. He copies life with 
so much, fidelity, that he can be hardly said to invent : yet. 
his exhibitionii have an air so much original, that it is dif- 
ficult to suppose them not merely the product of imagTna- 
tion. As a teacher of wisdom he may be confidently fpU 
lowed. His religion has nothing in it enthusiastic or su- 
perstitious ; he appears neither weakly credulous nor wan- 
tonly sceptical ; his morality is neither dangerously lax, 
nor impracticably rigid. All the enchantment of fancy and 
all the cogency of argument are employed to recommend 
to the reader his real interest, . the care of pleasing the 
Author of his being. Truth is shewn sometimes as (he 
phantom of a vision, sometimes appears half*veiled in to 
allegory ; sometimes attracts regard in the robes of fancy, 
and sometimes steps forth in the oonfidence of reason. She 
wears a thousand dresses, and in all is pleasing—" MilU 
habet ornatiiSy mille decenter habeV^ 

His prose is the n^odel of the middle style ; on gravQ 
subjects not formcal, on light occasions not grovelling; 
pure without scrupulosity, and exact without apparent 
elaboration ; always equable, and always easy,- without 
glowing words or pointed sentences. Addison n€ver de« 
viates from his tracl^.to snatch a grace; he seeks no am- 
bitious ornaments, and tries no hazardous innovations. His 
page is always luminous, but never blazes in unexpected 
splendour. It seems to have been his principal endeavour 
to avoid all harshness and severity of diction ; he is there- 
fore sometimes verbose in hi^ transitions and connections^; 
and sometimes descends too much to the language of con- 
versation y yet if his language had been less idiomatical, it 
might have lost somewhat of its genuine Anglicisni. What 
he attempted, he performed ; he is never feeble, he 
did not wish to be energetic ; he is never rapid, and be 
never stagnates. His sentences have neither studied am- 
plitude, nor affected brevity : his periods, though not di- 
ligently rounded, are voluble and easy. Whoever wished 
to attain an English style, familiar but not coarse, and 
elegant but not ostentatious, must give his days and nights 
to the volumes of Addison. ^ 

1 This life, which appeared in the preceding edition of this Dictioirary, b sr 
abridgement of that written by Dr. Johnson for the Engl'uib P90t»« lo th« tiCMift 

M 2 ' 

1«4 A D E L B O L D. 


ADELBOLD, bishop of Utrecht, was boi*n aboat the 
end of the tenth century, of a noble family in the bishop- 
tick of Liege, wherfe, and at Rheims, he was educated, 
and acquired so much reputation, that Henry II. of Ger- 
many invited him to his court, admitted him in his council^ 
made him chancellor, and at last bishop of Utrecht. These 
promotions appear to have inspired him with an ambi- 
tion unbecoming his office, and some of his years were 
spent in a kind of plundering war oni account of certain 
possessions which he claimed as his right. His latter days 
were more honourably employed in promoting learning, 
and in founding churches in his diocese. He erected the 
cathedral of Utrecht, of which a part still remains, and de- 
dicated it in the presence of the Emperor. His acti^ty in 
advancing the prosperity of the bishoprick ended only with 
his life, Nov. 27, 1027. His chief literary work was a life 
of his benefactor Henry II. with a judicious preface on the 
qualifications of an historian ; and from his fidelity and ex- 
actness, it has been regretted that a part only of this work 
was completed. It was . published first in the ^* Lives of 
the Saints of Bamberg,'* by Gretser, 1611, and afterwards 
by Leibnitz in *' Script, rer. Brunswic." He wrote also a 
treatise ** de ratione inveniendi crassitudinem Spherse,'* 
printed by B. Pez, in the third volume of his " Thesaurus 
Anecdotorum.** His life of St. Walburgh, and some other 
worksy are still in manuscript. His style is clear, easy, 
and even elegant, and entitles him to rank among the best 
Writers of his age. ' 

edition of the Biographia Britannicft are many additional particulars, and am 
able defence of Addison from the charges of Pope, by Mr. Justice Blackstone. 
Beferences may also be made for future collections respecting the life and 
writings of ^Addison, to the British Essayists, Prefttces to vol. I. VI. and JCVI. 
-^Swift's and Pope's works, /^M^ifft.— BoswelPs Life of Johnson and Tour.— - 
Victor's VITorks, Vol. I. p. 87, 88, 328-9.— Lord Orford's Works, vol. IV. p. 453. 
—Nichols's Poems.—- Dr. Johnson's Works^ pafn'm-^Many letters and anecdotes^ 
in theOent |kfag.'i<-Beattie*s Dissertations, p. 198, 632. — Forbes's Lifeof Beattie. 
•— Whiston's Life.— -Malone's Dryden, vol. 1. 495, 540.-— Seward's Anecdotes, 
▼ol. II. 281.— Hutchinson's Hist, of Cumberland, vol. H. 358.— Blair's Lectures 
€>n RheU>ric.«^ibber*s Lives.— Richardson's Correspondencc-r-Ruffhead's Life 
of Pope, p. 109, 142—150, 312, 4to edit.— Warburton's Letters. His works 
)iave been so often reprinted, that it is now impossible to reckon the editions. 
The best, probably, is the last, published in six vols. Svo, with the notes of the 
jate venerable Dr. Hurd, bishop of Worcester. Many particulars respecting 
Addison will likewise be found in the octavo editions of the Tatler, Spectator, 
and Guardian, and in the authorities referred to in the preceding works. 

> MorcTJ.-^Biographie Universelle, IB ih— Cave, vol. IL— Saxii Onoaas* 

A D £ L B U R N £ R. l$f 

ADELBURNER (Michael), a mathematician and phy- 
aicjan, was born at Nuremberg, in 1702. He was at first 
intended for his father's business, that of a bookseller, but 
appears to have gone through a regular course of study at 
Altdorf. In 1735, he published his ^^ Commercium liter 
rarium ad Astronomia^ incrementum inter hujus scientise 
amatores communi consilio institutum,'' Nuremberg, 8vo; 
ivhich procured him the honour of being admitted a mem- 
ber of the royal academy of Prussia. In 1743 he was 
invited to Altdorf to teach mathematics, and three years 
after was made professor of logic. He died in 1779. He 
published also a monthly work on Celestial Phqpomen^ in 


APELMAN, bishop of Brescia, whose name has been 
handed down with much honour by Roman catholic writers, 
flourished in the 1 1th century. He was at first clerk of the 
church of Liege ; and then president of the schools. He 
had studied at Chartres under the celebrated Fulbert, and 
had for his schoolfellow the no less celebrated Bereuger, 
to whom he wrote a letter endeavouring to reconcile him 
to the doctrine of transubstautiation. This appears to 
have been about 1047. In 1048 he was appointed bishop 
of Brescia, where he died, according to some, in 1057, 
or according to others, in 1061. His letter to Berenger 
was printed for the first time at Louvain, with other piece$ 
on the same subject, in 1551 ; and reprinted ia 1561, 8vo. 
It has also appeared in the different editions of the Biblioth. 
Patrum. The canon Gagliardi printed a corrected editipUf 
with notes, at the end of the sermons of St. Gaudentiu^ 
•Padua, 1720, 4to. The last edition ivas by C. A. Schmid, 
Brunswic, 1770, *8vo, with Berenger^s answer, and other 
pieces respecting Adelman. Adelman likewise wrote a poem 
*^ De Viris illustribus sui temporis,'' which Mabillon printed 
•in the first volume of his Analecta. ' 

ADELUNG (John Christopher), a learned German 
grammarian, and miscellaneous writer, was born Aug. 3Q, 
1734, at Spantekow, in Pomerania ; and after studying 
, some time at Anclam and Closterbergen, finished bis edu- 
cation at the university of Halle. In 1759 he was appointed 
professor of the academy of Erfurt, which be relinquished 
about two years after, and settled at Leipsic, w^ere, icL . 

' } Morcri.^-Biographie UDiTfrselle,<«»Saxii Onomatticon««»CaT(| 

166 A D E L U N G. 

I787| he 11^ made Kbrsrian to the elector of Dresden ; 
Itndherehe ^ed of a hemorrhoidal- complaint, Sept. iO^ 
1806^) aged 72, aocording to our authority ; but the Diet. 
Hist, fixes his birth in 1732, which makes him two years 
t>lder« • Adehing performed for the German language 
what i^e French academy, and that of De la Criisca, have 
done lor the French and Italian. His ^^ Grammatical and 
<L)ritical Dictionary,'' Leipsic, 1774 — 1786, 5 vols. 4to, a 
^ork of acknowledged merit and vast labour, has been al- 
ternately praised and censured by men of learning in Ger- 
inakny ; some say that it excels Dr. Johnson's dictionary of 
the English- language in its definitions and etymologies, 
. but falls short of it in the value of his authorities. This 
latter defect has been attributed either to the want of good 
authors in the language at the time he was preparing his 
work, or to his predilection for the writers of Upper Sax- 
ony. He considered the dialect of the margraviate of 
Misnia as the standard of good German, and rejected every 
4thing that was contrary to the language of the better 
classes of society, and the authors of that district. It was 
diso his opinion that languages are the work of nations, 
and not of individuals, however distinguished ; forgetting 
that the language of books must be that of men of learning. 
'Voss and Campe in particular reproached him for the 
omissioite in bis work, and his partiality in the choice of 
Authorities. In 1793*-^1301, a new edition appeared in 
4 vols. 4 to, Leipsic, with additions, but which bore no 
•proportion to the improvements that had been made in 
the language during the interval that elapsed from the 
publicisition of the first. 

Adelung's other works are: 1. ^' Glossarium manuale 
ad scriptoresmediietinfimeB Latinitatis," Halle, 1772 — 84, 
6 vols}. 8vo, an abridgement of Du Cange and Charpentier. 
2. Three " German Grammars :" the first is a treatise on 
the origin, changes, structure, &c. of the language, Leip^ 
•^ic, 1782, 2 irols. 8vo; the two others are school-books, 
and have been often reprinted. 3. " A treatise on the 
German Style,'* Berlin, 1785, 1788, 1790, 2 vols.; es- 
' teemed one of the best books, in any language, on the 
philosophy of rhetoric, 4. *^* Jceciier's Dic- 
tionary of Literary Men," 1784 ^nd 1787, 2 vols. 4to; this 
goes no farther than letter I. 5. " History of Human Folly, or 
the Lives of the most celebrated Necromancers, Alchymists, 
Exorcists, Diviners, &c." in seven parts, Leipsic, 1785 

AD E LU[ N G. 167 

to 1789. 6. ^^ A species of Cyclopedia of all the Sciences^ 
Arts, and Manufactures, which contribute to the comforts 
of hunaan life," four parts, Leijteic, 1778, 1781, 1788; a 
work of great accuracy, and very comprehejisive. 7. ** Es-f 
say on the history of the Civilization of Mankind," Leipsic^ 
1782, 178S. 8. "The history of Philosophy," 3 vols, 
ibid. 1786, 1787, 8vo. 9. " Treatise on German Ortho-, 
graphy," 8vo> 1787. Many of the best German writers^ 
and AVieland among the rest, have adopted his principles 
in this work; and their example, in the opinion of hist 
biographer, may supply the want of the decisions of an 
academy, or national centre for improvements in language* 
10. " The history of the Teu tones, their language and 
literature before the general migration," Leipsic, 1806, 
8vo. 1 1. " Mithridate, or a universal table of Languages, 
with the Lord's Prayer in one hundred languages," Ber- 
lin, 1806, Svo. The first volume of this work, i^hich 
contains the Asiatic languages, was printed immediateiy 
before his death ; the second, comprizing the languages 
of Europe, was completed and published in 1809, by an 
eminent philologist, M. John Severin Vater, then prQ-» 
fessor at Halle^ now at Konigsberg, who has aU.o. promi^e^ 
a third volume. These two last works are inferior to those 
published by Adelung in his younger days; but hi§ Mithri* 
date is thought superior to the work which Conrad Gessnex 
published under the same title about two centuries before* 
It must be observed, however, that this does not ^i^tract 
from that Author^s merit, as Adelung had not only Gess-? 
ner's work before him, but the improvements of two cen- 
turies on the subject. 

Until near his death, he devoted 14 hours every day 
to study aiid composition, so that his life affords little va- 
riety of event. He was never married ; and it was said of 
him that his writing-desk was his wife ; and his children, 
70 volumes, great and small ; all the produce of his pen. 
He loyed the pleasures of the table, and wines were the 
only article in which he was expensive. His cellar, which 
he used to call his Bibliotheca selectissima, contained 40 
kinds of winej yet, amidst this plenty, his strength of 
constitution, and gaiety of spirit, enabled him to sustain 
his literary labours without injury to his health. He ap- 
pears, upon the whole, to have been one of the most la- 
borious and useful of the modern German writers, an4 

1.68 A D E L U N G. 

justly deserves the character be ha,s received from his coh<# 
temporaries. * ^ 

ADEMAR) or AYMAR, a monk of St. Martial, bom in 
the year 9S8, rendered himself famous, by the active part 
be took in the dispute respecting the pretended apostleship 
of St. Martial, but is now known chiefly by his ^^ Chronicle 
of France" from the origin of the monarchy to 1029. This, 
although neither exact in chronology, or in proper ar-r 
rangement of the events, is said to be very useful to French 
historians in what follows the time of Charles Martel. I^ 
was published by Labbe in his " Nouvelle Bibliotheque 
des Manuscripts,^* and in other collections of French history, 
Mabillon, in his " Analecta," has given the famous letter of 
Ademar^s on the apostleship of St. Martial, and some 
verses or acrostics. ' 

ADENEZ (Le Roi), a writer of romance in the 13tl^ 
century, and probably so called from often wearing the 
laurel crown, was minstrel to Henry III. duke of Brabani; 
and Flanders. In La Valiiere's collection of MSS. are se- 
veral nietrical romances by this author : 1. " The romance 
of William of Orange," surnamed Short-nose, constable 
of France. • There are some extracts from tliis in CatePs 
history of Languedoc. 2. ^f The romance of the Infancy 
of Ogier the Dane," written in rhyme by order of Guy 
earl of Flanders. Of this are several translations pub« 
lished in the 16th century. 3. "The romance of Cleo- 
mades," 'written by order of Maria of Brabant, daughter 
of his patron. This, translated into prose by Philip Ca- 
mus, has been several times printed ; at first, without 
date, at Paris and Troyes; and at Lyons, 1488, 4tO; 
4. ^* The romance of Aymeri of Narbonne." 5. " The 
romance of Pepin and Bertha his wife ;" the facts taken 
from the chronicles in the abbey of St. Denis. A sequel 
to this was written by Girardin of Amiens, as the " Romance 
of Charlemagne, son of Bertha." 6. " The romance of 
Buenon of Commarchis," the least esteemed of all his 
productions, perhaps from the insignificance of his herQ« 
The time of the death of Adenez is not known. ' 

ADER (William), a physician of Toulouse, author of a 
treatise printed under the title : " De aBgrotis & morbis 
in Evangelio," Tolosae, 1620, and 1623, 4to. In this 

* . • 

1 Biographic Universelle.— Diet. Historique. 

^ Biog. Universelle. — Cave, vol. IL— ^Saxii OaomastlceiVk 

? Moreri.— Biog. Universelie.—- Diet. Hist. 

A D E R. I«9 

piece lie examines, whether the maladies which our Savioac 
removed could have been healed by medicine^ and decides 
in the negative ; maintaining that the infirmities healed by 
the Messiah were incurable by the physician's art. W^ 
are told by Vigneul Marrille that Ader was said to have 
composed this book merely to efface the remembrance' of 
another in which he had maintained the contrary. He 
published also '^ De Pestis cognilione, prwvisione, et re« 
mediis,'' ibid. 1628, 8vo ; and a macaronic poem in four 
books in honour of Henry IV. under the title '^ Lou Geii'* 
tilhomme Gascoun, 1610/' Svo ; and another ** Lou Ca- 
tounet Gascoun/' 1612, Svo. He lived at the beginning 
of the 17th century. He wa^ a man of profound eru<* 
dition. ^ 


ADIMANTUS, a heretical writer, who probably flou- 
rished about the latter end of the third century, was a 
zealous promoter of the Manichsean doctrine. He wrote 
a book against the authority of the Old Testament, which 
was much valued by the Manichees, and was answered by 
Augustine. The work is lost, but the atl^wer remains. 
He appears to have been sometimes called Adpas, although 
most writers suppose Addas to have been a different per- 
son. Additional information respecting him may be found 
in Lardner's Works, vol. Ill, pp. 393, 395, 430. 

ADIMARI (Alexander), an Italian, poet, a descendant 
from the ancient family of Adimari, at Florence ; was 
born in 1579. Between 1637 and 1640 he published six 
collections of fifty sonnets each^ under the names of six 
of tlie muses : Terpsichore, Clio, Melpomene, Calliope, 
Urania, and Polyhymnia, which partake of the bad taste of 
his age, in forced sentiments and imagery ; but he was an 
accomplished scholar in the Greek and Latin languages*. 
His translation of Pindar, <^ Ode di Pindaro, tradotte da 
Alessandro Adimari," Pisa, 1631, 4to, is principally va** 
lued for the notes, as the author has been very unfortunate 
in transfusing the spirit of the original. In the i^opsis, 
he appears indebted to the Latin translation of Erasmus 
$chmidt. Of his private history we only know that he 
lived poor and unhappy, and died in 1649.^ 

ADIMARI (Lewis), a satiriclal poet of the same family 
with the preceding, was born at Naples, Sept. 3, 1644^ 

. 1 B'log. UoiTertelle.— Did. Hist. 

* Gen. D&t. Bayle.^Bio^raphi* Um7er^jg]le;^Dict. Uist 18 10, 

170 A D I M A R I. 

and edveated at the university of Pisai where the cele^ 
brated Luca Terenzi was his tutor. He visiteJ, when 
young, the difierent courts of Italy, and wos beloved fof 
bis talents and accomplishments. He received from the 
duke Ferdinand Charles of Mantua, the title of marquis^ 
and gentleman of his chamber. He was also member of 
t))e academy of Florence, of De la Crusca, and many othev 
learned societies. He succeeded the famous Redi 'as pro* 
£essor of the Tuscan language in the academy of Florence, 
afid was likewise professor of chivalry in that of the nobles^ 
HI which science his lectures, which he illustrated with 
apposite passages from ancient and modern history, were 
highly esteemed^ These were never printed, but manu*- 
script copies are preserved in several of the libraries o# 
Florence. His only prose work, a collection of rel^ions 
pieces, was published at Florence, 1706, small 4to, under 
the title ** Prose sacre.** • His poetry consists of : 1. *< Son- 
nets and other lyric pieces,'' and among them, a collec- 
tion of Odes or Can^oni, dedicated to Louis XIV, and 
magnificently printed at Florence, 1693. 2. Some ^' Dra« 
mas," one of which **^Le Gare dell' Amore et dell' Amicitia,** 
Florence, 1679, 12mo, is so rare as to be unnoticed by 
any historian of Italian literature. 3. ^* Five Satires," on 
which his fame chiefly rests ; very prolix, but written iis 
an elegant style ; and as to satire, just and temperate^ 
except where he treats of the fair sex. He died at Flo- 
rence, after a tedious illness, June 22, 1708. * 

ADIMARI (Raphael), born at Rimini about the close 
of the 16th century, devoted his pen to the history of his 
native country, which appeared at Brescia in 2 vols. 4to,' 
1616, under the title of ** Sito Riminense." This history 
is in tolerable repute, though the Italians prefer to it that 
of Clementini. • 

Ai)LER (Philip), an engraver of the 16th century, was 
a German, Ijut we have no account of his life, nor is it 
known from whom he learned the art of engraving, or ra-» 
ther etching, for he made but little use of the graver in 
bis works. At a time when etching was hardly di&covered^ 
and carried to no perfection by the greatest^ artists, he 
produced such plates as not only far excelled all that went 
before him, but laid the foundation of a style, which his 
imitators have, even to the present time, scarcelyjmproved» 

I Biogrnphie Univenelle. ^ Diet. Hist ISIO, ^ 


A D L £ R. 17t 

His point is firm and determined,, and the sbadows broad 
and perfect Although his drawing is incorrect, and his 
draperies stiff, yet he appears to haye founded a school 
to which we owe the Hopfers, and even Hollar himself^* 
Mr. Strott notices only Mo plates now known by him, 
both dated 1518. In one of them he is styled Pbilipas 
Adier Patricius. * 

^ADLERFELDT (GasTAVUs), born n^ar Stockholm in 
1671, studied with great applause in -the university of ^ 
Upsal, and then made the tour of Holland, England, and 
Fiance, On his return Charles XH. gave him the placft 
of a gentleman of his chamber. Adlerfeldt accompanied 
this ptiuce both in his victories and his defeats, and pro- 
fited by the access be had to this monarch, in the compila«> 
tion of his history. It is written with all the exactitude 
that might be expected from an eye-witness. This Swedish 
officer was killed by a cannon ball at the battle of Pultow% 
in 1709; It is on this famous day that his memoirs con-> 
elude. A French translation of them was made by hisson^ 
9nd printed in 4 vols« 12mo, at Amsterdam in 1740. The. 
continuation, giving an account of the fatal battle, was 
written by a Swedish officer.' 

ADLZREITER (John), of Tottenweiss, chancellor to 
the elector of Bavaria, was born at Rosenheim, 1596, stu^ 
died at Munich and Ingolstadt, and served the house of 
Bavaria on many important occasions. He is now chiefly 
known by his ^* Annaies Boicas gentis.^* This work, drawn 
from authentic sources, contains the history of Bavaria 
from the earliest period to the year 1662, when it was pub- 
lished at Munich. Laibnitz republished it in 1710. The 
author died about the time his work hrst appeared, in 

ADO, St. archbishop of Vienhe, in Dauphiny, was 
bom in Gastinois, about the year 800, of an ancient fa* 
mily. He was educated in the abbey of Kerrieres, wheoe 
he embraced a monastic life, and afterwards passed some 
time in the monastery of Prum, but meeting with some 
unpleasa^it circumstances there, be went to Rome, where 
be spent five years in amassing materials for the works 
which he afterwards wrote. On his return he was em«- 
ployed by Remi, archbishop of Lyons, in his diocese, and 
was elected archbishop of Vienne in the year 860. His 

^ Strutt*8 DictioDaiy. s Moreri.— Diet. HisU-— Biographie Uoiverselle. ' Ibid. 


1713 A DO. 

vigilance over bis clergy, his care in the instrnctiou of hi# 
fiocky bi$ frequent visitations throughout hi$ province, and 
the humility and purity of his private life, distinguished 
hiin in an age not remarkable for these virtues. He ap* 
pears to have been consulted alsQ in affairs of state, when 
be gave his opinion, and urged his remonstrances with 
firmness and independence. He died Dec. 16, 875. He 
is the author ofj 1. "An Universal Chronicle," from J^e 
creation of the world, Avhich has been often cited as au«- 
thority for the early history of France. It was printed at 
Paris^ i4fl2, 1522, fol. 1561, dvo; and at Rome, 1745> 
fol. 2. " A Martyrology,". better arranged than any pre^ 
ceding, and enriched by the lives of the saints. It waft 
printed by Rosweide, Antwerp, 1613; and Paris, 164^^^ 
fol. ; and ^ is inserted in the Bibliotheque des Peres. He 
also wrote the life pf St. Didier^ which is in Canisius ; and 
that of St. Theudier, which is in the ^^ Acta Sanctorum.*' ' 
- ADRETS (FRANgois de Beaumont, Baron des), of 
an ancient family in Daupbiny, and a bold and enterplris- 
ing spirit, *was born in 1513. After having served in the 
army with great distinction, he espoused the cause of the 
Huguenots from resentment to the duke of Guise in 1562. 
He took Valence, Vienne, Grenoble, and Lyons, but signal- 
ized himself less by bis prowess and his activity than by his 
i^trocious acts of vengeance. The Catholic writers say, that 
in regard to persons of their communion he was what 
Nero had been of old to the primitive Christians. He put 
his invention to the rack to find out the most fantastic pu* 
nishments, and enjoyed the barbarous satisfaction of in- 
flicting them on all that fell into his hands. At Montbri- 
son and at Mornas, the soldiers that were made prisoners 
^ere obliged to throw themselves from the battlements 
upon the pikes of his people. Having reproached one of 
these wretches with having retreated twice from the leap 
> without daring to take it : ^^ Mons. le baron,'' said the sol- 
dier, ** with all your bravery, I defy you to take it in three.** 
The composed humour of the man saved his life. His 
conduct was far from being approved even by the most 
violent of his party ; admiral Coligny and the prinqe of 
Conde were so shocked at his cruelties, that the goyem* 
ment of Lyons was taken from him ; and piqued at this, 
Des Adrets was upon the point of turning Catholic ; but 
be was seized at Romans, and would have been brought to 

1 Biog. UiuTerselle & Saxii OnoiDa8t<«-Oave^— Fabric. Bibl. Lat. Med. iEtati» 

A D tt E T a. iti 

l^e scaffold^ if the peace, just then concluded, had not 
saved him. He afterwards put his design in execution^ 
and died despised and detested by both parties, Feb. 2,' 
1587. He left two sons and a daughter, who bad no issue* 
Some time before his death, Des Adrets, being at Greno*^ 
bte, where the duke de Mayenne then was, he wanted (a 
revenge the affronts and threats that Pardaillan had given 
him on account of the murder of bis father. He repeated 
several times, tliat he had quitted his solitude to convince 
&U such as might complain of him, that his sword was not 
grown so rusty but that it could always right him* PardaiU 
Ian <lid not think himself obliged to take any notice of this 
bravado of a swordsman then in his 74th year : and De» 
Adrets went back again content with bb rhodoraon* 
tade. The ambassador of Savoy once meeting him on the 
high road alone, with only a stick in his hand, was sur- 
prised at seeing an old man, notorious for his barbarous 
executions, walking without a companion and quite de- 
fenceless, and asked bim of his welfare. '* I have nothings 
to say to you," answered Des Adrets coldly, " unless it be 
to desire you to acquaint your master, that you met the 
baron des Adrets, his very humble servant, on the high 
road, with a white stick in his hand and without a sword, 
and that nobody said any thing to him." One of the sons 
of the baron des Adrets was engaged in the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew. He had been page to the king, whd ordered 
him one day to go and call his chancellor. The magistrate, 
who was then at table, having answered him, that as soon 
as he had dined he would go and receive the commands of 
his majesty : " What !" said the page, ** dare you delay a 
moment when the king commands ? Rise, and instantly 
begone !" Whereupon he took hold of the tabl<e-cloth by 
one corner, and drew the whole of the dinner down upon 
the floor. M. de la Place relates this anecdote (rather im- 
probable it must be confessed) in his ^^ Pieces interes* 
santes," tom. IV ; and adds, that the story being told to 
Charles IX. by the chancellor, the monarch only laughed^ 
and said '^ that the son would be as violent as the father/* 

To this day the name of Adrets is never pronounced in 

Dauphiny without horror. — Such the story usually reported 
of this extraordinary character ; but it is said that Maim** 
bourg, Brantome, Moreri, and Daniel have given some 
exaggerated accounts of hi$ cruelties. Thuanus has justir 

ir4i A D R E T S. 

jfied htm {torn some of the accusations, and particularly in 
affair of Momas, where he was not present. * 

ADRIA (John James), the historian of Mazara in Sicily,- 
and a very eminent physician, who studied Latin at Mazara, 
rhetoric at Panorma, and philosophy and medicine at Na-> 
pies, under the celebrated Augustine Niphus. He took 
Itis doctor's degree at Saiemum in 1510. He afterwards 
practised physic with great success at Palermo, and was 
made a burgess of that city. Charles V. a.fterwards ap- 
pointed him to be his physician, and physician -general of 
Sicily. He died in 1560. His history is entitled " Topo^ 
graphia inclytsB civitatis Mazaris?,^' Panorm. 1515, 4to« 
He wrote also some medrcal treatises on the plague^ ok^ 
bleeding, on the baths of Sicily ; and ^^ Epistola ad Con* 
jugem,** a Latin poem, Panorm. 1 5 1 6. * 

ADRIAN, an author of the 5th century, composed in 
Greek an Inti*oduction to the Scriptures, printed at Augs- 
burg in 1602, 4to, by Hoeschelius. A -Latin translation 
of it may be seen in the Opuscula of Louis Lollioo, 1650, 

ADRIAN, an ingenious and learned Carthusian monk, is 
Ae author of a treatise entitled ** De remediis utriusque 
fortunae,'* the first edition of which, published jCt Cologn, 
1467, 4to, is the most scarce and valuable; the second 
bears date 1471, 4to; the third was printed at Cremona, 
1492, foL In order to avoid confounding this treatise 
with that of Petrarch on the same subject, it is necessary 
to know that the title says : ^^ per quendam Adrianum poe- 
tam preestantem, necnon S. Th. professorem eikimium.'* 
•Jo particulars are known of his birth or death.:* 

ADRIAN, or HADRIAN (Publius iELius), the Roman 
emperor, was bom at Rome Jan. 24, in the year of Christ 
76. His father left him an orphan, at ten years of age, 
under the guardianship of Trajan, and Cselius Tatianus, a 
Roman knight He began to serve very early in the 
armies, having been tribune of a legion before the death 
of Domitian. He was the person chosen by the army of 
Lower Mcesia, to carry the news of Nervals death to Tra- 
jan, successor to the empire. The extravagances of his 
youth deprived him of this emperor^s favour ; bat having 
lecovered it by reforming his behaviour, he was married 

I Gen. Diet, in art. Beaumont. — ^Biographie Uniyersdle.-— Uis lifis hf Alks^ 
1675, 12mo^ and by J. C. Martin, 1803, 8vo. 
t Mangati BiU. > Diet. Hist^^-CaTe. « Ibid. 

A D R I AN. 175 

to Sabina, a grand niece of Trajan^ and the empress PIo-' 
tina became his great friend and patroness. When he was 
qasestor, he delivered an oration in tlie senate ; but bia 
language was then so rough and unpolished, that h^ wua 
hissed : this obliged him to apply to the study of the Latia 
tongue, in which he afterwards became a great proficient^ 
and made a considerable figure for his eloquence. He ac* 
companied Trajan in most of bis expeditions, and particu- 
larly distangitished himself in the second war against the 
Daci ; and having before been quaestor, as well as tribuna 
of the people, he was now successively praetor, governor 
of Panuonia, and consul. After the siege of Atrain Arabia 
was raised, Trajan, who had already given him the govern- 
. ment of Syria, left him the command of the army ; and at 
length, when he found death approaching, it is said he 
adopted him. The realit}' of this adoption is by some dis- 
puted, and is thought to have been a contrivance of Pio- 
tina; however, Adrian, who was then in Antiochia, ai 
floon ^ he received the news of that, and of Trajan^s 
deati), declared himself emperor on the nth of August^ 
117. fie then immediately made peace with the Persians, 
to whom he yielded up great part of the conquests of his 
predecessors ; and from generosity, or policy, he remitted 
the debts of the Roman people, which, according to the' 
calculation of those who have reduced them to modem 
money, amounted to 122,^00,000 golden crowns; and he 
caused to be burnt all the bonds and obligations relating^ td 
those debts, that the people might be under no appre- 
hension of being called to an account £or them afterwards. 
He went to visit all the provinces, and did not return to 
Home till the year 118, when the senate decreed hiiaa 
triumph^ and honoured him with the title of Father of his 
country ; but' he refused both, and desired that Trajan^s 
image might, triumph. The following year he went t6 
Mcesia to oppose the Sarmatce. In liis absence Several per^ 
sons of great worth were put to death ; and though he pro- 
tested he bad given no orders for that purpose, yet the 
odium fell chiefiyupon hira. No prince travelled mor^ 
than Adrian ; there being hardly one province in the em- 
pire which he did not visit. In 120 he went into Gaul, 
and thence to Britsun, where he caused a wall or rampart 
to be built, as a defence against the Caledonians who 
would not submit to the Roman government. In 121 ^e 
^xeturned into France, and theuce to Spaii^ to Mauritoimt 

17« ADRIAN. 

and 9t length intp the East, where he 'quieted the commo^ 
tions raided by the Parthians. After having visited all the 
provinces of Asia, he returned to Athens in 125, where he 
passed the winter, and was initiated in the mysteries of 
{^leusinian Cfres. He went from thence, to Sicily, and 
saw mount Mtm, He returned to Rome the be^nning of 
the year 129 ; and, -according to some, he went again the 
$ame year to Africa; and after his return from thence, tor 
the east. He was in Egypt in the year 132, revisited Syria 
the year following, returned to Athens in 134, and to 
Rome in 135. The persecution against the Christians was 
iprery violent under his reign ; but it was at length suspend- 
ed, in consequence of the remonstrances <^ Quadratus 
bishop of Athens, and Aristides, two Christian philoso* 
phers, who presented the emperor with some booksin fa-« 
your of their religion* He was more severe against the 
Jews ; and, by way of insult, erected a temple to Jupiter 
on mount Calvary, and placed a statue of Adonis in the 
manger of Bethlehem : he caused also the images of swine 
to be engraved on the gates of Jerusalem* 

Adrian reigned 21 years, and died at Baias in 139, in 
the 63d year of his age. The Latin verses he addressed to 
bis soul on his death-bed, shew his uncertainty and doubts 
in regard to the other world. He was a prince adorned 
with great virtues, but they were mingled with great vices. 
He was generous, industi*ious, polite, and' exact ; he 
maintained order and discipline ; he administered justice 
with indefatigable application, and punished rigorously all 
those who did not faithfully execute the offices with which 
they were entrusted: he had a great share of wit, and a 
surprising memory ; he was well versed in most of the po- 
bte arts and sciences, and is said to have written several 
works. On the^ other hand, he was cruel, envious, lasci- 
vious, superstitious, and so weak as to give himself up to 
the study of magic. 

Adrian having no children by Sabina, adopted Lucius 
Aurelius Annius Ceionius Commodus Verus ; but Lucius 
dying the 1st of January 138, he then adopted Titus An- 
toninus, on condition that he should adopt Marcus Annius 
Verus, and the son of Lucius Verus. * 

ADRIAN IV. (Pope), the only Englishman who ever 
)xad the honour of sitting in the papal chair. His name 

1 Crevier's Roman Emperors^-^en. Dtct,-i«iSaxu Onamastic(ni.^Miliieet 
IShtfrch biitory, vol. X. p. 199, et scQq. 



was Nicholas Brekespere ; and he was born aboat the end 
of the 1 ith century, at Langley, near St. Alban's^ in Hert* 
fordshire. His father having left his family, and taken the 
habit of the monastery of St Alban's, Nicholas was obliged 
to submit to the lowest offices in that house for daily sup^ 
port. After some time he desired to take the habit in that 
monastery, but was rejected by the abbot Richard : '^ He 
was examined," says Matthew Paris, ''' and being found 
insufficient, the abbot said to him, Wait, my son, and go 
to school a little longer, till you are better qualified.' ' But 
if the character given of young Brekespere by Pitts be a 
just one, the abbot was certainly to be blamed for reject- 
ing a person who would have done- great honour to his 
house. He was, according to that author, a handsome and 
comely youth, of a sharp wit and ready utterance ; circum« 
9pectin all his words and actions, polite in his behaviour, 
neat and elegant ; full of zeal for the glory of God, and 
that according to some degree of knowledge ; so possessed 
of all the most valuable endowments of mind and body, 
that in him the gifts of heaven exceeded nature: his piety 
exceeded his education ; and the ripeness of his judgment 
and his other qualifications exceeded his age. Having met 
however with the above repulse, he resolved to try his for* 
tune in another country, sknd went to Paris ; where, though 
in very poor circumstances, he apphed himself to his 
studies with great assiduity, and made a wonderful profi- 
ciency. But having still a strong inclination to a religious 
life, he left Paris, and removed to Provence, where he 
became a regular clerk in the monastery of St. Rufus. He 
was not immediately allowed to take the habit, but passed 
some time by way of tris^, in. recommending himself to the 
monks by a strict attention to all their commands. This 
behaviour, together with the beauty of his person, and 
prudent conversation, rendered him so acceptable to those 
religious, that after some time they entreated him to take 
the habit of the canonical order. Here he distinguished 
Wimself so much by his learning and strict observance of 
the monastic discipline, that, upon the deatli of the abbot, 
he was chosen superior of that house ; and we are told that 
he rebuilt that convent. He did not long enjoy this ab* 
bacy : for the monks,, being tired of the governinent of a 
foreigner,, brought a,ccusations against him before pope 
Eugcnius III. who, after having examined their complaint, 
and heard the defence of Nicholas, declared him innocent : 
Vol. L N 


his bolioess, however^ gave the monks leave to choose 
another superiDr^ and, being sensible of the great merit of 
Nicholas,' and thinking he might be. serviceable to the 
church in a higher station, created hmi cardinal-bishop of 
Alba, in 1146. 

In 1 148 Eugenius sent him legate to Denmark and Nor- 
way ; where, by his fervent preaching and diligent instruc- 
tions, he converted those barbarous nations to the Christian 
£aith; and we are told, that he erected the church of Upsal 
into an archiepiscopal see. On his return to Rome, he was. 
received by the pope and cardinals with great marks of 
honour: and pope Anastatius, who succeeded Eugenius, 
happening to die at this time, Nicholas was unanimously 
chosen to the holy see, in November, 1 1 54, and took the. 
name of Adrian. When the news of his promotion reached 
England, Henry 11. sent Robert, abbot of St Alban's, and 
three bishops, to Rome, to congratulate him on his election ^ 
upon which occasion Adrian granted to the monastery of 
St. Alban's, the privilege of being exempt from all episco- 
pal jurisdiction except that of Rome. Next year, kin^ 
Henry having solicited the pope's consent that he might 
undertake the conquest of Ireland, Adrian ve^y readily com- 
plied, and sent him a bull for that purpose, of which the 
following' is a translation : ^^ Adrian, bishop, servant of the 
servants of God, to his most dear son in Christ, the ilius« 
trious king of England, sendeth greeting and apostolical 
benediction. Your magnificence is very careful to spread 
your glorious name in the world, and to merit an immortal 
crown in heaven, whilst, as( a good catholic prince, you fornv 
a design of extending the bounds of the church, of in<~ 
structing ignorant and barbarous people in the Christian 
faith,' and of reforming the licentious and immoral ^ and th^ 
more effectually to put this design in execution, you desir#. 
the advice and assistance of the holy see. We are confi- 
dent, that, by the blessing of God, the success will answer 
the wisdom and discretion of the undertaking. You hav^ 
advertised us, dear son, of your intended expedition inta 
Ireland, to reduce that people to the obedience of tho 
Christian faith ; and that you are willing to pay for every 
house a yearly acknowledgment of one penny to St. Peter, 
promising to maintain the rights of those churches in th^ 
fullest manner. We therefore, being willing to assist you 
in this pious and laudable design, and consenting to your 
petition, do grant you full liberty to make, a descent upoi> 
that island, in order to enlarge the borders of the church. 


to check the progress of immorality, arid to promote the 
spiritual happiness of the natives : and we command the 
people of that country to receive and acknowledge you as 
their sovereign lord ; provided the rights of the churches be 
inviolably preserved, and the Peter pence duly paid: fof 
indeed it is certain (and your highness acknowledges it) 
that all the islands, which are enlightened by Christ, the 
sQn of righteousness, aiid have embraced the doctrines of 
Christianity, are unquestionably St. Peter's right, and be- 
long to the holy Roman church. If, therefore, you resolve 
to pur your designs in execution, be careful to reform the 
manners of that people ; arid commit the government of the 
churches to able and virtuous persons, that the Christian 
religion may grow and flourish, and the honour of God and 
the preservation of souls be effectually promoted ; so shall 
you deserve an everlasting reward in heaven, and leave a 
glorious name to all posterity." His indulgence to this 
prince was so great, that he even consented to absolve him 
from the oath he had taken not to set aside any part of hin 
father's will. The reason of this was, that GeofFry Plan- 
tagenet, earl of Anjou, had by the empress Maud, three 
sons, Henry, Geoflry, and William. This prince, being 
sensible that his own dominions would of course descend to 
his eldest son Henry, and that the kingdom of England and 
duchy of -Normandy would likewise fall to him in right of 
his mother, thought fit to devise the earldom of Anjou to his 
second son Geoffry ; and to render this the more valid, he 
exacted an oath of the bishops and nobility, not to suffer 
his corpse to be buried till his son Henry had sworn to fulfil 
every part of his will. When Henry came to attend his 
father's funeral, the oath was tendered to him ; but for some 
time he refused to swear to a writing, with the contents of 
which he was unacquainted. However, being reproached 
with the scandgtl of letting his father lie unburied, he at last 
took the oath with great reluctance. But after his accession 
to the throne, upon a complaint to pope Adrian that the 
oath was forced upon him, he procured a dispensation from 
his holiness, absolving him from the obligation he had laid 
himself under : and in consequence thereof, he dispossessed 
his brother Geoffry of the dominions of Anjou, allowing 
him only a yearly pension for his maintenance. < 

Adrian, in the beginning of his pontificate, boldly with- 
stood the attempts of the Roman people to recover their 
»ncieut liberty under the consuls, and obliged those magis- 

N 2 

180 A D R I A N. 

trates to abdicate their authority, and leave the government' 
of the city to the pope. In 1 1 55, he drbve Arnold of Bresse 
and his followers out, of Rome. The same year he excom- 
municated William king of Sicily, who ravaged the territo- 
ries Qf the church, and absolved that princess subjects from 
their allegiance. About the same tim6, Frederic, king of 
the Romans, having entered Italy with a powerful army, 
Adrian met him near Sutrium, and concluded a peace with 
bim. At this interview, Frederic consented to hold the 
pope's stirrup whilst he mounted on horseback. After 
which his holipess conducted that prince to Rome, and in 
St. Peter^s church placed the imperial crown on his head, 
to tlie great mortification of the Roman people, who assem- 
bled in a tumultuous manner, and killed several of the im- 
perialists. The next year a reconciliation was brought about 
between the pope and the Sicilian king, that prince taking 
an oath to do nothing farther to the prejudice of the church, 
and Adrian granting him the title of king of the two Sicilies. 
tie built and fortified several castles, and left the papal do- 
minions in a more flourishing condition than he found them. 
But notwithstanding all his success, he was extremely sen- 
sible of the disquietudes attending so high a station, and 
complained of them to his countryman John of Salisbury. 
He died Sept. 1, 1 159, in the fourth year and tenth month 
of his pontificate, and was buried in St. Peter's church, 
near the tomb of his predecessor Eugenius. Besides some 
writings attributed tp this ambitious pope, not yet printed, 
there are, in Lahbe's Concilia, forty-two letters ; and Mar- 
tene, Balusius, Usher, Marca, &c. have brought others to 
light, as may be seen in Fabric. Biblioth. Lat. med. setat. 
and Cave. The most remarkable of those letters are what 
contain the word benefit ium. In Aventini Annal. Bajor. are 
letters between the empercnr and the pope, the authenticity 
of which is still disputed; and those betwixt the bishops of 
Germany and the pope, and the letter of licence to Henry 
II. to conquer Ireland, are in Wilkins's Concil, Britan. The 
famous peace with king William, which so nearly concerns 
the Sicilian monarchy, is in Baronius's Annals. » 
. ADRIAN VI. pope, who deserve* some notice on ac- 
count of his personal merit, was born in Utrecht, 1459, of 
parents reputed mean, who procured him a place among 
the poor scholars in the college of Louvain, where his ap- 
plication was such as to induce Margaret of England, the 

I Biofrraphia Britannica.^-Leland.^-Pitt8.-«-Bow<ir'8 Hist, of Uie Popes, vol*. 
Vl4.<— VValch's Compendious History. 


sister of Edward IV. and widow of Charles duke of Bur* 
^undy, to bear the expences of his advancement to the de- 
gree of doctor. He became successively a canon of St. 
Peter, professor of divinity, dean of the church of Louvain, 
and lastly, vice-chancellor of the university. Recollecting^ 
his own condition,, he generously founded a college at Lou** 
vain, which bears his name, for the education of poor stu- 
dents. Afterwards Maximilian I. appointed him preceptor 
to his grandson Charles V. and sent nim as ambassador to 
Ferdinand king of Spain, who gave him the bishoprick of 
Tortosa. In 1517 he was made cardinal, and during the 
infancy of Charles V. became regent ; but the duties of the 
office were engrossed by cardinal Ximenes. On the death 
of Leo X. Charles V. had so much influence with the car* 
dinals as to procure him to be chosen to the papal chair, in 
1522. He was not, however, very acceptable to the col- 
lege, as he had an aversion to pomp, expence, and pleasure. 
He refused to resent, by fire and sword, the complaints , 
urged by Luther; but endeavoured to reform such abuses 
in the church as could neither be concealed or-deuied. To 
this conduct he owed the many satires written against him 
during his life, and the unfavourable representations made 
by the most learned of the Roman Catholic historians. Per- 
haps his partiality to the emperor Charles might increase 
their dislike, and occasion the suspicion that his death, 
which took place Sept. 24, 1523,, was a violent one. For 
this, however, we know no other foundation, than a pasqui- 
nade stuck upon the house of his physician — " To the de-« 
Hverer of his country." He is said to have composed an epi- 
taph for himself, expressing, that the greatest misfortune of 
his life was his being called to govern. He has left some 
writings, as, 1. " Questiones et Expositiones in IV. Sen- 
tentiarum," Paris, 1512 and 1516, fol.; 1527, 8vo. I" this 
he advanced some bold sentiments against papal iufallibuity* 
Although he wrote the work before he was pope, he re-^ 
printed it without any alteration. 2. " auestiones duod- 
libetic©," Louvain, 1515, 8vo; Paris, 1516, fol. Foppen 
gives a large list of his other writings. His life was written 
by Paulus Jovius, Onuphrius Panvinius, Gerard Moringus, 
a divine of Louvain, and lastly by Gaspar Barman, under 
the title " Analecta Historica de Adriano VI. Irsyecwno, 
Papa Romano,'' Utrecht, 1727, 4to.» 

» Bower,-PIatma.-W«lch.-Foppen B^^l-Belgica-^Jorti^^^^ 
bertwn's Charies V.— Biographic Univtmellcw— 5>^» unowa 

Xto A D R I A N* 

ADRIAN (de Castello), bishop of Bath and Wells ia 
the reigns of Henry VII. and VIIL was descended of ant 
obscure fanaily at Cornetto, a small towii in Tuscany ; bijt 
soon distinguished himself by his learning and abilities, 
and procured several employments at the court of Rome. 
In 1448 be was appointed nuncio extraordinary to Scot- 
land, by pope Innocent VIIL to quiet the troubles in that 
kingdom ; but, upon his arrival in England, being informed 
that his presence was not necessary in Scotland, the con- 
tests tliere having been ended by a battle, he applied him- 
self to execute some other commissions with which be was 
charged, particularly to collect the pope's tribute, or 
Peter- pence, his holiness having appointed him his trea- 
surer for that purpose. He continued some months in 
England, during which time he got so far into the good 
graces of Morton, archbishop of Canterbury, that he re- 
commended him to the king ; who appointed him his agent 
for English affairs at Rome ; and, as a recompense for his 
faithful services, promoted him first to the bishoprick of 
Hereford, and afterwards to- that of Bath and Wells. He 
was enthroned at Wells by his proxy Polydore Vergil, at 
that time the pope's sub-collector in England, and after* 
wards appointed by Adrian archdeacon of Wells. Adrian 
let out his bishoprick to farmers, and afterwards to cardinal 
Wolsey, himself residing at Rome, where he built a mag- 
nificent palace> on the front of which he had the name of 
bis benefactor Henry VII. inscribed : he left it after his 
decease to that prince and bis successors. Alexander VI, 
who succeeded Innocent VIII, appointed Adrian his prin- 
cipal secretary, and vicar-general in spirituals and tem- 
porals ; and the same pope created him a cardinal-priest, 
with the titl^ of St. Chrysogonus, the 3 1st of May, 1503. 
Soon after his creation, he narrowly escaped being poisoned 
at a feast, to which he was invited with some other car* 
dinals, by the pope and his son Caesar Borgia. 

In the pontificate of Julius II. who succeeded Alexander, 
Adrian retired from Rome, having taken some disgu&t, or 
perhaps distrusting this pope, who was a declared enemy 
of his predecessor ; nor did he return till there was a con-r 
clave held for the election of a new pope, where be 
probably gave his voice for Leo X. Soon after he was. 
unfortunately privy to a conspiracy against Leo. His em-m 
barking in the plot is said to have been chiefly owing to his 
t?ireciiting ai^d ?^pplying to hin»self the predictiou qf ^ fgr* 

ADRIAN. 18* 

tune-teller, who had assured him, " that Leo would be 
cut off by an unnatural death, and be succeeded by 
an elderly man named Adrian, of obscure birth, but fa- 
mous for his learning, and whose virtue and merit alon^ 
had raised him to the highest honours of the church.". The 
conspiracy being discovered, Adrian was condemned to 
pay 12,500 ducats, and to give a solemn promise that he 
would not' stir out of Rome. But being either unable to 
pay this fine, or apprehending still farther severities, he 
privately withdrew from Rome ; and in a consistory held 
the 6th of July 1518, he was dedared excommunicated, 
and deprived of all his benefices, as well as his ecclesiastical 
orders. About four years before, he had been removed 
from his office of tlie pope's collector in England, at the 
request of king Henry VIII, and through the instigation of 
cardinal Wolsey. The heads of' his accusation, drawn up 
at Rome, were, ** That he had absent^ himself from that 
city in the time of Julius II. without the pope's leave ; that 
he had never resided, as he ought to have done, at the 
church of St. Chrysogonus, from which he had his title ; 
that he had again withdrawn himself from Rome, and had 
not appeared to a legal citation ; and that he had engaged 
in the conspiracy of cardinal Petrucci, and had signed the 
league of Francis Maria, duke of Urbino, against the pope.'* 
He was at Venice when he received the news of his con- 
demnation : what became of hini afterwards is uncertain. 
Aubery says, he took refuge among the Turks in Asia; but 
the most common opinion is, that he was murdered by one 
of his servants for the sake of his wealth. Polydore Vergil 
tells us, there is to be seen at Riva, a village in the diocese 
of Trent, a Latin inscription on one Polydorus Casamicus, 
the pope's janitor, written by cardinal Adrian ; in which 
he laments his own wretched condition, extolling the 
happiness of his friend, whose death had put an end to 
his miseries. Polydore Vergil gives Adrian a high cha- 
racter for his uncommon learning, his exquisite judgment 
in *the choice of the properest words, and the truly classical 
style of his writings ; in which he was the first, says that 
author, since the age of Cicero, who reidved the purity of 
the Laitin language,, and taught men to draw their know- 
lege from tlie sources of the best and most learned 
The only works of bis that are published are, I , " De Vera 

U4 AD R I A N. 

Philosophic ;" 2. ** De Serrtione Latiiio et de MoBis Latine 
loquendi," 1515, Rome, fol. * 

ADRIANI (Adriands ab Adriano), a Flemish Jesuit, 
|ind a native of Antwerp, entered into the society of the 
Jesuits at Lou vain, in 1544, and was principal for many 
years Ijefore they had a college. In 1551, he made solemn 
profession of the four vows. After the death of St. Ignatius, 
|ie was called to Rome to assist in a general congregation 
for the ^election of a second general of the society. But, 
jfinding himself here involved in disputes and intrigues not 
suited to his disposition, he retired to Flanders, where he 
appears to have led a studious and useful life. He died at 
Louvain, October 18, 1580, after having published, in 
German, several works of the ascetic kind, one of which, 
*' De Divinis Inspirationibus et de Confessione," was trans- 
lated into Latin by Gerard Brunelius, and printed at 
Cologn, 1601, 12mo.» 

ADRIANI (Marcel Virgil), professor of the belles 
lettres, and chancellor of the republic of Florence, was 
born in 1464. He was a very accomplished scholar in the 
Greek and Latin languages. Varchi, in one of his lectures, 
pronounces him the most eloquent man of his time. He died 
3n 1 52 1 , in consequence of a, fall from his horse. In 1518, 
he published a Latin translation of Dioscorides " De Ma- 
teria Medica," with a commentary. About the end of it 
he mentions a treatise, " De mensuris, ponderibus, et co- 
loribus,'* which he had prepared for publication, but which 
has not yet appeared. Mazzuchelli speaks largely of him 
in his " Italian Writers ;'* and more copious notice is taken 
of him by the canon Baudini, in his " Collectio Veterum 
Monumentorum." The translation of Dioscorides, which 
he dedicated to pope Leo X. procured him so much repu- 
tation, that he was called the Dioscorides of Florence. » 

ADRIANI (John Baptist), the son of the preceding, 
was born in 1513, or, as some say, 1511, and died at 
Florence in 1579. In his youth, he carried arms in de- 
fence of the liberties of his country, and afterwards de- 
voted his time to study. For thirty years he taught rhetoric 
in the university of Florence, and enjoyed the friendship 
of the most celebrated of bis contemporaries, Annibal 

t Biog. Brit.—^Saxii OnomastlcoD, art. Hadrtao— >Biographie Univenelle. 

• Moreri.— -Foppen Bibl. Belgic. ; where is a list of his works, 

• Biographre Uuiverselle, 

A D R I A N I. lis 

Caro, Varchi, FlaQiiniOi and the cardinals Bembo and 
Contarini. His chief work, which forms a continuation 
of Gaiociardini, is the history of his own time, entitled 
" Deir Istoria de' suoi tempi/' from 1536 to 1574. Flo- 
rence, 1583, fol. This is a most scarce edition, and more 
vahied than that of Venice, 1587, 3 vols. 4to. The abb6 
Lengiet du Fresnoy, Bayle, and parcicularly Thuanus, 
who has derived much assistance from this work, speak, 
highly of his correctness as a historian. He had the best 
materials, and among others, some memoirs furni^ed by 
the grand duke of Tuscany, Cosmo I. who advised him to 
the undertaking. He is said to have written funeral orations 
on the grand duke, on Charles V. and the emperor Fer- 
dinand ; but we know only of his oration on the ^rand 
duchess, Jane of Austria, which was translated from Latin 
into Itajian, and published at Florence in 1579, 4to, In 
1567 lie published " Lettera a Giorgio Vasari sopra gli 
antichi Pittori nominati da Plinio," 4to. This letter, on 
the ancient painters mentioned by Pliny, which is rather 
a treatise on painting, is inserted by Vasari in the second 
yolume of his lives of the painters. Vasari speaks of him 
as an enlightened amateur of the fine arts, and one whose 
advice was of much importance tQ him when he was em- 
ployed at Florence in the palace of the grand duke. ' 

ADRIANI (Maucel), son of the preceding, born in 1533, 
was so distinguished for his studies, as to obtain, when 
very young, the professorship of rhetoric which his father 
held in the university of Florence. So our authority ; but 
there seems to be some mistake in this date, as he could 
not be vei'y young when he succeeded his father as pro- 
fessor of rhetoric, if his father filled that chair for the space 
of thirty years. — He was, however, a member of the aca- 
demy of Florence, and published his father's history. Hia 
own works are, 1. An Italian translation of ^^ Demetrius 
Phalereus" on eloquence, which be left in manuscript, 
and which was not published until 1738, by Antony Francis 
• Gori, who prefixed a long account of the life and writings 
of the translator ; 2. Two Lectures 6n the " Education of 
the Florentine Nobility," printed in the " Prose Fioren- 
tine,** vol. IV, He also translated Plutarch's Morals, not 
yet published, but much commended by Ammirato and 

1 Moreri.— Biographie Uoivetsellc— Gen. tiicL 

i»6 A D R I A N f . 


Others. Thiere are, two copied in the Laurentian library. 
Adrian died in 1604.* 

ADRIANO, a Spanish painter, born at Cordova, was a 
lay friar of the order of the bare-footed Carmelites. Of 
bis works, which are not numerous, and are to be seen only 
at the place of his birth, the most remarkable is a Cruci- 
fixion, in the manner of Sadel'er, whose style was much 
admired by him. He was so diffident of his own talent* 
that he frequently destroyed his pictures as soon as he had 
executed them, and some were preserved by his friends, 
who begged them from him in the name of the souls in 
purgatory, for whom he constantly put up his prayers. He 
died at Cordova in 1650.* 

ADRICHOMIUS (Christian), a geographer of consi- 
derable note, was born at Delft in Holland, February 14, 
1533. After applying to his studies with much assiduity, 
he was ordained priest in 1561, and was director of the 
nuns of St. Barbara until the civil wars obliged him to take 
refuge first at Mecklin, then at Maestricht, and lastly at 
Cologne, where he died, June 20, 1585. He published 
•^ Vita Jesu Christi, ex quatuor evangelistis breviter con-* 
texta," Antwerp, 1578, 12mo; but the work for which 
he is best known is his " Theatrum Terrse Sanctae,*' or, 
history of the Holy Land, illustrated with maps, and printed 
in 1590, 1595, 1600, 1628, and 1682, fol. ; a proof of the 
esteem in which it was long held, although his authorities 
are tnought to be sometimes exceptionable. The second 
part, which contains a description of Jerusalem, was printed 
by the author in 1584, and was reprinted after his death 
in 1588, and 1592, 8vo. He sometimes took the name 
of Christianus Crucius, in allusion to his banishment and 
sufferings. * 

ADSO (Hermerius or Henry) was born in the begin- 
ning of the tenth century, in the environs of Condat, now 
St. Claude. He studied at the abbey of Luxeuil, which had 
then ^ very famous school, under the direction of the Be- 
nedictines. Being charmed with their mode of life and 
doctrines, he entered into the order, and became abbot. 
His principal writings are the lives of some saints, which 
are not free from the superstitions of the times. Calmet 
has printed his life of St. Mansuetus ; and Mabillon, bi^ 

* Cen. Diet. — Biographic Universelle. * Biograpbie Universelle^ 

^ Fu|)per Bibl. B4|ig.T— Gen. Oiet^^Moreri.^-Saxii Ouomastjcoim 

A D S O. I«T 

iife 6f St. Valbert, or Wandalbett. Cave mentions other 
works of his, but he deserves more credit as one of tbos«i 
vrho laboured in diffusing learning. Such was his repu- 
tation, that many bishops applied to him to establish 
schools in their dioceses, and he was even consulted by 
crowned heads, on these and other subjects of importance. 
He died in Champagne in the year 992. ' 

iEDESIUS, 6f Cappadocia, an ecJectic philosopher of 
the fourth century, was of a family originally noble, but 
reduced to poverty. His parents sent him into Greece to 
learn some means of subsistence, but he returned with only 
a love of philosophy. On this his father turned him out 
of doors ; but at length was prevailed upon to forgive him, 
and even to let him pursue his studies, in which he soon 
surpassed the ablest masters of .his country. In order to 
increase his knowledge, he went to Syria, and became the 
disciple of Jamblicus, and after the dispersion of that school 
by Constantine the Great, he settled at Pergamos, where * 
he had a very flourishing school. What he taught, how* 
ever, was a composition of mysticism and imposture, and 
he even pretended to immediate communication with the 
deities, and to obtain the revelation of future events. The 
time of his birth or death is not ascertained. * 

iEGEATES (John), a Nestorian priest, lived, accord^- 
ing to Vossius, under the emperor Zeno, about the year 
483 ; but Cave is of opinion that he lived some years later> 
as he coHtinjied his history five books after the deposing of 
Peter the Fuller. This was an Ecclesiastical History, be- 
ginning with the reign of Theodosius the younger, when 
Nestorius published his opinions, and ending with the 
reign of Zeno, and the deposition of Peter the Fuller, who 
had usurped the see of Antioclx. He wrote likewise a 
treatise against the council of Chalcedon. Photius praises 
his style, but censures his principles. There is only a 
{iragment extant of his history in the Concilia, vol. VH. 
^nd in the collections of Theodoras Lector. ' 

JEGIDIUIS (surnamed Atheniensis), a Grecian phy- 
sician and philosopher, who flourished in the eighth cen* 
tury, under the emperor Tiberius IL He turned Bene-? 
dictine at last, and. left a great many tracts behind, some 
of which have been in so much credit as to be read in the 
schools. The principal are " De Pulsibus," and ^^ Da 

I MorerL — Cave, vol. II. — ^Bioprraphie UnivcweUe. 

188 iE G I D I U S. 

Venenis/' Some think there is another of tnis name and 
profession, a Benedictine also, and physician to Philip 
Augustus king of France, to whom they attribute a work 
in Latin hexameters, on the same subject, Paris, 1528, irt 
4to ; but this is perhaps only another version. Being ac- 
cidentally wounded with an arrow, he would not suffer the 
wound to be dressed, that he might have an opportunity of 
exercising his fortitude in pain. * 

iEGlDIUS (de Columna), one of the most learned di- 
Tines of the thirteenth century, entered into the Augustine 
order, and studied at Paris imder Thomas Aquinas, where 
be became so eminent as to acquire the title of the Pro- 
found Doctor. He was preceptor to the son of Philip 111. 
of France, and composed for the use of his pupil his trea- 
tise " De regimine Principum," Rome, 1492, fol. The 
Venetian edition of 1498 is still in some esteem. He akd' 
taught philosophy and theology with high reputation at 
Paris. He was preferred by Boniface V HI. to the epis- 
copal see of Berri, and, according to some writers was, by 
the same pope, created a cardinal. He was, however, 
elected general of his order in 1292, and assisted at the 
general council of Vienna in 1311. He died Dec. 22, 1316, 
at Avignon, leaving various works, enumerated by Cave ; 
which afford, in our times, no very favourable opinion of 
bis talents, although they were in high reputation during 
his life, and long after. One only it may be necessary to 
notice as a very great rarity. The title is " Tractatus bre- 
vis et xitilis de Originali Peccato," 4to, printed at Oxford, 
1479^ and is supposed to be the third, or second, or, as 
some think, the first book printed there. Dr. Clarke has 
described it. * 

-SIGIDIUS (John of St. Giles), a learned Englishman 
of the thirteenth dfeutury, wai bom at St. Alban's, and as 
Fuller conjectures, in the parish of St. Giles's in that town, 
jiow destroyed. He was educated at Paris, where he be- 
came eminent in logic and philosophy. He then turned bis 
studies to medicine, and became not only professor of that 
faculty in the university, but a celebrated practitioner in 
the city, and was employed about the person of Philip the 
French king. From Paris he removed to Montpellier, 
where he studied the diseases of the mind ; and on his re-^ 
turn to Paris, confined himself entirely to the study of di-f^ 

' Diet. Hist. — Bibliographical DictioDary. 
^ ^axii Onoinasticon.-«-Brucker« 

iE G I D I U S. \B9 

vinity, and soon became a doctor in that faculty, and a pro- 
fessor in the schools. In 1223 he joined the Dominicans, 
and was the first Englishman of that order. This oeca* 
sioned his removal to Oxford, where the Dominicans had 
two schools, in which he became a professor and lecturer 
both in the arts and in divinity, and was of great service to 
the Dominicans by his personal credit and reputation. A, 
close intimacy took place between him and the celebrated 
Grossetete, bishop of Lincoln, who obtained leave of the 
general of the Dominicans that iEgidius might I'eside with 
him as an assistant in his diocese, at that time the largest 
in England. Leland, Bale, and Pitts ascribe some writings 
to him, but they seem to be all of doubtful authoritv. * 

- iEGIDIUS, or GILES (Peter), a lawyer, was born at 
Antwerp in 1486. He was educated under the care of the 
celebrated Erasmus, with whom he lived afterwards in close 
friendship, as he did with the illustrious sir Thomas More^ 
and other eminent scholars of that age. More introduces 
him in the prologue to his Utopia with high praise, as ^^ a 
inan there in his country of honest reputation, and also pre- 
ferred to high promotions, worthy truly of the highest. 
For it is hard to say whether the young man be in learnuig 
or in honesty more excellent. For he is both of wonder- 
ful virtuous conditions, and also singularly well learned, 
and towards all sorts of people exceeding gentle." Sir 
Thomas adds, that ^^ the charms of his conversation abated 
the fervent desire he had to see his native country, from 
which sir Thomas had been absent more than four months." 
He occurs also with hig-h praise in the life and writings of 
Erasmus. In 1510, on the. death of Adrian Blict, first no* 
tary at Antwerp, he was unanimiously elected into his place. 
He died Nov. 29, 1533. His works are, 1. " Threnodiain 
funus Maximiliani Caesaris, cum Epitaphiis aliquot et Epi« 
grammatum libello," Antwerp, 1519, 4to. 2. " Hypothe- 
sesf sive Spectacula Carolo Y. Caesari ab S. P. Q. Antver,'* 
ib» 4to. 3. " jinchiridion Principis ac Magistratus Chris- 
tianijV Colon. 1541. He edited also " Titulos Legum ex ' 
Codice Theodosiano," Louvain,. 1517, folio.'* 


} Tanner.— rPegge^s Life of Grosseiete. — $axil Onomasticoii. 
« Foppen Bibl. Bel|ic, — Dibdlu'i edition of sir TI108. Mora's Utopia. -^Jur-^ 
fern's Life of firasmus. 

190 JE L F R I C. 



-SLFRIC, successively bishop of Wilton and archbishop 
6f Canterbury, and oi>e of the greatest luminaries of his 
dark age, was the son of an eaYl of Kent, and aft^r receiv- 
ing a few scanty instructions from an ignorant secular 
priest, assumed the habit of the Benedictine order of 
monks in the monastery at Abingdon, oyer which AtheU 
wold then presided, having been appointed abbot in the 
year 955. Athelwold, being created bishop of Winchester 
in the year 693, settled several of the Abingdon monks in 
his cathedral. Among these was iElfric ; who, in return 
for the be!iefit which he had formerly derived from the 
instructions of Athelwold, was now eager to- show bis gra- 
titude, by forwarding the wishes of his benefactor to in* 
struct the youth of his diocese. With this view he dre^ 
up his ** Latin-SaxoTT Vocabulary," and some *' Latin 
Colloquies." The former of these works was published by 
Somner, under the title of a Glossary, Oxon. 1659 (See 
Somner). During his residence in this city, iElfric trans- 
lated, from the Latin into the Saxon language, most of the 
historical books of the Old Testament : the greatest part of 
whieh translations has reached our time, having been print- 
ed at Oxford in 1 698. , Here, likewise, at the request of Wulf-» 
sine, bishop of Sherborn, he drew up what has been, called 
his " Canons," b^t might more properly be styled, a charge 
to be delivered by the bishops to their clergy. They are 
preserved in the first volume of Spelman's Councils, and 
were composed, between the years 980 and 987. Some 
time about this last year, ^Ifric was removed to Ceme 
Abbey, to instruct the monks, and regulate the affairs of 
that monastery* Here it was that he translated, from tjie. 
Latin fathers, the first volume of his " Homilies." After 
remaining in this place about a year, he was made abbot 
of St. Alban's in the year 988, and composed a liturgy for 
the service of his abbey, which continued to be used there 
till Leland's time. In the year 989 he was created bishop 
of Wilton, and during his continuance in that see, trans-* 
lated/ about the latter end of the year 991, a second vo-* 
lume of " Homilies." These are the volumes of which 
Mrs. Elstob issued proposals for a trb^nslation, in 1713, ac- 
companied with the ori^iinal, but did not liv« to publish the 
work. Here also -Slfric wrote his "Grammar," a supple- 
ment to his Homilies, and, probably, ^ t^act dedicated t^ 

• >a: L p R I & f^i 

Sigeward or Sigeferth, coiitaining two epistles on the Old 
and New Testament, which his biographer concludes to 
have been written between the years 987 and 991. In 
S94y he was translated to Canterbury, where, after exert- 
ing himself for some years, with equal spirit and pradence^ 
in defending bis diocese against the incursions of the Danes,' 
he died Nov. 16, 1005. He was buried at. Abingdon,' the 
place where he first embraced the profession of a monk^^ 
whence his remains were afterwards transferred to Canter- 
bury, in the reign of Canute. ' 

JULIAN (Claudius), an historian and rhetorician,' boni 
at Praeneste in Italy, about the year 160^ tauglH rhetoric at 
Rome, according to Perizonius, under the emperor Alex« 
ander Severus. He was surnamed MEXiyXAKr^®-, Honey-* 
tongue, on account of the sweetness of his style. He wa4 
likewise honoured with the title of sophist, an appellation 
in his days given only to men of learning and wisdom. He 
loved retirement, and devoted himself to study ; and hi» 
works shew him to have been a man of excellent principles 
and strict integrity. He greatly admired and studied Plato, 
Aristotle, Isocrates, Plutarch, Homer, Anacreon, Archilo-* 
chus, &c. ; and, though a Roman, gives the preference to 
the writers of the Creek nation. His two most celebrated 
works are his " Various History," and that " Of Animals/* 
He wrote also an invective against Heliogabalus, or, as 
some think, Domitian ; but this is not certain, for he gives 
the tyrant, whom he lashes, the fictitious name of GynuLs. 
He composed likewise a book ^* Of Providence,'^ men- 
tioned by Eustathius; and another on divine appearances, or 
the declarations of providence. Some ascribe to him alsiJ 
the work entitled '^ Tactica, or De re Militari ;" but Peri- 
zonius is of opinion, that this piece belonged to another 
author of the same name, a native of Greece. There have 
been several editions of his " Various History." The 
i^^reek text was published . at Rome in 154<5, by Camillus 
Peruscus. Justus Vulteius gave a Latin translation, which 
was. printed separately in 1548 ; and joined to the Greek 
text in a jiew edition, by Henricus Petrus, at Basil, 1555. It 
containsiikewise the works of several other authors, who have 
treated on such subjects as iElian. John.7'omaesius pub^ 
lished tbrj^e several editions at Lyons, in 1537, 1610, and 

. 1 Ed. Howe Moresi de ^ifrico Commentarias, a.G. J« Thorkeliti, 4to, Load* 
W89.— ..\Joiuh. U«y*.voi. II. N. }S. pu ^61. 


1*2 JE L I A N. 


1625/ All these were eclipsed by that of John Scheffenis^ 
in 1647 and 1662 : he rectified the text in many p]ac<^, 
and illustrated the whole with very learned notes and ani- 
madversions. Perizonius gave a new edition in two vo« 
lumes, 8VO9 at Ley den, 1701. He followed the translation 
of Vulteius, which he rectified in many places, together 
with the Greek text, illustrating the most intricate pas- 
sages with learned notes. The niext and best edition of 
this work is that of Abraham Gronovius, who has given the 
Greek text and version of Vulteius, as corrected by Peri- 
zonius, together with the notes of Conrad Gessner, Johu 
Scbefferus, Tanaquil Faber, Joachim Kubnius, and Jac. 
Perizonius ; to which he has added short notes of bis own^ 
and the fragments of iElian, which Kuhnius collected from 
Suidas, Stoba:us, and Eustathius. His treatise on animals 
is in many respects a curious and important work, but, like 
that of Pliuy, often disgraced with ridiculous and fabulous 

iELIANUS (Mecciu^j), a physician of the second cen- 
tury, under the reign of Adrian, was the first who employ -:• 
ed the Tberiaca, both as a remedy and preservative, in the 
plague. Galen in his treatise on the subject, considers him 
as one of the first of his masters, and praises him also for 
his great knowledge and success. ' 

Roman lawyer, and author of the oldest work on jurispru- 
dence, flourished in the sixtii century after the building 
of Rome. He was 'successively asdile, consul, and censor. 
When Cnsus Flavins divulged his formula, the patricians, 
who considered themselves as the depositories of thelaw, 
composed novels, and endeavoured to conceal theni with 
the utmost care. But iElius, when aedile, got access to 
them, and published them. These last obtained the name 
of thciElian law, as what Flavius had published were called 
the Flavian law. It appears also, that notwithstanding what. 
Grotius and Bertrand have advanced, he was the author of 
a work entitled the "Tripartite," by far the oldest work 
on the subject. It was so called as containing, 1. The 
text of the Law; 2. Its interpretation ; and 3. The forms 
of procedure. He was appointed consul in A. U. C. 5S&^ 
at the end of the second Punic war; and was distinguished 

1 Gen. Diet— Fabric^ Bibl. Graec— Saxii OnofidasticoD. — Bibliographical 
Dictionary. t Bi^graphie Uaiver3eUe. 

JE L I V S. 195 

for his homely diet, and sunple manners, tod his rejecting 
of presents^ ^ 


AELST (Evert, or Everhard Van), a Dutch painter, 
bom at Delft in 1 602, acquired a great reputation by his 
delicate manner of painting fruit, still life, and dead game. 
He was exact in copying every thing after nature, dispos- 
ing them with elegance, and finishing his pictures with 
neatness, and transparency of colour. Whether he paint- 
ed dead game, fruit, helmets with plumes of feathers, or 
vases of gold and silver, to each he gave a true and striking 
resemblance of nature, and an extraordinary lustre to the 
gold, silver, and steel. He died in 1658. * 

AELST (William Van, called in Italy GuuELMO),wa$ 
the nephew and disciple of the preceding, born at Delft in 
1620, and arrived at a much higher degree of perfection 
than his instructor. In his youth he went to France, and 
exercised his art there for four years, and afterwards to 
Rome, where he resided for seven years ; and in both places 
was encouraged by the patronage of persons of the first 
distinction. In 1656, he returned to his own country, 
and settled at Amsterdam, where his pictures were highly 
valued, and sold at a very great price. Some of them are 
still in the collections of the amateurs of that city. Van 
Aelst knew his own merit, and would not submit to disre- 
spect. On one occasion when a burgomaster of Amster^ 
dam gave him a very haughty answer in a matter of some 
importance to him, he opened his breast and shewed him 
a gold chain and medal which the grand duke of Tuscany 
had given him, adding, <^ You came into the woild with a 
sack of money, that is all your merit : as to mine, it is in 
my talents." Like his uncle he employed himself chiefly 
on still life, and his pencil was so light, and his touch so 
delicate, that the objects he painted seemed real. He died 
in 1679.* 

^MILIANI (St. Jerome), a nobleman, born at Venice 
in 1 481, carried arms in his youth, and was taken prisoner. 
On his release be made a vow to dedicate his liiTe to the 
care of orphans, and accordingly collected a considerable 
number of them in a house, where they were educated in 
virtue and industry. This laid the foundation of the regu- 
lar clerks of St. Maieul, who are also called the fathers of 

> Biographie UiiiTenelle.— Gen. Diet 

• Pimington't Diet,— JBiographt« UfUTenselle. ' Ibid. 

Vol. I. O 

19% JE M I L I A N I. 

Sottias^uo, from the place where he first established thcif 
communitj^. They were afterwards successively confirm* 
ed \>y the popes Paul III. and Pius IV. Their chief occu- 
pation was to instruct young persons in the principles of 
the Christian religion, and particularly orphans. He ap- 
pears to have been a man of a most humane disposition ; 
and in 1528, when plague and famine raged in Italy, he 
sold even his furniture to assist the poor. He died in 1537, 
and was admitted into the number of saints by Benedict 
XIV* Andreas Stella, the general of the Somasques, wrot6 
his life. ' 

iEMILIUS (Anthony), professor of history in the uni- 
versity of Utrecht, was born Dec. 20, 1589, at Aix-la* 
Chapelle, whither his father John Meles (Latinized by his 
son into ^milius) had fled on account of his attachment tA 
the Protestant religion. He studied first at Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, and afterwards at Juliers under Kunius, and at Dort 
under Adrian Marcellus, and Gerard Vossius. At Leyden, 
he attended the lectures of Baudius, and spent four years- 
in visiting the foreign universities. On his return, in 
1615, he succeeded Vossius as rector of the coUeg^e at 
Dort. At Utrecht lie was^ some years after, appointed 
professor of history ; the subjects of the lectures which he 
gave for above twenty-six years, were taken from Tacitus. 
He was a firm supporter of the Cartesian philosophy, and 
refused to have any hand in the proceedings of the univer- 
sity of Utrecht again^ Des Cartes. He "died Nov. 10, 1660. 
His only publication was a " Collection of Latin Orations 
and Poems," 1651, l2mo.* 

JEMlllUS (Paulus). See EMILIUS. 

.^NEAS, or iENGUS, an Irish abbot, or bishop, and 
historian, of the eighth century, called Hagiographus, 
from his having written the lives of the saints, desqended 
from the kings of Ulster ; and was reputed one of the Coli- 
dei, or Culdees, worshippers of God, on account of his 
great piety. The accounts we have of him are rather con- 
fused ; but it appears that he took extraordinary pains in 
compiling ecclesiastical histoiy and biography, under the 
names of martyrology, fastology, &c. Sir James Ware 
iays, that his martyrology wjls extant in his time. Moreri 
gives an account of it, or of a diffeirent book under thr 

^ Mosheim.— Dictionnaire Historiqu*, 1810* ^. 

* QcB. 2>i(au««-SiH(u Onoinaiticoii. ^ 


;E N E A S. 195 

title ^^ De Sanctu Hibemiae,^ which sihews die |n&t labour 
bestowed on it, or the fertility of his iavefition in bringing 
together such a mass of bio^aphical legends. It consists 
of five books : The first comprehends three hundred and 
ft)rty-five bishops, two hundred and ninety- nine priests or 
abbots, and seventy-eight deacons, all men of eminence 
for their piety. The second book, entitled the Book of 
homofwmieSf is a wonderful piece of labour, and compre- 
hends all the saints who have borne the same name. The 
third and fourth gives an account of their families, parti* 
cularly the maternal pedigree of two hundred and ten Iridt 
saints. The fifth book contains litanies and invocations of 
saints, &c. He is said also to have written the history of 
the Old Testament in very elegant verse, and a psalter 
called Na-rann, which is a collection, in prose and verse^ 
Latin and Irish, concerning the affairs of Ireland. He ia 
thought to have died either in the year 819, 824, or 830. » 

iENEAS (Gazeus), a Platonic philosopher in the fifth 
century, embraced Christianity^ and wrote a dialogue en* 
titled " Theophrastus," from the principal speaker, in 
which he treats of the immortality of the soul and the re- 
surrection of the body. He appears to have been extreme- 
fy credulous in miracles. This was printed, with a Latin 
translation, and the notes of Gaspard Barthius, by Bower, 
Leipsic, 1655, 4to. John George Justiniani published an- 
other edition at Genoa, 1645, ^< cum variorum epistolia 
Ahdreolo Justiniano ^criptis." A translation, with oth^ 
pieces, was published by Wolfius, Basle, 1558, 2 vols. 
8vo, and 1561, fol. It is also printed in Gesner^s " Libri 
Gr®ci Theologorum GrsBcorum," Zurich, 1559 — 1560, fol. 
Cave says, that the first Latin translation was published at 
Basle in 1 5 1 6, by Ambrosius Camaldulensis. * 

iENEAS (SiLVius). See PIUS IL 

^NEAS (TACTifcus), probably, according to Casaubon, 
a native of Stymphalus, an ancientcity of the Peloponnesus 
16 one of the oldest authors on the art of war : he is sup- 
posed to have lived in the time of Aristotle, or about the 
year $61 B. C. ; and to have been emperor of Arcadia, and 
commander at the battle of Manttnea. Gasauboii publisih- 
ed his work, with a Latin translatron, along with his edition 
<lf *Polybiu», foL Paris, 1 60^. It wa« repdbli^cd by -Scri- 

►IHorcri,— Tanner.— Ware de Script. Hibem.— Nicolion'f Hiftpnofti ilbrtry. 
* ««I4 niot.«-^STe rol. I.-fi«xii Onomastitoiil ' 


19e JE N E A S. 

veriuSy Lej^len, 1633, ISmo,, with Vegetias and oflier^ ott 
military affairs; and the Count de Beausobre published a 
French translationi with other pieces on the same subject^ 
and a learned commentary, Paris, 1757, 2 vols. 4to.' 

JEPINUS (Francis-Marie-Ulrick-Theodore), a Ger- 
man physician of considerable eminence, was born at Ros- 
tock, Dec^ 13, 1724, and died at Dorpt, in Livonia, Aug« 
1802. He is best known to the learned world by his 
^^ Tentamen theorisB Electricitatis et Magnetismi,** Per 
tersburgh, 4to ; of which M. HaUy pubUshed an abridge-^ 
ment and analysis, Paris, 1787, 8vo. In 1762 he also pub- 
lished ** Reflections on the distribution of Heat on the sur- 
&ce of the Earth," translated afterwards into French by 
Raoult de Rouen, and wrote several papers in the memoirs 
of the academy of Petersburgh. He was likewise among^ 
the first who made correct experiments on the electricity of 
the tourmalin, and published the result in a small volume, 
8vp, Petersburgh, 1762. His reputation has been much 
greater on the continent, than among the philosophers of 
our country; probably owing to the very slight and almost 
unintelligible account which Dr. Priestley has given of hia^ 
** Tentamen," in his history of Electricity. The hon. Mr. 
Cavendish has done it more justice in thQ Philosophical 
Transactions, vol. LXI, where his own excellent dissertation 
is an extensive and accurate explanation of iEpinus's theory. 
But a more elaborate analysis has since appeared in Dr. 
Gleig's supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to 
which we refer our readers.^ 

^PINUS (John), a fellow-labourer with Luther in pro- 
moting the Reformation, was bom 1499, in the Marche of 
Brandenburgh. His family name was Huch, or Hech, 
which he changed to ^pinus, a custom very common with 
the learned men of his time. He was originally a Francis- 
can firiar, and entered that society when in England ; but 
on his return to Germany he studied under Luther, whose 
religious principles he adopted, and propagated with zeal, 
fir&t at Stndsund, and afterwards at Hamburgh, where, as 
pastor of the church of St. Peter, and ecclesiastical in- 
spector, he obtained great influence. In 1547, when 
Charles V. endeavoured to obtrude the Interim on the Pro- 
testantSy after he had defeated their forces, and after the. 

< den. Diet— Saxii Onomasticon.— Fabric. Bibl. Gr. . ^ 

• Biographit ViUTergeUe.«*J>r« Glcig's ;Suppl«^«iit to tit« Eacyclop, Brit, avt. 

^SPINUS. 197 

^eatii of Luther, he opposed this species of formulary, or 
confession of feith, so called because it was <ml]r to take 
place in the tnterimf until a general council should decide 
all the points in question between the Protestants and Ca« 
tholics. It indeed satisfied neither party, and the Lutheran 
preachers refused to subscribe to it Those who did sub** 
scribe got the name of adiapharisUj or indifferent or luke* 
warm persons, against whom ^pinus contended, both iti 
the pulpit and press. He died May 13, } 553, leaving se* 
veral works, of which Melchior Adam has giren the sub- 
jects, but no notice of the dates, or proper titles/ In 
learning, zeal,, and intrepid spirit, he was equal to most of 
his contemporaries who opposed the church of Rome^ ' 

£RIUS, an Arian presbyter, or monk, of the fourth cen- 
tury, had a contest with Eustatfaius for the bishoprick of 
Sebastia and Armenia; and being . disappointed, endea- 
voured to lessen the power and dignity of the episcopal 
order, by maintaining that bisdiops were not distinguished 
from presbyters by any divine right, but that according to 
the institution of the New Testament, their offices. and au- 
thority were absolutely the same. As about this time there 
were some bishops who had given offence by their arro- 
gance, these opinions of ^rius became highly popular, and 
he was enabled to form a considerable sect, named Brians. 
He also condemned |»rayers for the dead^ stated fasts, and 
the celebration of Easter ; but whether these were consti- 
tuent principles with his followers, does not appear. Both 
they and he, however, were opposed by the Arians ; and 
by the church at large, excluded from churches and cities, 
and obliged to associate in private places and deserts, as 
long as they continued a party. It is perhaps unnecessary 
to add, that their opinion respecting the equality of bishops 
and presbyters has been since adopted by the modem pres- 
byterians, and has been ably combated by writers in favour 
of the established church.* 


AERTGEN, or AARTGEN, a painter of merit, wa* the 
son of a wool-comber,, and born at Leyden in \Ai^l^ He 
worked at his father^s trade till he was eighteen,: and then, 
having discovered a genius for designing, he was placed 
with Cornelius Engelhechtz, under. whom he made a coa% 

» * 

1 Melchior Adam.-^Moreri.-— Biographie UnirerseUe« 
3 Mosheim and Lardper.-— 'Morerit 

S9f A E R T ]G E N. 

ttderable progress in pamting. He became so distdngaii 
that; the celebrated Fraocis Floris weot to Ley den^ out of 
mere curiosity, to see him, and being directed to a very 
mean apartment^ when Aertgen was absent, he drew a St. 
Luke on the wall; which Aertgen had no sooner seen, than 
he exclaimed, that Floris only could haire done it, and went 
immediately in search of him. Floris solicited him to go to 
Antwerp, promising him wealth and rank suitable to his 
laerit; but Aertgen refosed, dechffing that he found more 
sweets in his poverty than others did in their riches. It 
was a custom with this painter never to work on Mondays, 
but to devote that day with his disciples to tbelbottle. He 
used to stroll, about the streets in the night, playing on the 
German flute ; and in one of those frolics he was drowned, 
in 1564.* 

AERSENS (Peter), called by the Italians Pietro Longo^ 
from hb tailness^ was a celebrated painter, and born at Am* 
iterdam in 15L9« His father, who was a stocking-* maker, 
bad intended; to train him in his own way; hut the naother^ 
finding in hiiti an inclination towards painting, was resolved 
that her son should pursue his genius, even though she al** 
ways were forced to spin for her livelihood : and to this her 
husband at length consented. His first master was Aiart 
Claessen^ an emhient painter in Amsterdam, under whom 
be so distinguished himself, that he soon engaged the at- 
tention -o£ the great. When he was about eighteen, he 
went to Bossu in Hainault, to* view the pieces of several 
masters; thence to Antwerp, where he married and entered 
into the company of painters. He excelled very particu-^ 
larly in representing a kitchen; and generally, upon alt 
kinds of subjects. An altar-piece of his, viz. a crucifix^ 
setting forth an executioner breaking with an . iron bar the 
legs of the thieves, &c. was much admired. This nob}« 
piece was destroyed by the rabble in the time of the insure 
rection, 1566, although the lady of Sonneveldt, in Alek-^ 
maer, offered 200 crowns for its redemption, as the furious 
peasants were bringing it out of the churdb : but they tore 
It. to pieces, tand trod it under foot. This he afterward^i 
complained of to the populace in terms of such severity, 
tfaat more thaa once they were going to murder him. Pil- 
kington, however, speaks of a fine altar-piece of his at Am-* 
sterdam, representing the death of the Virgin, as still esiat- 

} Biofraphie Unirerselle.*— Baldinucci notizie de profess!. 

A E R S E N S, l$t 

lag ; and of a Nativity and the Wi$6 Men's Offering at Delft^ 
1)Qth.excellent performances. He was well skilled in per^ 
spective and architecture, and enriched his grounds with 
elegant ornaments aiid aDimals. His figures were well dis* 
posed; their attitudes had abundance o? variety, and their 
draperies were well chosen and well cast* He died in 1 5B5j^ 
leaving three sons, who succeeded in his profession. H^ 
had a mean aspect, which he did not amend by any atten-. 
tion to the exterior ; for he always appeared very meanly 

^SCHINES, a Socratic philosopher, in the fourth cen« 
tury B. C. was an Athenian of mean birth, but discovered 
an early thirst after knowledge, and, though oppressed by 
poverty, devoted himself to the pursuit of wisdom, under 
the tuition of Socrates. When he first became his disciple, 
be told Socrates, that the only thing which it was in his 
power to present him, in acknowledgment of his kind in-, 
structions, was himself. Socrates replied, that he accepted 
and valued the present, but that he hoped to render it more 
valuable by culture. iEschines adhered, to this master with 
unalterable fidelity and perseverance, and enjoyed bis par* 
ticular friendship. Having spent many years in Athens^* 
without being able to rise above the poverty of his birth, ha 
determined, after the example of Plato and others,, to visit 
the court of Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily, who at this time 
had the reputation of being ageneral patron of philosophers. 
On his arrival at' Syracuse, though slighted on account of 
his poverty by Plato, he was introduced to the prince by 
Aristippus, and was liberally rewarded for his Socratic dia*« 
logues. He remained in Sicily till the expulsion of th%, 
tyrant, and then returned to Athens. Here, not daring ta 
become a public rival of PJato or Aristippus, he taught phi* 
losopfay in private, and received payment for hjs instruct 
tions. Afterwards, in order to provide himself with a more 
plentiful subsistenqe, he appeared as a public orator; and 
Demosthenes, probably because he was jealous of his abili^ 
ties (for he excelled in eloquence), became his opponent; 
The time when he died is not known. He wrote seven 
Socratic dialogues, in the true spirit of his master, on tem« 
perance, moderation, humanity, integrity, and other virtues^ 
under the titles, Miltiades, Callias, Hhinon, Aspasia, Alcir 
blades, A^iochus, and Telauges. Of these only three ai^ 

I PUklpgton. 

200 iE S C H I N E S. 

extant, the best edition orwhich is by Le Clerc, Amsterdam^ 
1711, 8vo. There is another valuable edition, with the 
notes of Horreeus, Leovard. 1788, 8vo.» 

^SCHINES, a celebrated Greek orator, contemporary 
with Demosthenes, to whom he was little inferior, was bom 
at Athens 327 years B, C. He is said to have been of dis* 
tinguished birthi although Demosthenes reports that he was 
the son of a courtezan : but whatever his birth may have 
been, his talents were very considerable. His declamations 
against Philip king of Macedon, first brought him into no* 
tice. Demosthenes and hie were rivals; but Demosthenes 
having vanquished him in a solemn debate, he went to 
Rhodes, and opened a school there, beginning his lectures 
by reading the two orations which occasioned his removal 
thither. When they excessively applauded that of De- 
mosthenes, he was generous enough to say, " What would 
you have thought if you had heard him thunder out the 
words himself!" He afterwards remored to Samos, where 
' he died at the age of 75. There are only three of his ora- 
tions extant, which however are so very beautiful, that Fa- 
bricius compares them to the three graces. One is against 
Timarchus his accuser, whom he treated so severely, as to 
make him weary of life ; and some have said, that he did 
actually lay violent hands upon himself. Another is an 
** Apology'* for himself against Demosthenes, who had ac- 
cused him of perfidy in an " Embassy" to Philip. The 
thiril ^' against Ctesiphon," who had decreed the golden 
crown to Demosthenes, This excellent oration, together 
with that of Demosthenes against it, was translated by Ci- 
cero into Latin, as St. Jerome and Sidonius inform us. The 
three orations were published by Aldus 1513, and by Henry 
Stephens among other orators, 1 575, in Greek. They are, as 
might have been necessarily expected, inserted in Reiske's 
valuable edition of the Grecian orators. There are also attri- 
buted to ^schines twelve epistles, which Taylor has added 
to his edition of the orations of Demosthenes and £schines. 
They have also been published, with various readings, by I. 
Samuel Sammet, Leipsic, 1772, 8vo. Wolfius has given them 
in his edition of Demosthenes, with a Latin version and notes, 
1604 ; and this edition is most esteemed. * The abb£ Auger 
published a French translation pf ^schines and Demo- 
sthenes, in 6 vols. 8vo, JParis, 1789 and liJ04. Of his con- 

1 Jracker.^— Fabr. Bibl. Gr,— Stanley's Hist, of Philosophy^— -Saxii Ouoniast. 

£ S C H I N E S. 201 

test with Demosthenes, Dr. Blair gives this opinion ; De- 
mosthenes appears to great advantage, when contrasted with 
iEschines, in the celebrated oration pro Corona, ^scbines 
was his rival in business, and his personal enemy ; and one 
of the most distinguished orators of that age. But when 
we read the two orations, iEschines is feeble in comparison 
of Demosthenes, and makes much less impression on the 
mind. His reasonings concerning the law that "^as in ques* 
tion, are indeed very subtile; but his invective against De- 
mosthenes is general, and ill supported; whereas Demo- 
sthenes is a torrent, that nothing can resist. He bears down 
his antagonist with violence; he draws his character in the 
strongest colours; and the particular merit of that oration 
is^ diat all the descriptions in it are highly picturesque.' 

^SCHYLUS, one of the most eminent tragic poets of 
ancient times, was bom at Athens. Authors differ in re- 
gard to the time of his birth^ some placing it in the 65th, 
others in the 70th olympiad; but according to Stanley, 
who relies on the Arundeiian marbles, he was born in the 
63d olympiad, or about iOO years B. C. He was the son of 
Euphorion, and brother to Cynegirus and Aminias, who 
distinguished themselves in the battle of Marathon, aiid the 
sea-fight of S^lamis ; at which engagement iEschylus was 
likewise present. In this last action, according to Diodo- 
rus Siculus, Aminias, the younger of the three brothers, 
commanded a squadron of ships, and behaved with so much 
conduct and bravery, that he sunk the admiral of the Per- 
sian fleet, and signalized himself above all the Athenians. 
To this brother our poet was, upon a particular occasion, 
pbliged for saving his life, ^lian relates, that ^schylus, 
being charged by the Athenians with certain blasphemous 
expressions in some of his pieces, was accused of impiety, 
and condemned to be stoned to death. They were just 
going to put the sentence in execution, when Aminias, 
with a happy presence of mind, throwing aside his cloak, 
shewed his arm without a hand, which he had lost at the 
battle of Salamis, in defence of his country. This sight 
made such an impression on the judges, that, touched with 
the remembrance of his valour, and the friendship he 
shewed for his brother, they pardoned ^schylus. Our 
poet however resented the indignity of this prosecution, 
^nd resolved to leave a place where his life had been in 

' \ Fabr, Bibl. Gnec-^Sazii Onomasticon<— Blaif s Lectures. 

202 iE S C H Y L U S. 


danger. He became more determined in this resolutiortj^ 
when he found his pieces less pleasing to the Athenian^t 
than those of SophocieS) though a much younger writer. 
$imonides had likewise won the prize from him, in aa 
elegy upon the battle of Marathon. . Suidas having said 
that JEschylus retired into Sicily, because the seats broke 
down during the representation of one of his tragedies^ 
some have taken this literally, without considering that ia 
this sense such an accident did great honour to iEschylus i 
buty according to Joseph Scaliger, it was a phrase amongst 
the con^edians ; and he was said to break down the seats,^ 
whose piece could not stand, but fell to the ground. Some 
affirm, that ^scbylus never sat down to compose but when 
he had drunk liberally* This perhaps was in allusion to 
bis esxessive imagination, which was apparent in an ab-^ 
rupt, impetuous, and energetic style. They who could 
not relish the sublimer beauties of language, might per-' 
haps have ascribed his rapid and desultory n^nner, rather 
to the fumes of wine than to the result of reason*. He 
wrote agreatnumber of tragedies, of which there are but 
seven remaining; viz, Prometheus, the Seven Champions 
before Thebes, the Persae, the Agamemnon, the Choephorsej^ 
the Eumenides, and the Suppliant Virgins ; and in these 
it is evident, that if he was not the father, he was the great 
improver of the Grecian stage. In the time of Thespis 
there was no public theatre to act upon; the strollers drove 
about from place to place in a cart. iEschylus furnished 
his actors with masks, and dressed them suitably to their 
characters. He likewise introduced the buskin, to make 
them appear more like heroes; and the ancients give 
iElschylus the praise of having been the first who removed 
murders and shocking sights from the eyes of the specta- 
tors. He is said likewise to have lessened the number of 
the chorus; but perhaps this reformation was owing to an 
accident; in his Eumenides, the chorus, which consisted of 
fifty persons, appearing on the stage with frightful habits, 
had such an effect on tbe spectators, that the women with 
child miscarried, and the children fell into fits; which oc«* 
casioned a law to be made to reduce the chorus to fifteen* 
Mr. Le Fevre has observed, that iEschylus never repreni 
sented women in love, in his tragedies, which, he says, was 
not suited to bis genius ; but in representing a woman trans- 
ported vrith fury, he was incomparable. Longiqus says. 

iE S e H Y L U & J80S 

that .£scliy^us ba& a noble boldness of expression; aa4 
that his imagination is lofty and heroic. It must be owned^ 
however, that he affected pompous words, and that his 
sense is too oft^n obscured by figures. But, notwithstand** 
ing these imperfections, this poet was held in great vene*** 
ration by the Athenians, who made a public decree that his 
tragedies should be played after his death. When £scfay<^ 
lus retired to the court of Hiero king of Sicily, thi^ prince 
^as then building the city of iEtna, and our poet cele^ 
brated the new city by a tragedy of the same name. After 
having lived some years at Gel a, we are told that he died 
of a fracture of his skull, caused by an eagle letting fall a 
tortoise on his head ; and that this death is said to have 
been predicted by an oracle, which had foretold that he 
should die by somewhat from the heavens. He died, hour^ 
ever, by whatever means, according to Mr. Stanley, in the 
69th year of his age. He had the honour of a pompous 
funeral from the Sicilians, who buried him near the river 
Gela; and'the tragedians of the country performed plays 
and theatrical exercises at his tomb ; upon which was in-* 
scribed aq, epitaph, celebrating him only for his valour at 
the battle of Marathon. 

He has been justly compared to Shakspeare for energyr 
of style~ and sentiment, for expression of character and 
passion, often by the happiest use of trivial circumstances. 
His merits have been skilfully analysed by the author of 
the Observer, No. 132, 133, and 134, who, it is now 
known, derived his materials from the unpublished writings 
of Dr. Bentley, and perhaps yet better by the abb^ Barthe^ 
lemy, in his Anacharsis. 

The editions of i£schylus are very numerous. The best 
are those of Rob^rtellus, Venet. 1552, 8vo; Victorius, 
Paris, 1557, 4to; Canterus, Antwerp, 1580, 12mo; Stan* 
ley, London, 1663 — 1664, fol. from the text of Canter, a 
magniiicent book, containing the scholia, fragtnents, the 
notes and prefaces of preceding editors, and the annota* 
tions of the very learned editor himself. Another mag- 
nifieent edition of Glasgow, 1795, fol. from the text of the 
late professor Person, is said to be incorrect. The learned 
professor's genuine edition was published in 1306, 2 vols, 
9vo, and contains many admirable improvements of the 
text. It is much to be regretted, that the notes have not 
appeared. The English reader has been introduced to the 

204 iE S O P. 

beauties of iEschylus by the elegant poetical translation 
of Mr. Potter, published in 1777.» 

-SSOP, the fabulist. Of this man, the reputed author 
of many fables, it is very doubtful whether we are ill pos- 
session of any authentic biography. The life by Planudes, 
a monk of the fourteenth century, is universally considered 
as a series of fictions: and the notices of him in writers of 
better authority, are not sufficiently consistent to form a 
narrative. The particulars usually given, however, are as 
follow. He was born at Amorium, a small town in Phry- 
gia, in the beginning of the sixth century before the 
Christian sera, and was a slave to two philosophers, Xan* 
thus and Idmon, the latter of whom gave him his liberty, 
on account of his good behaviour and pleasantry. The 
philosophers of Greece gained a name by their lofty sen- 
tences, clothed in lofty words ; iEsop assumed a more sim* 
pie and familiar style, and became not less celebrated. 
He taught virtue and ridiculed vice, by giving a language 
to animals and inanimate things ; and composed those bi- 
bles, which under the mask of allegory, and with all the 
interest of fable^ convey the most useful lessons in mo- 
rality. The fame of his wisdom spreading over Greece 
and the adjoining countries, Croesus, the king of L3rdiay 
sent for him, and was his generous benefactor. There he 
found Solon, whom he soon equalled in favour, however 
different his mode of conducting himself. Solon preserved 
his austerity in the midst of a corrupt court, was a philoso- 
pher among courtiers, and often offended Croesus by ob- 
truding his advice, who at last dismissed him. " Solon,'* 
said ^sop, ^^ let us not address kings, or let us say what is 
agreeable." " By no means," replied the philosopher, 
** let us either say nothing, or tell them what is profitable.'* 
JEsop made frequent excursions from the court of Lydia 
into Greece. When Pisistratus assumed the chief power 
at Athens, iEsop, who witnessed the dissatisfaction of the 
people, repeated to them his fable of the frogs petitioning 
Jupiter for a king. He afterwards travelled through Persia 
and Egypt, everywhere inculcating morality by his fables. 
The kings of Babylon and Memphis received him with dis- 
tinguished honour; and on his return to Lydia, Croesus 
sent him with a sum of money to Delphi, where he was to 
offer a magnificent sacrifice to the god of the place, and 

f Gen. Diet. — ComberIand*s Observer. — British Essayutg, vol. XL.-^DihdiVi^ 
Classics.—- BibUographicalDicU — Saxii Onomasticon.— fAiiachartLi« vol. V^ 

^ S O p. 205 

distribute a certain sum of mcmey: to' each of the inhabit- 
ants. But being offended by the people, he offered his 
sacrifice, and sent the rest of the money to Sardis, repre- 
4senting the Delphiansr as unworthy of his master's bounty. 
In revenge, they threw him from the t6p of, a rock. Ail 
Greece was interested in his fate, and at Athens a statue 
was erected to his memory. Lurcher, in his notes an 
Herodotus, fixes his death in the 560th year before the 
Christian aera, under the reign of Pisistratus. Planudes, 
who, as already observed, wrote his life, represents him 
as exceedingly deformed in person, and defective in his 
speech, for which there seems no authority. It is to this 
monk, however, that we owe the first collection of Msop*s 
Fables, such as we now have them, mixed with many by 
other writers, some older, and some more modern than the 
time of ^sop. He wrote in prose ; and Socrates, when 
in prison, is said to have amused himself by turning some 
of them into verse. Plato, who banished Homer and the 
other poets from his republic, as the corruptors of man- 
kind, retained £sop as being their preceptor. Some are 
of opinion, that Lockman, so famotis among the orientals, 
and Pilpay among the Indians, were one and the same 
with ^sop. Whatever may be in this, or in the many 
other conjectures and reports, to be fqu;id in the authori^ 
ties cited below, the fables of JEsop may surely be con- 
sidered as the best models of a species of instructive com^ 
position, that has been since attempted by cejtain men of 
learning and fancy in all nations, and particularly our own; 
nor will it be easy to inVent a mode of arresting and en- 
gaging the attention of the young to moral truths, more 
pleasant or more successful. The best editions of iEsop 
are those of Plantin, Antwerp, 1565, 16mo; of Aldus, 
with other fabulists, Venice, 1505, fol. and Franckfort, 
1610; that called Barlow's, or ^' iEsopi Fabularum, cum 
Vita," London, 1666, fol. in Latin, French, and English; 
the French and Latin by Rob. Codrington, with plates by 
Barlow, now very rare, as a great part of the edition was 
burnt in the fire of London; Hudson's, published under 
the nanie of Marianus (a member of St. Mary Hall), Ox- 
ford, 1718, 8vo. They have been translated into all mo- 
dern languages; and CroxaU's and Dodsley's editions de- 
serve praise, on account of the life of iEsop prefixed to each. \ 

* Diet. Hist.— Atheonum, toI. III.— Work? of the Learned, vol, I. p. 94.— 
6en. Diet, fcc 

: yESOP, a Greek historian, wrote a romantic history oi 
Alexander the Great : but it is not known at what timo he 
lived. His work was translated into Latin by one Julius 
Valerius, who is not better known than Msop. Freinshe* 
ifiitts has the following passage concerning this work : *' Ju* 
Kus Valerius wrote a fabulous Latin history of Alexander, 
which by some is ascribed to iEsop, by others to Callis- 
thenes. Hence Antoninus, Vincentius, Uspargensis, and 
ethers, have taken their romantic tales* Barthius, in his 
Adversaria, says : ^ There are many such things in the 
learned monk, who some years ago published a life of 
Alexander the Great, full of the most extravagant fictions ; 
yet this romance had formerly so much credit, that it is 
quoted as an authority even by the best writers. Whether 
this extraordinary history was ever published I know not ; 
I have it in manuscript, but I hardly think it worthy of a 
place in my library." It is the same author that Francis- 
Cus Juretus mentions under the name of iEsop. The work 
was published in German at Strasburgh, 1486. ' 

^SOP (Clodius), ^a celebrated actor, who flourished 
about the 670th year of Rome- He and Roscius were con- 
temporaries, and the best performers who ever appeared 
upon the Roman stage ; the former excelling in tragedy, 
the latter in comedy. Cicero put himself under theit di- 
rection to perfect his action, ^sop lived in a most expen- 
sive manner, and at one entertainment is said to have had 
a dish which jcost above 800/. ; this dish we are told was 
filled with singing and speaking birds, some of which cost 
near 50/. Pliny (according to Mr. Bayle) seems to refine 
too much, when he supposes that iEsop found no other 
delight in eating those birds but as they were imita« 
tors of mankind; and says that ^sop himself being an 
actor was but a copier of man ; and therefore he should 
B0t have been lavish in destroying those birds, which, like 
himself, copied mankind. The delight which JEsop took 
in this sort of birds proceeded, as Mr. Bayle observes, from 
the expence. He did not make a dt^h of them because 
Aey could speak, but because of their extraordinary price. 
JEsop's son was no less luxurious than his father, for he 
dissolved pearls for his guests to swallow. Some speak of 
this as a common practice of his, but others mention his 
fjidling into this , excess only on a particular day^ when he 

I Qm. Diet 

JE S O P* $07 

iinM treating his friends. Horace speaks only of one peail 
of great vsuue, which he dissolved in vinegar, and drank. 

^sop, notwithstanding his expences, is said to have 
died worth above 160,000/. When he was npon the stage, 
he entered into his part to such a degree, as sometimes to 
be seized with a perfect ecstacy. Plutarch mentions it as 
reported of him, that vtdiilst he was representing Atreus 
deliberating how he should revenge himself on Thyestes, 
he was so transported beyond himself in the heat of action^ 
that wilii his truncheon he smote one of the servants cross-* 
ing the stage, and laid him dead on the place. ' 

^THERIUS, was an architect of the 6th century, un- 
der the reign of Anastasius I. emperor of the east, wha 
stowed many honours upon him, and admitted him into 
bis council. He is said to have built the great wall, or- 
dered by Anastasius, to preserve Constantinople from the 
inroads of the Huns, Goths, and Bulgarians. It was 
eighteen leagues in length, and twenty feet in breadth* 
He built also several edifices in Constantinople, particulariy 
the Chalcis in the grand palace. ^ 

^TION, a Greek painter, highly praised by Cicero 
and Lucian, painted a picture, which he exhibited at the 
Olympic games, the subject of which was the nuptials of 
Alexander the Great and Roxana. It was so much ap- 
plauded, that Proxenidas, who was one of the judges ap« 
pointed to decide on the merits of the artists, enchanted 
with the talents oi ^tion, bestowed on him his daughter 
in marriage. Lucian says that he saw this picture in Italy, 
and gives a very accurate description of it, from which 
Raphael sketched one of his richest compositions. ' 

^TIUS, a heretic of the fourth century, and by some 
surnamed The Atheist, as being one of the first opposers 
of the doctrine of the Trinity, was born at Antioeh, the 
son of a person reduced in his circumstances, and was con- 
sequently obliged to work at the trade of goldsmith for a 
livelihood. He afterwards studied, and with considerable 
success, at Alexandria, whence he returned to Antiech, 
and was ordained deacon by Leon tins, then bishop of that 
city. What his principles were is not very clear. Theo- 
doret says, he improved upon the blasphemies of Arius 3 
and for that reason was banished by the emperor Con* 
atantius into a remote part of Phrygia, The emperor 

. * 

A '<3en. Diet.' * Biographk Univertelle. 

f M«rori.--*BiQgr»plu« Uairerselle, 

20S ^ T I US- 

• . • • • 

Julian recalled him, and enriched him with an est^te^ 
Others insinuate that he was a defender of faith in oppo-^ 
sition to works, and leaned to the Antinomian extreme. 
The displeasure of the orthodox, however, was such that 
he had the surname of Atheist. Atbanasius gives him the 
same appellation, and Cave says, justly. Epiphanius has 
preserved a small book, containing forty-seven erroneous 
propositions of ^tiu^, which he answered. His followers 
were called, from his name, ^Etians. Their distinguishing 
principle was, that the Son and the Holy Ghost are in all 
things unlike the Father. ' 

^TIUS, a physician of Armida, a town of Mesopotamia, 
lived about the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th 
century. The work for which he is now known is hia 
" Tetrabiblos," a compilation from all the physicians who 
preceded him, particularly Galen, Archigenes, Dioscorides, 
&c. He describes also som6 new disorders, and throws 
out some opinions^ not known before his time, respecting 
the diseases of the eye, and the use of outward applications^ 
Partaking of the credulity of his time, he describes all thq 
pretended speciBcs, charms, and amulets in vogue among 
the Egyptians, which forms a curious part of his writings^ 
What he says on surgical topics is thought most valuable. 
The work, by the various transcribers, has been divided 
mto four Tetrabiblons, and each into four discourses ; and 
originally appears to have consisted of sixteen books. The 
first eight only were printed in Greek, at Venice, by the 
heirs of Aldus Manutius, 1534, fol. The others remain 
in manuscript in the libraries of Vienna and Paris. There 
have been many editions in Latin, of the translation of 
Janus Cornarius, under the title of " Contractae ex veteri- 
bus Medicinae Tetrabiblos," Venice, 1543, 8vo; Basle, 
1542, 1549, fol.; another at Basle, 1535, fol. translated 
by J. B. Montanus; two at Lyons, 1549, fol. and 1560, 
4 vols. 12mo, with the notes of Hugo de Soleriis; and one 
at Paris, 1567, fol. among the " Medicw artis principes.** 
Dn Freind has adverted to iEtius, in his history, more 
than to almost any ancient writer, but has not the same 
Opinion of his surgical labours as is expressed above. Some 
writers have confounded this £tius with the subject of the 
preceding article. * 

* Lardner's VTorkSi-^ave, toK L 

« Biographie UniveneUe.^tiancr BibY. Med. Pnct— FrtU'i Hiitorjr of 
Physic— Manget Bibl. 

A F £ ft. 209 

AFEU (DoMlTius), a famous orator^ born at NismeSy 
fifteea or sixteen years B. C. and flourished under Ca- 
ligula, Claudiusj^ and Nero. He was elected to the pr»- 
torsbip ; but, not being afterwards promoted according to 
his ambitious expectations, and desirous at any rate to 
advance himself, he turned informer against Claudia 
Pulchra, cousin of Agrippina, and pleaded himself in 
that affair. Having gained this cause,, he was ranked 
amongst the first orators, and got into favour with Tibe- 
rius, who hated Agrippina : but this princess not thinking 
Domitius the author of this process, did not entertain the 
least resentment against him. The encomiums passed by 
the emperor on the eloquence of Domitius, made him 
now eagerly pursue the profession of an orator j so ijiat 
he yi^2LS seldom without some accusation or defence, by 
which he acquired a greater reputation for his eloquence 
than his probity. In the 779th year of Rome, he carried 
on an accusation against Claudia Pulchra ; and the year 
following, Quintilius Varus her son was impeached by him 
and Publius Dolabella. It was not surprising that Afer, who 
had been poor for many years, and squandered the money 
got by former impeachments, $hould return to this prac- 
tice ; but it was matter of great surprise that one who was 
a relation of Varus, and of such an illustrious family as 
that of Publius Dolabella, should associate with this in- 
former. Afer had a high reputation as an orator for a 
considerable time, but this he lost by continuing to plead 
when age had impaired the faculties of his mind. 

Quintilian, in his youth, cultivated the friendship of 
Domitius very assiduously. He tells us that his ])leadings 
abounded with pleasant stories, and that there were public 
collections of his witty sayings, sopie of which he quotes- 
He also mentions two books of his, " On Witnesses." Do- 
mitius was once in great danger from an inscription he 
put upon a statue erected by him in honour of Caligula, 
wherein he declared, that this prince was a second time 
consul at the age of 27. This he intended as an enco- 
mium ; but Caligula, taking it as a sarcasm upon his youth, 
and his infringement of the laws, raised a process against 
him, and pleaded himself in person. Domitius, instead 
ef making a defence, repeated part of the emperor's 
speech, with the highest marks of admiration ; after which 
befell upon his knees, ami beggiqg pardon, declared, that 
he dreaded more the eloquence of Caligula than his im- 

Vol. L P 

«10 A F E R. 

perial power. This piece of flattery succeeded so well, 
that the emperor not only pardoned^ but also raised him to 
the consulship. Afer died in the reign of Nero, A. D. 59;^ 
AFFLITTO, in Latin De AFFLICTIS (Matthew), 
an eminent laivyer, the grandson of Matthew AfflittP, coun- 
sellor-royal in 140,9 under Ladislaus, was born at NapJeis 
about 1430. Being attached to the study of law from his 
youth, he made great progress, and acquired so much re- 
putation, that he was promoted to the council of state bj 
king Ferdinand I. and shared the confidence of that 
prince and of his son^ afterwards Alphonsus II. He was 
afterwards appointed president of the royal chamber, and 
Vf98 employed in public transactions of the greatest import* 
unce under five successive kings of Naples. To the know- 
ledge displayed in his works, he joined the strictest 
probity and most amiable manners. Camerario, lieutenant 
of the royal chamber, and an eminent feudal lawyer, gives 
him the character of the most learned and excellent man 
of his own or the preceding age ; nor are Ferron and Fon* 
tanella more sparing of their praises. Pancirollus only 
considers him as rather laborious than acute in his writings. 
Notwithstanding the distractions of the times in which he 
lived, and his numerous labours, .he reached the age of 
eighty, and died in 1510. He was interred in the con-^ 
Ventual church of Monte- Vergine in Naples, under a 
monument representing St. Eustachius, from whom his 
family derived their origin. He was twice married, and 
from his second wife, Diana Carmignana, are descended 
the^Afflittos, barons of Rocca-GlorLosa. 

Afflitto*s works are: 1.. ^^ Commentarius in Constitu- 
tiones Siciliae et Neapolis," Francfori, 1603, fol. 2. " Com- 
mentarius'super tres libros Feudoruni," Venice, 1534, fol. ; 
JLyons, 1548, and 1500; Francfort, 1598, 1608, 1629. 
3. ^< Decisiones NeapolitanaB antique et novae,^' Venice, 
1564, 1600, and 1635, fol.; and Francfort, 1616, tod 
}^35, foL 4« ^^ Lecturse super consuetudinibus Neapo- 
litan! Siciliaeque regni,*' Leyden, )1535, fol. ; reprinted 
under different titles, and with the additions of other 
writers on the subject. 5. " De Jure Protomiseos cum 
Baldo et Marantha, Tr. Tr. xviii." Francfort, 1571, aitd 
J 588; reprinted at Spire^, 1603, 8vo. 6. << Enumer^tia 
JPrivileglonun fisci,'' Basle, 1550^ foL 7, ^^ Lecturse su^ 

- 1 den. Dwt, 

A F F L I T T O. 211 

per 7 CodicU Justiniani,'' 1560. 8. ^< De consiliarik 
principuin et officialibus eligendis, ad justitiam regendam^" 
Naples; a very scarce work. The frequent editions of 
these voluminous works sufficiently prove the high esUma- 
tioii in which they were held. The family of Afflito has 
produced other celebrated men, as 1. John Afflito, an 
eminent mathematician, particularly skilled in the art <^ 
fortification, and employed as an engineer by John of 
Austria in some of his wars. He published, in Spanish, a 
treatise on the subject, 2 vols. 4to, and a volume of '^ Theo- 
logical and Philosophical Miscellanies.^' He died at Naples^ 
1673« 2. Gaetan-Andrb D*Afflitto, advocate-general^ 
who published law-pleadings and decisions at Naples, 1 655« 
And lastly, CjESAB, D* Affutto, who left a work on the 
feudal laws. * 

A FFO (IRENEU3), a native of Bussetto, a small town in the 
duchy of Piacenza, was appointed in 1768 by the Infant 
don Ferdinand to be professor of philosophy at Guastalla^ 
where he wrote his '^ Historia di Guastalla," 4 vols. 4 to. It 
commences with the reigu of Charlemagne ; comprizes the 
three dynasties who governed that state : viz. the Torelli's^ 
the Gonzago's, and the Bourbons, dukes of Parma ; and 
finishes in 1776. On account of this work, he was ap- 
pointed superintendant of the valuable library of Parma. 
He is a diffuse writer, as he allows in his preface, but his 
researches are valuable and correct. Writing under a 
prince so particular as the last Infant, be was obliged to 
suppress some things of a delicate kind. He wrote also 
*^ Historia di Parma,'' printed there 2 vols. 4to, and 
other works respecting the antiquities and the lives of the 
sovereigns of these states. He left a manuscript history of 
Peter Louis Farnese, which the Infant would not suffer to 
be published. He died at the age of sixty, about the be* 
ginniog of the present century. ^ 

. AFKANIUS, a Latin poet, who wrote several comedies 
in imitation of Menander. He was a man of wit and sense, 
^uintilian blames him for the licentious amours in his 
plays. He liyed about 100 years before the vulgar cfera, 
according to Vpssius. Only some fragments of this poet 
aine come down to our times, which are inserted in the 
** Corpus Poetarum" of Maittaire, London, 1715, folio. » 

.1 Biographie UmTerieHe^«»Diot. Hi^rique. 

9 Biosraphie tJmverseUe^ > M9r«ri.«*»?abr* BiM^ LaU 

212 A F R I C A N tr S. 

AFRICANUS (Julius), a Christian historian, was bom 
at Nicopdlis in Palestine, in the third century. He conir 
posed a chronology, to convince the heathens of the an^ 
tiquity of the true religion, and the novelty of the fables 
6f Paganism. This work was divided into five books, and 
is a sort of universal history, from the creation of Adam^ 
to the reign of the emperor Macrinus. No more, how- 
ever, is extant than what we find of it in the Chronicon of 
Eusebius. He wrote a letter to Origen concerning the 
histoiy of Susannah, which he deemed to be spurious, and 
another to Aristides, to reconcile the genealogical tablei^ 
of St. Matthew and St. Luke. It was in consequence of 
his entreaties that the emperor Heliogabalus rebuilt the 
tity of Nicopdlis, which he founded on the spot where the 
▼ill^ge of Emmaus stood. A mathematical work, entitled 
<* Caestus,*' has been attributed to him. The fragments 
which remain of this author were printed among the ^^ Ma^ 
diematici Vcterea," at Paris, in 1693, fol. and were trans- 
lated into French by M. Guiscard, in his *^ Meraoires ' 
Miiitaires des Grecs et des Remains,** Paris, 1774, 3 vols*. 
Svo. It. is supposed that the ancient part of the work of 
Julius Africanus, was an abridgment of the famous work of 
Manetho, an Egyptian priest, who flourished about 300 
years before Christ. (See Manetho). A great part of 
Africanus*iiChronography is extant in Georg. Syncellus^ edit. 
Paris, 1652, from whence, not being then published, it 
was borrowed by Scaliger in his edition of Eusebius*s 
Chronicon in Greek. Africanus is placed by Cave at the 
fe9X 220, who likemse supposes that he died in an ad* 
vanced age, about the year 232. But Dr. Lardner do«s 
not think that he was then in an advanced age, or died 
^o soon. Of his character, be says, that we may glory itk 
Africanus as a Christian. For it cannot but be a pleasure 
to observe, that in those early days there were some within 
the inclosure of the church of Ct^rist, whose shio^ing abili- 
ties rendered them the ornament of the age in wt^ch they 
lived ; when they appear also to have been men of uH* 
spotted characters, and give evident proofs of honesty and 
integrity. » . 

AGANDURU (Roderic Mohk), a Spanish missionary 
of the i 7 th century, who lived under the reigns of Philip III; 

1 Lardner's. Works.— Fabr.. Bibl. Gr86C.*-Bibliographioal ])ict vol. I.«rfMo« 
rerl— <^ave.— -SaxiiOaonuaticou. 

A G A N D U R U. uii 

and Philip IV. was a barefooted Augustin, and celebrated 
for his apostolic zeal. These religious had a prihgipal 
band in the rapid, but for the most part short^livedy pro» 
gress of the Catholic faith in Japan ; and converted the po« 
pulous nation of the Tagalians, or Tagaleze, Malayans by 
descent, who inhabited Lucon, one of the Philippine islands^ 
and who remain Christiaas to this day. In 1640, Aganv 
duruwas appointed by bis brethren^ and with tihe authoi» 
rity of Philip IV. to go to Rome and offer to the pop^, 
Urban VIII. the homage and -obedience of these new con* 
verts;. He wrote a ^^ History of Conversions in Japan aa4 
the Philippine islands, with a detail of his religious em* 
bassy :'' and a ^^ G^ieral History of the Mduccas and th« 
Philippines,^' 2 vols, from the discovery of them, to the 
middle of the seventeenth century. * 

AGAPETUS, d^<;on of the church of Coniftantiaople^ 
in the sixth century, or about 527, presented the emperor 
Justinian, on his accession to the (hrone, with a work in 
seventy-two chapters, which has been called ^^ Charta Re# 
gm," ahd contains excellent advice on the duties of a 
Christian prince. This work was long esteemed, and pro* 
eured the author a place among the best writers of his age* 
2t was finst printed, Gr. et Lot, at Venice, 1SQ9, Svo; 
Und is often printed in the same volume with various edU 
iious of ^sop's fables. The most correct edition is that of 
Bandttri, in a ceUection entitled ^< Imperium Orientale,'^ 
Paris^ 1711, 2 vols. fol. The last edition was publish^ 
at Leipsic, 1733, 8vo, Gi^; et Lat by Grasbelius, with 
notes ; but those not of much importance. Louis XIII. in 
bis youth translated it into French, and this was pritited in 
1612, 8vo, and often since. * 

AGARD (Arthur), a learned and ihdustriom Englidi 
antiquary, and one of the members of the first society of 
antiquaries, was the son of Clement Agard, of Fostoi) (not 
Toston, as in the Biog. Brit.) in Derbyshire, by Eleanor, 
Ifae daughter of Thomas Middieborough, c^ Egbaston in 
Warwickshire. He was born 1540^ and orijginally studied 
law ; > but it does not appear that he was at either univer<- 
Mty. He afterwwrds became u clerk in the Exchequer of* 
fice ; and in 157Q was made deputy chamberlain of the 
Ei^cheqner, which he held forty^five years. During this 
time, he had leisure and industry to accumulate large coU 

> Biogif pb>e U^iterflielle. 

* Ibid.*^Moreri.--Cave, vol. I.<i*Fabr. Bibl, 6r»c.— Saxii Ononufticon* 


1ect;ioDs of mktters pertaining to the antiquities of hU coon-* 
try; and his zeal in these researches procured him the ac* 
qnaintance of that eminent benefactor to English litenitttre 
and antiquities, sir Robert Cotton, with whom he enjoyed 
the strictest friendship as long as he lived. Wood, in hit 
AthensB, has made a strange mistake here in ascribing 
Agard*s proficiency in antiquary knowledge to Sir Robert, 
who was but just bom the year Agard came into office. 
There can be no doubt, however, that they improved and 
assisted each other in their pursuits. Agard also could 
number the most eminent and learned men of the ago 
Among his friends and coadjutors. It was in his days, 
about 1572, that the society of antiquaries was formed by 
archbishop Parker ; and among the names of its original 
members, we find Agard, Andrews, Bouchier, Cuaden^ 
Carew, Cotton, Dodderidge, Ley, Spelman, Stow, De» 
thicke, Lambart^ and others. In this society, Agard read 
these essays, which have since been published by Hearne, 
in his *' Collection of Curious Discourses,*' 1720 and 1775, 
S vols. Agard's discourses are : 1. Opinion touching the 
antiquity, power, order, state, manner, persons, and pro* 
ceedings of the high court of parliament in England. 
3. On this question. Of what antiquity shires were in Eng* 
land ? In this essay various ancient manuscripts axe cited; 
and Mr. Agard seems to think king Alfred was the author 
of this division: it was delivered before the socie^ in 
Easter term, 33 Eliz. 1591. 3. On the dimensions of the 
lands in England. In this he settles the meaning of these 
words, solin, hida, carucata, jugum, virgata, ferltngata, fer- 
linges, from ancient manuscripts and authentic records in 
the exchequer. 4. The authority, office, and privileges 
<^ heraults [heralds] in England. He is of opinion, that 
this office is of the same antiquity with the institution of 
the garter. 5. Of the antiquity or pririleges of the houses 
or inns of court, and of chancery. In this he observes, 
that in more ancient times, before the making of Magna 
Charta, our lawyers were of the clergy : that, in the time of 
Edward I. the law came to receive its proper form ; and 
that in an old record, the exchequer was styled the mother* 
court of all courts of record. He supposes that at this 
time lawyers began to have settled places of abode, but 
affirms he knew of no privileges^. 6. Of the diversity of 
names of this island. In this we find that the first Saxons, 
residing in this islaud| came here under the command of 

A G A R D. 215 

6iie Aelle and \kvs three sons, in 4a5 ; and that the reason 
why it was called England rather than Saxon land, was be«* 
^use the Angles, after this part of the island was totally 
subdued, were more numerous than the Saxons. He like* 
wise observes, that after this conquest, the name of Briton 
grew into distaste, and all valued themselves on being 
Englishmen. This was read, June 29, 1604, and is the 
last discourse of A(^rd in the collection. The' society was 
dissolved soon after, and did not revive until the last cen- 

.Agard made the Doomsday book his particular study, 
and endeavoured to explain it in. a treatise, ^< De usu et 
obsoorioribus verbis,** on the use aud true meaning of the 
obscure words in the Doomsday book. This is preserved 
in the Cotton library, under Vitellius, N* 9. He likewise 
compiled for the benefit of his successors, ^^ A Catalogue 
of all such records as were in the four treasuries belong*, 
ing to his Majesty ; and an account of all leagues, and 
treaties of peace, intercourses, and marriages, with fmreignt 
nations." This he deposited with the officers of his Ma*, 
jesty's receipt ; and by his will be directed that, on. a 
smsdl reward being paid to his executor, eleven other MS 
treatises, relating to exchequer affairs, should be delivered 
«p to the offioe. Ail the rest of his collections, consisting; 
of at least twenty volumes, he bequeathed to sir jlobeft 
Cotton, in whose library they were deposited. Previous' 
^ bis death, he, caused a monument to be erected for him<* 
self and his wife^ near the chapter door in the cloister of> 
Westminster^abbey. He died Aug. 22, 1615. Camden, 
Seldeo, and other antiquaries, bear ample testimony to his 

ACASIAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, the seholar or son of 
Dositheos.. Mr. Fuseli observes, that the name of Agasias. 
does not occur in. ancient reconl; and whether he be the 
Egesias of Quintilian and Pliny » or these the same, cannot 
be ascertained; though the style of sculpture, and th^ 
form of the letters in the insqription, are not much at va- 
riance with the chsuracter which the former gives to the age^ 
of Calen and Egesias. There are, therefore,, no.particu- 
lars of his life; but be is well kniown in the history of the. 
arts, for his admired statue, usually called the Gladiator ; 
formerly in the villa Borgbese, . and now in the museum at 
Paris. It was found, with the Apollo Belvidere, at Net^ 

> Biog. Brit.<— Archeologia^ vol I. pp. 7. 347 \ vol. XIV. |vw 164. 


C16 A G A fi I A S. 

tunO| formerly Antium, the \>irth-place of Nc^o ; wbert 
he bad collected a great number of the best works brougbt 
lr<Mn Greece by his freed-maii Acratus. The form of the 
letters on the inscription mark the high antiquity of thia 
otatue, which is less ideal than the Apollo^ but not less ad-^ 
mirable. Winkelman calls it an assemblage of the beau-* 
ties of nature in a perfect age^ without any addition from 
imagination. Fuseli terms it- ^^ A figure, whose tremen-* 
dous energy embodies every element of motion, whilst its 
pathetic dignity of character enforces sympathy.^' It -is iA 
perfect preservation^ with fexc^tion of the right ai*m, which 
was restored by Algardi. . It is now, however^ agreed that 
it is not the statue of a Gladiator, but apparently one of a 
^proupe. The attention and action of the figure is upwards 
|o some higher Object, as a person on^honebaek ; and it is 
thought to be of a date prior to the introduetioli of tb^ 
gladiatorial sports into Greece; ' . ' 

": AGATH ANGELU8, an Armenian historian, was secre-^ 
|ary to Tiridates, the first Christian king of that country, and 
lived in the beginning of the fourth century, probably about 
the year 32(X Moyses Choreuensis, Barpezius, and otheat* 
AMn^iian writers speak highly in his praise, particularly in 
l^peot to the parity of hia style. He wrote a ^^ History of 
the introduction of Christianity into Armenia,^' with a life 
pf king Tiridates* It has been. translated into Greek ; but 
the original was published at Constantinople, 170^, 4to« 
The imperial library at Paris has a copy of this book, »id' 
a manusicript much more oomplete* * 
. AGATHARCHIDES, a vohiminous geographer and 
hortorian, was a native of Gnidus ; and in hit youth reader' 
to the historian Heraclides, and afterwards tutor to Ptolomy 
Alesander, who reigned in Egypt about Ae year 104 B. C. 
according to Dodwell. Agatharchides was altached to the 
doctrine of the Peripatetics. Among the numerous works 
be wrote on history and geography, the ancients mentton 
the following : 1. '^ On die Red Sea," in five books, which 
is a kind of periplns of the gulph of Arabia ; with vavny 
carious particulars of the Sabeans, and other nations of 
Arabia Felix. The fragments of this work preserve by 
Diodorus and Pfaotins, were printed by Heury Stephens^ 
1:557, 8vo ; and collected more fully by Hudson in hift 
'^ Geographi minores," vol. I. M. Gosselin also has c(»i^ 

1 Biogrttpbie Univenielle.-^Dict. Hist.— Faseli's Lectures, p. 115« 
• DicUilisl. 

A G A T H A B C H I D £ S. 21T 

mented on them in his '^ Recberches sur la Geographie.** 
2. ^^ On Asia/' a work of the historical kind, in ten books; 
quoted by Diodorus^ Phlegon, Lucian, Athenseus, Pho* 
tins, and Pliny. 3. <^ Of Europe ;" a large work, of which 
AtbensBus quotes the 28th, 34tb, and 38th books. As the 
name of Agatharcbides occurs in many authors of reputa^ 
tion, it is to be regretted that so many of his works have 
perikhed. It is uncertain whether he was the same with 
Agatharcbides of Samos, who wrote on the Phrygian his^ 
tory, and on that of Persia, quoted by Diodorus, Josephus, 
and Phottus. ^ , , 

AGATHARCUS, an ancient painter, the son of £ude« 
mas, was born at Samos, and practised bis art at Athens^ 
He painted with great facility, and was distinguished for 
bis skill in anifloals, ornaments, and decorations. Alci* 
biades employed him to decorate his magnificent bouse ; 
and, according to Demosthenes (in his oration against Mi« 
dias), while thus employed, he contrived to seduce the 
mistress of Alcibiades, who having discovered the intrigue^ 
punished him no otherwise than by close imprisonmeni 
until he completed his work ; and then dismissed him with 
many rich presents. Plutarch in bis lives of Alcibiades and 
Pelopidas, speaks only of the imprisonment, which he iai^ 
putes solely to Alcibiades' impatience to have his house 
finished. From his connexion with Zeuxis and Alcibiades, 
it is probable that he lived about the ninety«fifth olym-f 
piad, or 400 years B, C. ; but this does not aceord with 
Vitruvius's account, who informs us that Agatharcus was 
the first who painted scenes for the theatre ; and wrote a 
treatise on the subject, under, the direction of ^schylus^ 
who died 4S0 B. C. This anachronism has given rise ta 
the conjecture that there may have been two paintecs o€ 
the name. * 

AGATHEMER, a Greek geographer. It is not certain 
at what time he lived ; but he was posterior to Ptolomy, and 
placed by Saxius and others in the third century. The 
only work of his now known is an abridgement of geogra-* 
l^y, entitled ^ Hj^>otyposes Geographicie ;" the first edi* 
tion of which is that of Tennulius, Gr. Lat. Amsterdam, 
1671, Svo. It is also inserted among the ancieqt geogra- 
phers in Gronovitts's edition, Leyden, 4to, 1697 and 1700; 
and lastly^ in Hudson's ^^ Geogmphi minores," vol. 11. 

1 Moreri.-— -Biographie Univerielle.— Fabr. Bibl. Gnec— -Saxii Onomasticon. 
* lfefWk*»4iosrapht« Uaiyer&eUe.— JMci. Uiat. 

mz A G A T H E ME R. 

This little work, ^n4tich contains leveral partkulars which 
have escaped Strabo and other celebrated geographers, i« 
nevertheless in a very imperfect state. It is a series of l^s* 
sons dictated to one Philo; but what is taught in the first 
iM>ok is repeated in the second, with so many contradictions 
end obscurities, that one can scarcely suppose this second 
part to be the production of the same author. Even the 
first part seems composed of two fragments not very accu- 
fately placed together. ^ 

AGATHIAS, a Greek historian, who lived in the 6tiL 
century, under the emperor Justinian, was born at Myrina 
in Asia Minor. Some have concluded from Suidas, that 
he was an advocate at Smyrna; but Fabricius thinks. that 
fae was in general an advocate, or scholasticus, as he is 
called, from having studied the law in the schools appointed 
for that purpose. In his youth he was strongly inclined to 
poetry, and published some small pieces of the gay and 
amatory kind, under the title of ^' Daphniaca f ' he tells 
us likewise, that he was author of a ^' Collection of epi* 
grams'' written by divers hands, a great part of which are 
presumed to be extant in the Greek Anthologia, where^ 
however, he calls himself Agathius. These are also in 
Bmnck's Analecta. There have been doubts about; his re-r. 
ligion : Vossius and others have supposed him a pagan ;^ 
and they have concluded this chiefly from a passage in the 
third book of his history ; where, giving a reason why the 
fortress of Onogoris in Colchis was called, in his time, St. 
Stephen's fort, he says, that this first Christian martyr was 
iitoned there, but uses the word ^ooi, they say ; as if he 
did not himself believe what he might think it necessary to 
relate. But this is by no means conclusive ; and Fabricius 
supposes him, upon much better grounds, to have been a 
Christian, because he more than once gives very explicitly 
the preference to the doctrines of Christians: and in the 
first book be speaks plainly of the Christians as embracing 
the most reasonable system of opinions. i 

• He wrote an ^Mlistory of Justinian's reign^' in five 
books, at the desire of Eutychianus, secretary of state,. 
who was his intimate friend, and probably ' furnished him 
witli many important materials for the purpose. It begins 
at the 26th year of Justinian's reign, where Procopius 
ends ; and, as Evagrius says, was carried down to the. 
flight of Cosroes the younger to the Romans, and his re« 

1 Biog. Universelle.— Diet. Hist.— >Stoii Ontma8ticon.«-Fabr. BibL Gfbbg^ 


Utoration by Mauritius: but the same Evagrius adds, that 
the work was not then published. It was printed in Greek, 
with Bonaventnre Vulcanius's Latin version and notes, at 
Leyden, L5d4, in 4to ; and at Paris in the king's printing* 
house, 1660, in folio, to accompany the other Byzantine 
histprians. His manner is prolix, and his style too much 
interspersed with poetical flights ; but his facts are said to 
be accurate. * 

AGATHO, or AGATHON, a Greek poet, of Athens, 
and hot of Samos as Gyraldi asserts, wrote several trage- 
dies and comedies, of which only some fragments remain. 
Aristotle speaks of one, " The Flower,** with great praise* 
His first tragedy received the prize at the Olympic games* 
He was a man of expensive manners, and kept a magnifi- 
cent table ; at which the wits of his days used to assemble. 
Grotiiis has collected the fragments left of his dramas from 
Aristotle and Athenseus, in his collection of the fragments 
of Greek tragedies and comedies. He was the first who 
hazarded invented subjects. His comedies were written 
with elegance, but his tragedies abounded in antitheses 
and symmetrical ornaments. He lived about 735 B. C ; 
but Barthelemi places him much earlier. ^ 

AGELADAS, or AGELAS, an eminent Greek sculp- 
tor, flourished in the eighty- seventh olympiade, or 432 
B. C. according to Pliny and Pausanias. His statues were 
once well known and admired in Greece, particularly two^ 
in brass, of an in&nt Jupiter, and a young Hercules, and 
the femlale captives. ' 

AGEL1U8, or AGELLI (Anthony) j a native of Sor- 
rento^ in the kingdom of Naples, was celebrated in the 
sixteenth century for his general learning, and acquaint- 
ance with the learned languages, and for bis writings on 
the Holy Scriptures. He was one of the inspectors of the 
Vatican press, where he bestowed great care in examining 
Dew editions by the best manuscripts. When he was pro* 
moted to the bisboprick of Acerno or Acerre, in the king- 
dom of Naples, in 1595^ the learned Peter Morin com- 
plained of this transaction, in a letter addressed to cardinal 
Cajetan, as depriving the Vatican press of an editor of the 
first ability and accuracy ; and begged that the cardinal 
would induce him, before he took poissession of his bishop- 
ric, to iustruct his successors in the library and press of 

> Oen. Pict.'^Moreri.-— Fabric. Bibt. Orec. — Saxii Onomatticoii* 
* Ibid. Cbaufepie.-— Bio|;impbie UniYenelle. 

tZO A G E L I U S. 

the Vatican, and superintend such works as he bad bea^an^ 
What effect this had, we are not told ; but he was employe^ 
by pope Gregory XI 1 1, on the Greek edition of the Bible^ 
Konie, 1587} fol. His original works consist of Commen*- 
taries : 1. On the ^^ Psalms and Canticles/* fol. Rome» 
1606; Cologne, 1607 ; and Paris, 1611. 2. " On the Lai- 
mentations,'* conipiled from the Greek fathers, Rome^ 
1589, 4to. 3. "On the Proverbs of Solomon: ?ind, 4^ 
"On the prophet. HabakkukjV. Antwerp, 1697, 8vo. Le 
Long mentions other works of Agelius in manuscript ; but 
bis Commentary on the Psalms procured him most repu* 
tation, and has been frequently reprinted. He died ^i 
Acerno in 1 608. » 

AGELNOTH, or Egelnoth, or iETHELNOTH, in LatiiL 
AcHEUNOTUS, archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of 
Canute the Great, succeeded to that see in the year 1020. 
This prelate, surnamed the Goo(^, was son of earl Agilipeft 
and, at the time of his election, dean of Canterbury* 
After bis promotion he went to Rome, and received bif 
pall from pope Benedict VIH. In his way thither, as he 
passed through Pavia, he purchased, for an hundred talent$ 
of silver and one of gold, St. Augustine^s arm, which Wa^ 
kept there as a relic ; and sent it over to England, as a 
present to Leofric, earl of Coventry. Upon his return, he 
is said to have raised the see of Coventry to its former 
lustre. He was much in favour with king Canute} an4 
iefnployed his interest with that monarch to good purposes. 
It was by his advice the king sent over l^rge £^ums of money * 
for the support of the foreign churches : and Malmsbury 
observes, that this prince was prompted to acts of piety, 
and restrained from excesses, by the regard he bad for thi^ 
archbishop. King Canute being dead, Agelnoth refused 
to crown his son Harpld, alleging that the la^e king ha4 
enjoined hijn to set the crown upon none but the issue of 
queen Emma ; that he had given the king a promise upoi| 
this head, and that he was resolved to be true to his en^ 
gagement. Having declared himself with this freedom, b^ 
laid the crown upon the altar, with an imprecation against 
those bishops who should venture to perform the ceremony^ 
HarolJ, wha was greatly chagrined at this disappomtmenti 
endeavoured, both by menaces and large offers, to prevau 
upon the archbishop, but in vain : and whether he way 
afterwards crowned by any other person is uncertain* 

1 Moreri.— Le lOBg Biblioibeca Sacra^'^-Saxii Onpmasticon. 

A G E L N O T H. , aai 

Agelnoth, after he bad held the see of Canterbury seven- 
teen years, died Oct. 29, 1038. Three works have been 
attributed to him : " A panegyric on the blessed Virgin 
Mary;" "A letter to Earl Leofric, concerning St Au- 
gustine ;** and ** Letters to several persons." * 

AGER, or AGERIUS (Nicholas), professor of medicine 
and botany at Strasbourg, in the seventeenth centuiy, was 
the contemporary and friend of the two learned brothers, 
John and Gaspar Bauhin, to whom he communicated se- 
veral new plants which he had discovered. In honour of 
him, a species of the genus Pcederota, which he first made 
known, was named Ageria. He was likewise eminent for 
his knowledge of natural philosophy and natural history 
in all its branches. He published " Disputatio de Zoo- 
phytis;" Strasburgh, 1625, 4to. and " De Anima Vege- 
tativa, ibid. 1629, 4to. Manget attributes to him a thesis 
** De Homine sano et de Dysenteria,*' 1593, 4to. • 

AGESANDER, a sculptor of Rhodes, who flourished 
probably in the fifth century B. C. is renowned for having 
executed, in concert with his son Athenojdorus and Poly- 
doros, that stupendous monument of Grecian art, the 
Laocoon. It is supposed that this is the same groups 
which decorated the baths of Titus in the time of Pliny, to 
whom we owe our knowledge of the names of the artistsi* 
It has been astonishingly preserved ever since to exhibit 
the perfection of the Greek artists in the imitation of na-^ 
ture and passion. It was discovered in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, in the baths of Titus, and in the very spot where, ac- 
cording to Pliny, it had attracted admiration in his time. 
The only circumstance which suggests a doubt on this 
subject is, that Pliny represents the groupe to have been 
formed of one solid block, whereas the present is evidently 
composed of several ; but it is probable that time has reh^i 
dered the fissures between the pieces more visible thait 
when Pliny saw it. Julius II. bestowed a very liberal re- 
ward on Felix de Fredis who discovered the Laocoon, and 
it remained in Rome until the arrival of the French army^ ' 
when that and other celebrated monuments of art were 
removed to the museum at Paris. Borghini and WihkeU 
man place the Laocoon and its sculptors in the most briU 
Kant sera of the art in Greece ; but of this some doubts 
have been entertained. Lessing, in his ingenious disser-^ 

1 Biog. Brin > Biographic Unurersellt.— ^faoget. Bibi. 

«22 AGE SAND E R. 

fation on poetry and paintingr, of which the Laocoon h 
both the title and the subject, endeavours to prove that 
the statue was made after the sublirae passive in Virgil^ 
in which Laocoon^s story is given ; and from a consideration 
of the exquisite finishing of this groupe, compared with 
the works of the Grecian artists, he is of opinion that it 
was executed under the Caesars. Be this as it may, the 
Laocoon has immortalised the names of Agesander, Athe« 
nodorus, and Polydorus. ^ 

AGGAS (Ralph), a surveyor and engraver^ in. the six- 
teenth centuiy, whose original plates are now extremely 
rare. He first drew a plan of London, which, though re* 
ferred to the time of Henry VUI. and Edward VI. appears 
from several circumstances to have been made eariy in 
Elizabeth's reign, about 1560, on wood. It was republished 
in 1618, with alterations, in six sheets, cut in wood, and 
re-engraved by Vertue in 1743. The plates were bought 
by the Society of Antiquaries, and published in 177$. His 
next performances were plans of Oxford and Cambridge, 
about 1578. The former is the oldest plan of the city of 
. Oxford extant It was engraved at the expence of the 
university in 1728, with ancient views, on the borders, of 
the colleges and schools as they originally stood. This 
plate was unfortunately destroyed at the fire which con- 
sumed so much literary property belonging to Mr. Nichols, 
in 1 808. The only other plan of Aggas^s workmanship, 
now known, is one of Dunwich in Suffolk, dated March, 
1589, on vellum, and not engraved. Ames attributes to 
|iim a work entitled *^ A Preparative to platting of Landes 
and Tenements for surveigh, &c.** 1596. He is supposed 
to have been related to Edward Aggas, the son of fiLobert 
Aggas, of Stoke-nayland in Suffolk, who was a bookseller 
of some note from 1576 to 1594 ; and from one or otiner 
probably descended Robert Aggas, or Augus, a landscape 

E inter and scene painter, whose best work extant is a 
idscape now in Painter-stainers hall. He died in Lon« . 
•don, 1679, aged about sixty. * 

AGLIONBY (Edward), educated at Eton, and in 1536 
elected to King's College, Cambridge, of which he after*' 
wards became a fellow and M. A. was esteemed a very good 
Grecian and Latin poet. He was afterwards a justice of 

\ Biographie UoiTenelte. 

f 6oagU*tTopo^phy.«»Ames>s History of Printings— Walpole't Anecdotes of 

A G L rO N B Y. «2$ 

peace in Warwickshire. He wrote the genea-logy of Qtieen 
JElizabeth^ for which she gave him an aonual pension of 
.five pounds : and a Latin poem ^^ in obi turn duorum &aU 
folciensium fratrum/' which is printed in.Wilson** *^ Epi- 
grammata/' 1552, 4to. » 

. AGLIONBY (John), an eminent divine c( a very anr 
cient family in Cumberland (whose name was de Aguiloii, 
corruptly Aglionby), the son of Edward Aglionby, e^. and 
Elizabeth Musgrave of Crookdayke^ was admitted a student 
of Queen's College, Oxford, in 1583. Being elected felr 
ipWy he went into orders, and became an eloquent and 
learned preacher. Afterwards he travelled abroad, and 
was introduced to the acquaintance of the famous cardinal 
Bellarmin. On his return he was made chaplain in ordi- 
narjr to Queen Elizabeth, and in 1600 took the degree of 
D.I), About that time he obtained the rectory of Islip, 
Bet»r Oxford, and in 1601 was elected prinoipal q{ St. Ed,^ 
mund'^s hall. He was likewise chaplain in ordinary to 
king James I. and, according to Wood, had a considerable 
share in the translation of the New Testament ordered by 
the king in 1604. The Biog. Brit, says, that Wood pie^n^ 
tions no authority for this assertion ; but Wood, in his 
Annals, gives his name among the other Oxford divines 
who were to translate the Gospels, Acts, and Apocalypse, 
Pr. Aglionby died at Islip, Feb. 6, 160i>-10, aged forty- 
three, and was buried in the chancel of the parish church. 
He was eminent for his learning, deeply read in the Fathers^ 
and a. distinguished critic in the languages. His soft. 
G£ORG£ Aglionhy was eighth dean of Canterbury, by 
appointment of Charles I. but. was never installed, tiof: 
reaped any advantarge by it, as the parliament had then 
(1642) seized on the profits of those capitular , bodies^' 
which were within the power of their arms, and he sur^ 
vived his nomination but a few months^ dyiujg^ at Oxford 
Nov. 1643, aged forty. From this family probably d^r 
scended William AaLiON^y, a gentleman of polite learn- 
ing, who was envoy from Queen Anne to the Swiss Can- 
tons, and author of a book entitled ^^ Painting illustrated, 
in ,three dialogue^, with the lives of the o»ost emipent^ 
painters from Cimabue to RapbaeV Loud. 1685, 4tQ.,. .1% 
Macky^s Clj^aracters (really written by Mr. Davis, an officer 
in the customs) he is thus spoken of : ^' He has abundance 

I TADDer.—Harwood's Alumni Etopeases, p. 15S. 

-\ ♦ 




of wit, and understands most of the languages well : knows 
how to tell a stoty to the best advantage ; but has an affect- 
ed manner of conversation : is thin, splenetic, and tawny 
complexioned, turned of sixty years old ;" to which Swift 
added in manuscript, " He had been a Papist." In a col- 
lection of letters published some years ago, there are se- 
veral from Dr. William Aglionby, F. R. S» dated from 1685 
to 1691, principally written from different parts of the 
continent, arid probably by the same person, who is styled 
Doctor in Swift's Works. * 

AGNELLI (Joseph), a learned Jesdit, bom at Naples 
in 1621, and for many years teacher of divinity, and go- 
vernor of the colleges of Monte-Pulciano, Macerata, and 
Ancona. He passed the last thirty years of his life among 
the society of Jesuits at Rome, where he wrote many 
works, and died Oct. 8, 1 706. Of these works, the most 
celebrated is "II parrocl\iano instruttore,** Rome, 1677, 
2 vols. 4to; reprinted at the same place, 1704, in 6 vols* 
« vo. * 

AGNELLI, or AGNELLUS (or Andrew), archbishop of 
Havenna in the ninth century, wrote the history of his pre- 
decessors in that see, in a bold style, and with little respect 
for the interests or character of the court of Rome, by 
which his grandfather or great-grandfather had been put to 
' death. There are many curious facts in this collection of 
lives, but also several mistakes in dates. It was published 
by father Bacchini, in 1708, with notes, under the title 
^ Agnelli qui et Andteas, abbatid S. Mari® ad Blachernas, 
liber pontificalis, sive vitae Pontificum Ravennatum, &c.'* 
5^vols. 4to. Muratori reprinted it in his collection of Ita- 
fian historians. Spreti, who wrote on the history of Ra-* 
venna, Vossius, and Moreri, have confounded Agnelli with 
one of the same name who lived in the sixth century, and 
is supposed to have written a letter in the Bibliothec. Pa* 
tnim, " De ratione Fidei ad Armenium.^' ' 

AGNESI (Maria Cajetana, or Gateana), an Italian 
lady of great learning, was born at Milan^ March 16, 1718; 
Her i^iclinations from her earliest youth led her to the 
study of science, and at an age when young persons of her 
9ex a<ttend only to frivolous pursuits, she had made such 

«1 Biog. Brit^r^Hutchinfion's Cumberland, vol.1, p. 194.'— Weed's Atheoit.--' 
Annals.— Colleges and Halls. — Todd's Deans of Canterbury.— Swift's Works.— 
Cent. Mag. vol. LXIV. 686, 798, 8 1 4,. 823 ; LXV. 367. « Moreri.' 

* ll^ri.— Di(^« Histoiiqa^.— Biographic UnMfereelte.— Sa^ OnomastiotMk 

A G-N ESI. 225 

Iftstoniidiiiig progress in mathematics, that when in 1750 
her father, professor in the university at Bologna, was un« 
ible to continue his lectures from infirm health, she ob-- 
tained permission from the pope, Benedict XIV. to fill his 
chair. Before tliis, at the early age of nineteen, she had 
supported one hundred and ninety-one theses, which were 
published^ in 1738, under the title ." Propositiones Philo- 
sophicae." She was also mistress of Latin, Greek, Hebriew, 
^French, German, and Spanish. At length she gave up her 
studies, and went into the monastery of the Blue Nuns, at 
Milan^ where she di«d Jan. 9, 1799. In 1740 she pub- 
lished a discourse tending to prove ^' that the study of the 
liberal arts is not incompatible with the understandings of 
Women." This she had written when scarcely nine, years 
old. Her " Instituzioni analitiche," 1748, 2 vols. 4to, 
were translated in part by Antelmy, with the notes of Mi 
Bossut, under the title of " Traites elementaires du Calcul 
differentiel et dii Calcul integral," 1775, 8vo : but itoord 
completely into English by that eminent judge of mathe-- 
matical learning, the late rev. John Colson, M. A. F. R. S, 
and Lucasian professor 9f mathematics in the univer** 
isity of Cambridge* This learned and ingenious .man^ who 
had translated sir Isaac Newton's Fluxions, with a com-* 
ment, in 1736, and was well acquainted with what ap- 
peared on the same subject, in the course of fourteen years 
afterward, in the writings of Engierspn^ Maclaurin, and 
Simpson^ found, after all, the analytical institutions of Ag- 
nesi to be so excellent, that he learned the Italian language^ 
at an advanced age, for the sole purpose of translating that 
work into English, and at his death left the manuscript 
nearly prepared for the press. In this state it remained for 
some years, until Mr. Baron Maseres, with his usual libe« 
ral and active spirit, resolved to defray the whole expence 
of printing a handsome edition^ 2 vols. 4to, 1801, which 
was superintended in the press by the rev. John Hellins, 
B. D. F. R. S. vicar of Potter's-pury, in Northamptonshire* 
her eloge was pronounced by Frisi, and translated into 
French by Boulard* > 

AGNOLO (Baccio d'), a sculptor and architect of Flo-* 
rente, was born in 1460, and was first distinguished ipt 
the beauty of his inlaid work, which he applied to articled 
of likrniturej^. and with which he ornamented the stalls in 

1 BiogriiphiieUBiTeT8eU<i.»^I)Ict, Htst.-^Saxii Ono^ftasticQD.'-^Colggn'i Tr^ii«« 
l^tioD, preface; 

vot. I. a 

t26 AG NOLO. 

the choir of the church of St. Maria-Novelle, tie aJsd 
executed the carved wooden work on the organ of the 
same church, and on the altar of de la Nunziata. Having 
been led to the study of architecture, he came to Rome to 
devote his attention to it, but did not give up the practice 
6f carving, and soon had a favourable opportunity to exef* 
cise both. When Leo X, travelled in Italy, all the cities 
through which he passed wished to receive him with ho- 
nour, and Baccio gave designs for many of the triumphal 
arches ordered to be erected. On his return to his coun-*. 
try, his workshop became a iortof academy to which ama- 
teurs, artists, and strangers resorted. Raphael, then very 
young, and Michael Angelo are said to have been of these 
parties. By this means Baccio acquired great reputation, 
and was employed on many splendid buildings in Florence. 
Conjointly with Cronaca, he executed the decorations of 
the grand saloon of the palace, and the beautiful «taircase 
leading to it. But his best work is to be seen in the Bar- 
tolini palace and garden. Here he shewed the first speci- 
men of square windows surmounted by pediments, aivdt 
doors ornamented by columns, a mode which although fol- 
lowed generally since, was much ridiculed by his country* 
men as an innovation. In other palaces he executed isome 
beautiful ornaments in wood. He preserved his vigour 
and reputation to a great age, dying in 1543, in his eighty- 
third year. He left three sons, one of whom, Giuliano, in- 
herited his skill in architecture, but designed more than 
he executed. * 

AGOBARD, archbishop of Lyons, was one of the most 
;celebrated and learned prelates of the ninth century. Dr, 
CaVe and Olearius tell us he was a Frenchman, but Dtt 
Pin says there is no absolute proof of this. He was bom 
in the year 779, as father Mabillon deduced from a short 
martyrology, upon which Agobard seems to have written 
tome notes with his own hand. In the year 782 he came 
from Spain to France. Leidrade, archbishop of Lyons, 
ordained him priest in the y^ar 804, and nine years after 
he was appointed coadjutor, or corepiscopus to that pre* 
late, and when, in the year 816, Leidrade returned to a 
monastery at Soissons, Agobard was substituted in his 
room with the consent of the emperor, and the whole synod 
of the French brshops, who highly approved of the choice 

^ Biograpbi« UhiTerselie. 

A G O B A R D. 227 

#bich Leidrade had made of a successor. This ordina« 
tion, however, was objected to, as it is contrary to the 
canons, that a bishop should choose his successor him- 
self. Agobard notwithstanding enjoyed the see quietly 
till he war expelled from it by the emperor Louis le De- 
bonnaire, because he had espoused the party of his son 
Lothaire, and been one of the chief authors of deposing 
him in the assembly of bishops at Compiegne in the year 
833. For Lewis, having secured himself against the injus- 
tice and violence which had been offered by Lothaire and 
the bishops of his party, prosecuted the latter in the coun- 
cil of Thionville in the year 835. Agobard, who had re-* 
tired to Italy, with the other bishops of his party, was sum- 
moned three times before the council, and refusing to ap- 
pear, was deposed, but no person was substituted in his 
room. His cause was again examined in the year 836, at 
an assembly held at Stramiac near Lyons : but it continued 
still undetermined, on account of the absence of the bi- 
shops j wbose sole right it was to depose their brother. At 
length, the sons of the emperor haying made their peace 
with him, they found means to restore Agobard, who was 
present in the year 838, at an assembly held at Paris ; and 
he died in the service of his sovereign, in Xaintonge, June 
5, in the year 840. This church honoured him with the 
title of saint. He had no less share in the affairs of the 
church, than those of the empire ; and he shewed by his 
writings that he was a much abler divine than a politician. 
He was a strenuous defender of ecclesiastical discipline, 
very tenacious of the opinions he had once espoused, and 
very vigorous in asserting and defending them. Dupin, 
however, acknowledges that he was unfriendly to the wor- 
ship of images, and it appears that he held notions on that 
subject which would have done honour to more enlight- 
ened times. He wrote a treatise entitled " Adversus dogma 
Fselicis ad Ludovicum Imp." against Felix Orgelitanus, to 
shew that Christ is the true son of God, and not merely by 
adoption and grace. He wrote likewise several tracts 
against the Jews, a list of which may be seen in the Gene- 
ral Dictionary, 10 vols. fol. from whence our account of 
him is principally taken. His style is simple, intelligible, 
and natural, but without elevation or ornament. He rea- 
sons with much acuteness, confirming his arguments, as 
was the custom then, by the authority of the fathers, whom 
j^e has largely quoted. His works were buried in obscurity 

a 2 

S2S A G O B A R D. 

for several ages, until Papirius Masso found a mafiuscriptr 
of them by chance at a bookseller's shop at Lyons, who 
was just going to cut it to pieces to bind his books with^ 
Masso published this manuscript at Paris in 1603 in 8vo, 
and the original was after his death deposited in the king 
of France's library. But Masso having suffered many 
errors to escape him in his edition, M. Baluze published 
a more correct edition at Paris, 1666, 2 vols. 8vo, from the 
same manuscript, and illustrated it with notes. He like- 
wise added to it a treatise of Agobard entitled " Contra 
quatuor libros Amalarii liber," which he copied from aa 
old manuscript of Peter Marnapsiiis, and collated with an- 
other manuscript of Cbifflet; This edition has been like^ 
wise reprinted in the " Bibliotheca Patrum." * 


AGOSTiNI (LiONARDo), an eminent antiquary, lived iu 
the seventeenth century. Under the pontificate of Urban 
VIlI. he resided in the court of cardinal Barberini ; and 
afterwards pope Alexander Vtl. who had a great esteem for 
him, gave him the appointment of examiner of antiquities 
in the Roman territory. He published the two following 
works, which are now scarce, and much valued. 1. "La 
Sicilia di Filippo Paruta descritta con Medaglie, con la 
giunta di Lionardo Agostini," Rome, 1649, folio. This is 
a new edition of Paruta's Sicilian medals, which was origi- 
nally published at Palermo, 1612, folio, under the title 
*' Delia Sicilia di Filippo Paruta descritta con Medaglie, 
parte prima." This first part, which has become very rare, 
contains only engravings of the medals, to which a descrip- 
tion was promised, in a second part, which never appear- 
ed. Agostini used the same plates as Paruta, and added 
about four hundred medals to those in Paruta's edition, but 
still without explanations. After his death, Paruta's plates 
having fallen into the hands of Marco Maier, a bookseller, 
he published at Lyons, in 1697, anew edition, in folio, 
entitled, " La Sicilia di Filippo Paruta descritta con Me- 
daglie, e ristampata con aggiunta di Lionardo Agostini,. 
hora in miglior ordine disposta da Marco Maier, arrichita 
d'una descrittione compendiosa di quella famosa isola.^ 
But notwithstanding the explanations and historical addi-- 
tions of this editor, this edition is less valued than those of 
Paruta and Agostini. The best and most complete is that 

' Ofen» Dicti— 'Mosheim^s Hist,— Moreri.— 5axii OnOBia&t.— Cave, 

A G S t I N I. ?a> 

which Havercamp published in Latin, at Leyden, 1723, 
3 vols, folio, with a commentary ; these form the sixths 
seventh, and eighth volumes of Graevius's Thesaurus. The 
pther work of Agostini is, 2. " Le Gemme antiche figurate 
di Lionardo Agostini, con le annotazioui del sig. Gio. 
Pietro Bellori," part I. Rome, 1636 and 1657, 4to; part IL 
Rome,''l670 ; reprinted 1686, 2 vols. 4to. In 1702, Do-, 
minique de Rossi published au enlarged edition at Rome, 
2 vols. 4to ; and in 1707, a fourth edition was published at 
the same place in four large vols. 4to, with a vast number 
of additions by Maffei. The first, however, is still in 
highest esteem on account of the beauty of the plates, 
which were executed by Galestnizzi ; aud die^editors of th« 
Orleans gems in 1780 seem to undervalue the labours of 
MafFei and Gronovius, who translated this work into Latin, 
Amsterdam, 1685;, 4to, reprinted at Franeker> 1694. Joe- 
cher, in his Dictionary of learned Men, attributes to Agos-- 
tini a work entitled " Consiglier di pace," which was writ*- 
ten by Lionardo Agosti. * 

. AGOSTINO (Paul), of Valerano, an eminent musician, 
was born in 1 593, and was the scholar of Bernardo Nanini, 
and successor to Soriano in the pontifical chapel. Antinia 
Liberati speaks of him as one of the most scientific and. 
ingenious composers of his time, in every species of music 
then cultivated ; and adds, that when he was master of the 
chapel of St. Peter's church at Rome, he astonished the 
musical world with his productions for four, six, and eight 
bhoirs or choruses; some of which might be sung in four 
or six parts only, without diminishing or enervating the 
harmony. Father Martini, who bears testimony to the 
truth of this eulogium, has inserted an Agnus Dei, in eight 
parts, of this composer, which is truly a curious produc- 
tion, three different canons being carried on at the same 
time, in so cleacand natural a manner, both as to melody 
and harmony, that this learned father, who had been long 
exercised in such arduous enterprizes, speaks of it as one 
of the greatest efforts of genius and learning in this roost dif« 
ficult kind of composition. Agostino died in 1629, in the 
prime of life. * 

AGOULT (William d'), a Provencal gentleman and 
poet, of the twelfth century, died in 1181, leaving behind 

1 Biographic Univer8elle.-«-Descriptioa des Pierres graveefi du c&binet P'(>i;« 
leans, preface. 
% Bumey's Hist, of Mu6;c, toI. III.«»-^Biographi« XJiiiYerseUe^ 

t%0 A G O U L T. 

him the character of a man, learned, amiable, witty, and 
elegant in person and manners. He married Jausserande 
de Lunel, in praise of whom he wrote many verses, dedi** 
cated to Ildefonso, the first of the name, king of Arragon^ 
prince of Provence, and count of Barcelona, in whose 
court he held the rank of first gentteman. He complained 
that in his time the passion of love was not properly under* 
stood, and therefore wrote a treatise or poem, entitled ** La 
maniera d'Amar del temps passat." In this he maintains^ 
in a chain of reasoning, that no one can be happy unless 
he is a good man *, that no one can be a good man unless 
he is in love; and that no man knows how to love who is 
not careful of hi& mistress's honour. None of his writings 
have been published. The family of Agoult still exists in 
Dauphiny and Provence.* 

AGREDA (Maria d'), a singular impostor and entha^ 
siast, the! daughter of Francis Coronel, was. born at Agreda 
in 1602. Her father made his house a convent of female 
Cordeliers, under the name of The Immaculate Conception^ 
and his wife and daughters made profession. Maria was 
elected superior of the convent, and died there in 1665^ 
after having written " The Mystical City of God,** which 
contains a life of the blessed Virgin, full of absurdity and 
impiety. Yet it was printed at Lisbon, at Madrid, at Per^ 
pignan, and at Antwerp, and at last translated into French 
by father Crozet, and printed at Brussels, 3 vols. 4to, and 
8 vols. 8 vo. The doctors of the Sorbonne condemned it ; 
but their sentence was not allowed to be promulgated in 
Spain, where this work was highly popular. ' 

AGRICOLA (Cneius Julius) was bom at the colony of 
Forum*Julii, or Frejus in Provence, A. D. 40, in the reign 
of Caligula. His father's name was Julius Graecinus, a man 
of senatorian rank, and famous for his eloquence. He was 
put to death by Caligula for refusing to accuse Marcus Si-* 
lanus. His mother's name was Julia Procilla, a lady of ex« 
emplary virtue. He studied philosophy and civil law at 
Marseilles, as far as was suitable to his character as a Ro- 
man and a senator. His first service in war was under Sue- 
tonius Paulinus in Britain ; and upon his return to Rome 
lie married Domitia Decidiana, with whom he lived in the 
lltmost harmony and tranquillity. He was chosen questot 

' Biograpbie Umtrerselle. — t3\ct, de I'Avocat.— Mofcri* , 

'Gen. Diet— Moreri.-— Biogr»phieU«iversell(, 

A G R I C O L Ak 2^ 

ID Asia at the same time thai Salvius Titianus was pro-coitr 
Bul there ; and he-preserved his integrity, though that pro*- 
vince was extremely rich, and Titianus, who was v^ry ' 
^taricious, would have readily countenanced bis extortions 
in order to screen his own. He was afterwards chosen tri* 
bune of the people, and then praetor, under the emperor 
Nero. In Vespasian's time he was made legate to Yettius^ 
Bolaqus in Britain, and upon his return was ranked among 
the patricians by that emperor, and afterwards appointed 
goyerqor of Aquitania; which post he held for three years, 
^nd upon his return was chosen consul, and then governor 
of Britain, where he distinguished himself Iby his courage 
and conduct in several campaigns. He subdued the Ordo** 
vices, or people of North Wales, and the island Mona, or 
Anglesey ; and then reformed the abuses occasioned by the 
avarice or carelessness of the former governors, putting a 
stop to all manner of extortions, and causing justice to be 
impartially administere(l. 

Vespasian dying about this tinye, Titus his son, knowing 
Agricola's great merit, continued him in the government. 
In the spring he marched towards the north, where he made 
some new conquests, and ordered forts to be built for the 
Romans to winter in. He spent the following winter in en- 
deavouring to bring the Britons to conform to the Romish 
custqms. He thought the best way of diverting them from 
rising and taking arms, was to soften their rpugh manners 
by the more refined amusements of Rome ; and sooq after, 
the country was adorned with magnificent temples, porti- 
CQes, baths, and other fine public and private edifices. The, 
British nobles had their sons educated in learning, and they 
who before had the utmost aversion to the Rom^n language, 
now made it their study. They wore likewise the Roman 
habit ; and, as Taicitus observes, they wjere brought to con-» 
sider those things as signs of politeness, which were only so 
many badges of slavery. — In his third campaign he ad« 
vanced as far as the river Tweed ; and in his fourth he sub^ 
du^d the nations between the Tweed and the firths of 
Edinburgh and Dumbarton, into which the Clyde and the 
Tay discharge themselves^ Here he built castles and for- 
tresses, in order to shut up the nations which were yet un- 
Qooquered. In his fifth campaign he marched beyond the 
firths, where he subdued some nations, and fixed garrison* 
along the western coasts over-agaiiist Ireland, designing to 
jpake a descent upon that i^andt having had perfect in-* 

Z^ A G II I C O L Ai 

formation of its state from a chief who had been banished 
from thence., In his sixth campaign he passed the firth of * 
Forth, ordering his fleet, the first which the Romans eyer 
bad upon those seas, to row along the coasts, and take a 
view of th^ northern parts. He was advancing farther 
northwards, when he was informed that the northern na« 
tions were marching against him with a formidable army, 
which he routed. In the following spring the Britons 
raised an army of thirty thousand men, commanded by 
Galgacus, who endeavoured to rouse their patriotism by an 
admirable speech which may be seen in Tacitus, and which 
seems adapted to the case^ of every nation about to lose its 
liberties by the invasion of a powerful enemy. Agricola 
on this occasion likewise addressed his soldiers in a very 
eloquent harangue, which was so prevailing, that the Bri- 
tons were routed, with the loss of ten thousand killed ; 
whereas but three hundred and forty of the Romans were 
killed. Pomitian, being informed of this victory, grew jea- 
lous of the conqueror, and recalled him under pretence of 
making him governor of Syria. His death was suspected 
to have been occasioned by poison given him by that em- 
peror ; and, as Tacitus remarks, happened viery seasonably 
for him, as he did not live to witness the calamities brought 
upon his country by the cruelty of Dpmitian. He died 
Aug. 23, A. D. 93, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. It 
is scarcely needful to remind bur readers that his life was( 
affectionately written by his son-in-law Tacitus, who gives 
hini a very high character, but not more than is warranted 
by contemporary authority; at least we are acquainted with 
no documents that can detract from it, * 

AGRICOLA (George), a Qerman physician, eminent 
for his knowledge of pietallurgy, was born at Glaucha in 
Misnia, March 24, 1494. The discoveries which he made 
in the mountains of Bohemia after his return from Italy,^ 
whither ha went to pursiie bis studies, gave him such a taste 
for exaininin^ every thing that related to metals, that when 
engaged in the practice of physic at Joachimstal in Misnia, 
hei employed all the time be could possibly spare in the 
study of fossils; and at length removed to Chemintz, that 
he might wholly devote hinCi'self to this pursuit^ He is said 
to have applied to it with such disinterested zeal, that he 
iiot only spent the pension procured for him from Mauricei 

1 Gen. Diet. 


duke of Saxony, but a considerable part of his own estate ^ 
and when duke Maurice and duke Augustus went to joia 
the army of Charles V. in Bohemia, Agricola attended them, 
in order to demonstrate his attachment, ahhough this 
obhged him to quit the care of his family and estate. He 
died at Chemintz, Nov. 21, 1555. He was a zealous Ro- 
man Catholic, but was considered by the Lutherans as in 
some respects an apostate from the reformed reUgion, and 
they carried their rancour against him so far as to refuse his 
body the rites of burial. It was therefore obliged to be re- 
moved from Chemintz to Zeits, \riiere it was interred iu 
the principal church. Bayle thinks that he must have irri- 
tated the Lutherans by some instances of excessive aversion 
to them, and Peter Albinus represents him as an intolerant 
bigot. His works are *^ De ortu et causis Subterraneo^ 
rum. De natura eorum, quse effluunt ex terra. De 
natura Fossilium. De Medicatis Fontibus. De Subter- 
raneis Animantibus. De veteribus et novis Metallts. De 
re Metallica." This last has been printed at Basil 
four times, in folio, 1546, 1556, 1558, and 1561, which 
shews the very high esteem in which it was held. His work 
^' De ortu et causis Subterraneorum" was printed at Basil, 
1583, fol. Bayle mentions a political work of his, <' De 
bello Turcis inferendo," Basil, 1538, and a controversial 
treatise, ^^ De Traditionibus Apostolicis." His principal 
medical work, ^^ De Peste," was printed at Basil, 1554. 
He wrote also ^^ De Ponderibus et Mensuris^' against Bu- 
deus, Leonard Portius, and Alciati, which the latter endea^ 
voured to answer, but without success. His life is written 
by Melchior Adam. ^ 

. AGRICOLA (John), a Saxon divine, bom at Isleben, 
April 20, 1492, was an eminent doctor of the Lutheran 
church, though chargeable with vanity, presumption, and 
artifice. Bayle gives rather a confused account of his life, 
from which, however, it appears that he made hhtnself dis- . 
tinguished in 1538, upon the following occasion. Luther, 
in the course of his ministry, was insisting upon the neces- 
sity of imprinting deeply in the minds of the people, that 
doctrine of the gospel, which represents Christ's merits as 
the source of man's salvation; and while he was eagerly 
employed in censuring and refuting the popish doctors, 
who mixed the law and the gospel together, and repre- 

1 Qen. Pict.-rMoreri.'— S^xii Onomut.— Melchior Adam, 

134 A G R I C O L A. 

sented eternal happiness as the fruit of legal obedieiiC6|t 
Agricola took an opportunity to declaim against the law^ 
maintaining that it was neither fit to be proposed to the 
people as a rule of manners, nor to be used in the church 
as a means of instruction ; and that the gosjiel alone was to 
be incul6ated and explained both in the churches and im 
the schools of learning. This was the foundation of the' 
sect of AntinomianS) who appeared in. England during 
the usurpation of Cromwell, and carried their extravagant 
doctrines to a higher pitch than this Agricola. But the for- 
titude, vigilance, and credit of Luther, suppressed the fol-t 
lowers of Agricola for the present ; and Agricola himself, 
intimidated by the opposition of so powerful an adversary, 
acknowledged and renounced his system. His recantation, 
however, does not seem to have been sincere, since we are 
told that, when bis fears were dispelled by the dea|th of 
Luther, he returned to his errors, and gained many prose«« 
lytes. Still it has been pleaded oo the part of Agriqola, 
by Mosbeim, that the fall extravagance of Antinomianism 
is not to be attributed .to him, and that his principal fault 
lay in some harsh and inaccurate expressions, that were 
susceptible of dangerous and pernicious interpretations. If 
therefore, we follow the intention of Agricola, without in- 
terpreting, in a rigorous manner, the i^ncouth phrases *and 
improper expressions he so frequently and so injudiciously 
employed, his doctrine, Mosbeim thinks, will plainly 
amount to this; ^^ That the ten commandments, pubUdied 
during the ministry of Moses, were chiefly 'desigmd for the 
Jews, and on that account might be lawfully neglected and 
laid aside by Christians ; and that it was sufficient to ex- 
plain with perspicuity, and to enforce with zeal, what 
Christ and his apostles had taught in the New Testament, 
both with respect to the means of grace and salvation, and 
the obligations of repentance and virtue." He died at 
Berlin in 1566. 

Agricola wrote but few books. The first was *^ An ex- 
planation of three hundred German Proverbs;'* and in a 
s^ond edition he added another hundred. He wtote also 
*< Commentaries upon St. Lukej^'' 8vo, and confuted the 
explication of the nineteenth Psalm, published in High 
Dutch, by Thomas Muncer. He was likewise coi^cerned 
with Julius Pelugius, bishop of Naumburg, and MichaeL 
Sidonius, or Heldingus, by desire of the emperor Charles 
y. in drawing up a Ibrmulary, which might serve as- a rule 

A G It I C O L A. 235 

of taith and worship to the contending parties of P^rotest- 
^nts and Papists, until a council should be summoned : this 
is well known in ecclesiastical history by the name of the 
Interim^ znd was opposed by many of the reformers.* 

AGRICOLA (Michel), a native of Finland, and a Lu* 
tfaetan divine of considerable eminence in the sixteenth 
century, studied -divinity and medicine in the university of 
Wittemberg. Having become acquainted with Luther, 
that reformer recommended him to Gustavus I. ; and on his 
return to Sweden, he was made rector of Abo, in 1539. 
Gustavus afterwards sent him to Lapland to preach Chris- 
tianity to the benighted Laplanders. In 1554, he was ap^ 
pointed bishop. of Abo, and then went into Russia, with the 
archbishop of Upsal, Laurentius Petri, in order to have t, 
conference with the clergy of that country. He died in 
1557. He translated the New Testament into the Finland 
language, which was printed at Stockholm, 154S; and it 
said also to have translated into the same language a work 
entitled <^ Rituale EcclesisB ab erroribus pontificiorum re- 
purgatus^" * 

AGRICOLA (RoDOLPHUs), one of the most learned 
men of the fifteenth century, was born in 1442, in the vil- 
lage of Bafflon, or BafFehiy near Groningen, in Firiseland« 
Melchior Adam says, his parents were of one of the most 
considerable families in Friseland; but Ubo Emmius, in his 
history of that country, represents him as of mean eistrac* 
tion ; and Bayle, who appears to have examined the matter 
with his usual precision, inclines to the latter opinion. He 
was, however, sent to school, where he made an uncommon 
progress, and had scarcely taken his degree of M. A. at 
Louvain, when he was offered a professorship, which he 
did not accept^ as it would have prevented his travelling 
for farther improvement, a course usually taken by the 
learned men of those times. He went from Louvain to 
Parisi and from thence to Italy, residing two years at Fer- 
rara, where he learned Greek and taught Latin, and dis- 
puted in prose and verse with Guarinus and the Strozzas, 
and where the duke honoured him with particular atten- 
tion. He read lectures likewise on philosophy in this city, 
and his auditors were so well pleased as to wish he had 
been an Italian. At his return to his own country^ he had 
ibe oifer of many considerable employments; and at last 

. 1 Gen. Diet.-— Mosheim's EcclesUstical History.— Melchior Adam.— -MoreriW 
* Biograpllie Uuiverielle.— G^d. Diet. 

«6 A G R I C O L A. 

accepted of a post at Groningen, and attended the court 
of Maximilian I. for six months, upon the afiairs of that city* 
After this, which the gratitude of his masters did not render 
a very profitable employment, he resumed his travels foF 
many years, in the course of which he refusedthe president- 
ship of a college at Antwerp, and fixed at length in the 
Palatinate, inSuenced by the persuasions of the bishop of 
Worms, whom he had instructed in the Greek language. 
He came to reside here in 1432, and passed the rest of his 
Jife, sometimes at Heidelberg, and sometimes at Worms. 
The Elector Palatine was pleased to hear him discourse 
concerning antiquity,, and desired him to compose an 
<^ Abridgement of Ancient History," which he performed 
with great accuracy. He also read public lectures at 
Worms; but his auditors being more accustomed to the 
subleties of logic than to polite literature, he was not so 
popular as he deserved. About the fortieth year of bis age, 
he began to study divinity; and having no hope to succeed 
in it without a knowledge of Hebrew, he applied himself 
to that language, in which he had made considerable pro-r 
gress, when he was seized with an illness, which put an 
end to his life and labours, on the 28Lh of October, 1485. 
He died in a very devout manner, and was buried in the 
church of the minor friars at Heidelberg. He is thought 
to have inclined a little to the principles of the reformers. 
He was accomplished in music and poetry, although he 
used these talents only for his amusement. There are but 
two works of his extant: " De Inventione Dialectica," 
printed at Louvain, 1516; and at Cologne in 1539, along 
with his " Abridgement of Ancient History," under the 
title <* R. Agricolae lucubrationes," 2 vols. 4to. Erasmus 
gives a very exalted character of his learning and abilities; 
and by some of his admirers he was compared to Virgil in 
verse, and to Politian in prose. ^ 

AGRIPPA (Camille), a celebrated architect of Milan^ 
of the sixteenth century. He was a successful student of 
mathematics, physics, and philosophy. Under the pontifi* 
cate of Gregory XHI. there was a design at Rome to re- 
move a vast obelisk to St. Peter's square, and Agrippa was 
one of those employed in this undertaking, hitherto thought 
so difficult. He published the result of his plan under the 
(itl^ of ^> Tr^ttato di trasportar la guglia in su la piaz^^i^ 

I G«n. Picti— Melchior Adam, 

A O R I P P A. 337 

iJi San Pietro/' Rome, 1583, 4to. His other works are^ 
li. " Trattato di scientia d'Arme, con un Dialogo di Filo- 
Sofia," Rome, 1553; Venice, 1568, 1604, 4to. 2. "Dia- 
logo sopra la generatione de Venti, &c." Rome, 1584, 
4to. 3. " I>ialogo del modo di mettere in Batta^Ua,'* 
Rome, 1585, 4to. 4. ^^ Nuove Invenzioni sopra ii modo 
di Navigare," Rome> 1595, 4to* All his works are very 
scarce. > 

AGRIPPA (Henry Cornelius), a man of considerable 
learning, and even a great magician, according to report, 
in the 16th century, was born at Coiogn, the 14th of 
September, 1486, of the noble family of Nettesheim. He 
was very early in the service of tlie emperor Maximilian : 
acted at first as his secretary; but afterwards took to the 
profession of arms, and served that emperor seven years 
in Italy, where he distinguished himself in several engage- 
ments, and received the honour of knighthood for his gal* 
lant behaviour. To his military honours he was desirous 
likewise to add those of the universities, and accordingly 
took the degrees of doctor of laws and physic. He was a 
man of an extensive genius, and well skilled in many parts 
of knowledge, and master of a variety of languages ; but 
his insatiable curiosity, the freedom of his pen, and the 
inconstancy of his temper, involved him in so many vicissi- 
tudes, that his life became a series of adventures. He waa 
continually changing his situation; always engaging him- 
self in some difficulty or other; and, to complete his trou-< 
bles, he drew upon himself the hatred of the ecclesiastics 
oy his writings. According to his letters, he was in France 
before the year 1507, in Spain in 1508, and at Dole ia 
1509. At this last place he read public lectures on the 
work of Reuchlin, " De Verbo mirifico," which engaged 
him in a dispute with Catilinet, a Franciscan. These lec- 
tures, though they drew upon him the resentment of the 
monks, yet gained him general applause, and the counsel- 
lors of the parliament went themselves to hear them. In 
order to ingratiate himself into the favour of Margaret of 
Austria, governess of' the Low Countries, he composed a 
treatise ** On the excellence of Women;" but the perse- 
cution he met with from the monks prevented him from 
publishing it, and obliged him to go over to England, 
where he wrote a " Commentary upon St. Paul's Epistles,'.' 

1 Biographie Univeraelle.— jDict. Hist. 

258- A <J R I P P A. 

Upon his return to Cologn, he read pubKc lectares npori 
diose questions in divinity which are called Quodlibitales. 
He afterwards went to Italy, to join the army of the em- 
peror Maximilian, and staid there till he was invited to Pisa 
by the cardinal de St. Croix. 

In the year 1515 he read lectures upon Mercurius Tris- 
ti()egistus at Pavia. He left this city the same year, or the 
year following; but his departure was rather a flight than 
a retreat. By bis second book of letters we find, that his 
friends endeavoured to procure him some honourable set- 
tlement at Grenoble, Geneva, Avignon, or Metz : he chose 
the last of these places ; and in 1518 was employed as 
syndic, advocate, and counsellor for that city. The perse- 
cutions raised against him by the monks, because he had 
refuted a vulgar notion about St. Anne's three husbands, 
and because he protected a countrywoman who was ac- 
cused of witchcraft, obliged him to leave the city of Metz; 
The abuse which his friend Jacobus Faber Satulensis, or 
Jacques Faber d^Estaples, had received from the clergy of 
Metz, for affirming that St. Anne had but one husband, had 
raised his indignation, and incited him to maintain the 
same opinion. Agrippa retired to Cologn in the yeai^ 
1 520, leaving without regret a city, which those turbulent 
inquisitors had rendered hostile to all polite literature and 
real merit. He left his own country in 1521, and went ta 
Geneva: here his income must have been inconsiderable^ 
for he complains of not having enough to defray his ex-' 
pences to Chamber!, in order to solicit a pension from the 
duke of Savoy. In this, however, his hopes were disap- 
pointed; and in 1523 he removed to Fribourg in Switzer* 
land. The year following he went to Lyons, and obtained 
a pension from Francis I. He was appointed physician to 
the king's mother; but this was not ihuch to his advantage; 
Bor did he attend her at her departure from Lyons, in Au* 
gust 1525, when she went to conduct her daughter to the 
borders of Spain. He was left behind at Lyons, and was 
obliged to implore the assistance of his friends in order to 
obtain his salary ; and before he received it, had the mor- 
tification of being informed that he was struck off the list. 
The cause of his disgrace was, that, having received orders 
from his mistress to examine by the rules of astrology, what 
success would attend the affeirs of France, he too freely 
expressed his dislike that she should employ him in such 
idle curiosities^ instead of things of consequence : at which 

A G R I P P A. 23f 

the vrais highly offended; and became yet more irritated 
against him, when she understood that his astrological cal« 
Giilations promised neve successes to the constable of Bour- 
bon. Agrippa finding himself thus abandoned, gave way 
•16 the utmost rage and impetuosity, of temper: he wrote 
several menacing letters, and threateaed to publish some 
books, in which he would expose the secret history of 
those courtiers who had worked his ruin : nay, he proceeded 
so far as to say, that he would for the future account . that 
princess, to whom he had been counsellor and physician, as 
a cruel and perfidious Jezebel. 

He now resolved to remove to the Low Countries ; this 
he could not do without a passport, which he at length ob-> 
tained, after m^ny tedious delays,, and arrived at Antwerp 
in July 1528. The duke de Vendome was the principal 
cause of these delays ; for he, imtead of signing the pass- 
port, tore it in pieces in a passion, protesting he would ne- 
ver sign a passport for a conjuror. In 1529, Agrippa had 
invitations from Henry VIII. king of England, from the 
cha.ncellor of the emperor, from an Italian marquis, and^ 
from Margaret of Austria, governess of the Low Countries : 
he preferred the last, and accepted of being historiographer 
to the emperor, which was offered him by that princess. 
He published, by way of introduction, the ** History of 
the Coronation of Charles V.'* Soon after, Margaret of 
Austria died, and he spoke her funeral oration. Her death 
is said in some measure to have been the life of Agrippa, 
for great prejudices had been infused into that princess 
against him: " I have nothing to write you (says he in 
one of his letters) but that I am likely to starve here, being 
entirely forsaken by the deities of the court; what the great 
Jupiter himself (meaning Charles V.) intends, I know not. 
1 now understand what great danger I was in here: the 
monks so far influenced the princess, who was of a super- 
stitious turn^ as women generally are, that, had not her 
sudden death prevented it, I should undoubtedly have been 
tried for offences against the majesty of the cowl and the 
sacred honour of the monks ; crimes for which I should 
have been accounted no less guilty, and no less punished; 
than if I had blasphemed the Christian religion." His 
treatise, " Of the Vanity of the Sciences,'* which he pub- 
lished in 1 530, greatly enraged his enemies ; and that which 
he sooti after printed at Antwerp, ** Of the Occult Philo- 
sophy,'* aflbrded them iresh pretexts for deff ming his re- 

tii A GRIP PA. 

tipon vulgar credulity, must not pass withcmt censure. HU 
occult philosophy is rather a sketch of the Alexandriani 
mixed with the Cabbalistic theology, than a treatise on 
tnagic. It explah)s the harmony of nature^ and the connec-^ 
tipa of the elementary, celestial, and intellectual worlds, ori 
the principles of the emanative system. His treatise on the 
Vanity of the Sciences is not so much intended to traducW 
Ibcience itself, as to ridicule the follies of the learned, and 
expose the numerous absurdities of the established modes 
of education. 

His attention to magical studies began early, according 
to Meiners ; in youth he joined a secret society at Pariis 
which was defended against the profane by peculiar ritesr 
pf admission. Ttie separation of this cabbalistical brother- 
hood did not occasion the dissolution of their lodge ^ oa 
the contrary, each of the members endeavoured to found 
in his own neighbourhood corresponding societies for si* 
milar purposes. In 1510 Agrippa was s^nt to England on 
Ipome commission, relative, probably, to the treaty be- 
tween Henry VIII. and the French king ; and on this oc- 
casion,* as appears by his published letters^ he founded in 
JLondon one of these secret societies for magical pursuits; 
The same biographer remarks, that a strange mixture of 
active and passive dupery characterises Agrippa ; an aU 
temation of sceptical contempt, and of superstitious cre- 
dulity respecting the occult artSi If his assertions may be 
credited, he had attained that intercourse with demoniacal 
natures, which was the boast of Plotinus and Jamblicus ; 
and his magical pretensions found so much credit with his 
contemporaries, that they describe him as carrying aboul 
with him sl devil in the form of a black dog. 

The two principal works of Agrippa, already mentioned, 
were printed under the following titles : 1. " De incerti- 
tudineetvanitate Scieniiarum, declamatio invectiva,*' with-: 
put date, 8vo; Cologn, 1527, 12moj Paris, 1531, &vbj 
J53i, 8vo; 1532, 8vo; 1537, 8vo ; and 1539, 8vo. Theso 
seven editions are complete, but what were published af- 
terwards were castrated* The French translation by Ijouis 
de Mayenne Turquet, 1582, 8vo, is complete; but that 
by Gueudeville, Leyden, 1726, 3 vols. 12mo, with^e 
essay on Women, is mutilated. This work has also been 
published in Italian, English, (by James Sandford, 15i69) 
German, and Dutch. Mr. Granger thinks it has been 
greatly improved upou by Mr. Tbooias Baker, in his^ a«U 

A G R I P P Ai 244 

mirable '< Reflections upon Learning.'' 2« '^DeOcctilta 
pbilosophia, libri tres," Antwerp and Paris, 1531; Mecfa*- 
Uny Basle, Lyons, and an edition without place, 1533, foL 
Lyons, 8to, translated into French by Le Vasseur; 
Hague, 1737,2 vols. 8 vo. 3. ^^ De nobilitate et praecellentia 
fa5niineisexu8,declamatio," Antwerp, 1529, 8vo. 4. ^^Co1Il«^ 
mentariainartembrevemRaymundi Lulli," Cologue, 1533^ 
Selingst^t, 1538, 8vo. 5. <' Orationes decern: de du« 
}>lici coronatione Caroli V. apud Bononiam ; Ejusd, Epi*' 
gram, &c." Cologne, 1535, 8yo. His entire works have 
been often published. The edition of Lyons by the Be« 
riug% Leyden, 1550, 8vo, 2 vols, contains a fourth book 
of the Occult philosophy, on magical ceremonies, which 
is not by Agrippa, and has perhaps contributed most to. the 
opinion of his being a magician. ^ . . . : . 

• AGUADO (Francis), a Spanish Jesuit^ and voluminous 
writer, was born 1566, at Torrejon, a village near Ma- 
drid, and ratered the society of Jesuits at Alcale,. in 1588, 
beiug then M. A. He was governor of several houses of 
the order in Spain, twice presided over the province of 
Toledo,. and was twice sent as deputy to the congregations 
at Rome. The king,: Philip I V* chose him for his preacher^ 
and the.coimt Olivarez, Philip's prime minister, appointed 
him his confessor. He died at Madrid, Jan.. 15, 1654. 
His. works consist of six folios, in Spanish, printed at 
Madrid in 1629, 1638, 1640, 1641,. 1643, 1646, ]653y 
on various /religious topics ; and a life of father Goudin, 
the Jesuit, 8vo, 164.3. He left also many treatises which 
have not been published. * 

. < AGUQCHIO (John Baptista), archbishop of Amasia in 
Natolia, was.bornrat ^ologna, Nov. 20, 1570. He had the 
advantage of being educated under the care of Philip Sega, 
his uncle,^ . who was raised on account of his distinguished 
merits- to. the rank of cardinal, by pope Innocent IX ; and of 
Jerom Agucchio^ his brother, who was made cardinal by 
pope Cl^nent 1604. Hi3 application to study, 
was early, rapid, and assiduous, but particularly in the 
study of polibe literature. This recommended him so 
much to cardinal Sega, that he carried him with him to 
ixan^e, when he went thither as legate from the pope. 

^ Gen; Diet.— Moreri.— Biographie UnivenelU.— Fopper iBibl. Ba].<^BrudLer. 
-^M«rtia't Biog. Phn«sophica.— >MeiDer's Biographies, in Month. Rev. VoL 
X3CIV.— Saxii Onomasticon.— Dibdin's BibUodiania, vol. I. p. 23-S4.«^raDg«r'» 
biographical ilittorjr, * Moreri, 


14* A G U C C H I O. 

Aftrt die deAth. of Sega, Aguccbio was appointed s^crr-^ 
tafjr to catdifial AldobnuKliQi, nephevr to pope Clemieiit 
VIII; ind attended biin when he went legate tt> Henry IV<^ 
pf Fvanc^y of which joumey be v^rote a very eleganc ac-* 
oount. The cardinal^ after bis return^ coitimitted tb# 
masn^gement of hb bouse to Agttcebioy wbicb pitmnoe be 
^tecitted till the death of pope Clement YUL and of bia 
brother the cardinal Agtcthio, when, waitt of heaHb 
obliged him to retire &6m the court. But after he ha^ 
xecovecedy and had passed some time at Romef in teamed 
vetiremertt^ cardiaal Alddbrandini bitmgbt hiai agUin ioto» 
bia former employment, in which be continued tiU the 
eardioaPa dcatb. He then becauie secretary to Gregofy^ 
XV. which pbic6 he held nntii tbe death of that pofYtifJt 
In 1624, Urban VIII. sent him as nondo to Yenicey 
where he became generally esteemed, altboiigh he main* 
iainied the rights of the see of Rome with the utmost ri-** 
gbnt The cotttagious distemper which ravaged Italy ia 
16 30^ obliged him to retire to Friuli, where he died im 
I63S. He was a man of very extensive learnu^, but ap*^ 
pears is bis private charactet to have been sooo^what 
austere and natrow* His wo#ks are : ** A treatise upon 
Comets and Meteors^'* ^^The Life of Cardinal Sega, and 
that of Jerom Agucchio bis brother/' and a letter to tbe 
eanon Harthelemi Dokini on the origin of tbe city of Bo-» 
logit^, ^ L*Antica» fondazione e dominio deila dtta di 
Bdkrgna,^' BoiOgtia, 1638, 4ta i^e left sdso various let* 
tevs aad mdral treatises, not published. ■ 

AGUESSEAU (Henry Francis d'), a French statesman 
of great 'w^th aiid talents, was bom at Lifridges, Nov. 7, 
l66ft, the son of Henry d^Aguesseau, then iatendant of 
the Limoisin, and afterwatdr) dsunsellor of state. The' 
fnniy was distingmsfa^d for having produced many able 
itaagiatrates, among whom waa Anthony, the gitemdfather 
ef the obauceUor, who was firgt president of thepaiiiament 
of Bourdeaux^ Hetiry'^Franci^, the subject of dxe present 
article^ was educated under bis lather in every species of 
^knowledge which promised to qualiiy him 'A^t the ofice of 
jnagistrarte. After being admitted, in 1690, an advocate, 
be became, a few months alter, advocate«»general of tbe 
parliament of Paris, at the age of only twenty-two years. 

' Gen. Di<!t.<^Eryth, ^nacotIieca,-^Moreri.«— BiOg* U9itrer6elb.«^SaxiLiXA0« 


A G U E 8 S £ A U. 845 

The Vmg, in appointing one so young to «n office of rery 
great consequence, was guided solely by the recomineodi- 
ation of bis father. ^^ I know him/' said his majesty, ^ to 
be incapable of deceiying me, even in the C9$e jof bis own 
son;" and the young advocate completely justified the con# 
fidence reposed in him. The ctdebjcated Denis Talon, ^vbo 
had obtained great reputation in the saji»e office, declared 
that he 'should bare been willing to conclude his caiscr a^ 
that young man had begun his. After liaving performed 
the functions of his office with reputation equal to his com* 
mencement, he became procurator-^genecal ; and the nature 
of his new office furnished him with occasion to display 
new tale'nts in the public serviee. In particular, be in«- 
troduced a complete system x>f reformation in the ma* 
nagement of the hospitals, by wfaidi abuses were ptevmtti, 
or corrected ; and he restored order and discipline in the 
tribunals, by which the criminal code was greadyimpnoved. 
in questions respecting elates, he discovered much acute* 
ness and knowledge of antiquities. 

In 1709, the war and famine, and public distress ren* 
idered his plaoe of much importance, and called ferth tbe 
qualities of the heart as well as the head. At this critical 
period, Desmarets^ the comptroller-general, appointed a 
committee of the principal magistrates, anaoog whom was 
-D'Aguessean, whose zeal and knowledge animated the 
whole. He contrived to discover jbhe fosestallers of pro* 
Tisions ; punished the most guilty ; and re-established 
credit and confidence ; and from this time, a sense of the 
<raiue of his public services made him be often consulted 
on tlie most difficult points of administration, suid employod 
to drf w up meoAoriak fcMr the king? Towards tlw end of 
the reign, however, of Louis XiV. he was threatened widbt 
disgtaoe for having refused to register the fiunous bull 
iJ nigenitus. 0« this occasion it was that madame D* Agoi^«- 
seau, whan her husband was about to set out £or Ver«- 
saiUes, said, ** Go, and before the king, forget your W]£b 
and children, and lose every thing but your honour.^ 
S^Aguesseaiji, without perhaps understanding the whole 
of the doctrines tcondemned by that bull, thought be per*- 
cei^f^d, in part of its regulations, something that threatened 
the rights of monarchy, which he therefore had the cou- 
'vage lo defend against the monarch himself. It was this 
sense of the matter wiiioh piH>duoed the spirited answer he 
jg»ve to QMiviiiiy the pop^Ts mmcio : ^^ Is it thos/' said 


Quirini, '^ that you maouivLCture arms against Rome?'* **tJ6^ 
Monsieur," replied D'Agoesseau, ^^ these are not ariiui» 
but shields.'* 

f"- Louis XIV. however, died, and for some time during 
the regency, D'Aguesseau enjoyed all the credit which 
his character and virtues i!nerited. In 17 1 7, he succeeded 
Voisin as chancellor ; but before a year expired, the re* 
gent took the seals from him, and ordered him into exile 
for having opposed the establishment of the royal bank, 
and the other projects contrived by Mr. Law. It was in 
Tain that he endeavoured to expose the danger of issuing 
a quantity of notes, the value of which was merely imagi* 
nary ; but the public were struck with the novelty of the 
scheme, and charmed with its delusive plausibility, and 
S' Aguesseau was ordered to retire to his estate at Fresnes^ 
while the seals were given to D' Argenson. . 

The issue of Law's project is well known. For two 
years, it amused the French public, aud then the Jbubble 
burst Government was now so embarrassed, and the 
people so dissatisfied, that in 1720, the regent thought 
proper to recall the dbcarded chancellor, and restore the 
seals to him. Mr. Law himself, and the chevalier 4e 
Conflans,, first gentleman of the chamber to the regent, 
were dispatched to D'Aguesseau at^Fresnes, while Dubois 
was ordered to demand the seals from D'Argenson. D'Agues^ 
seau's return was blamed by a party composed of members 
of the parliament, and of some men of letters. They did 
not relish his accepting a favour conveyed through the 
haiids of Mr. Law ; but, says his biographer, he would 
have been more to blame,' had he refused what had less 
the, appearance of a favour, than of amends for injury ten« ■ 
dered by the chief minister of state. 

Aguesseau himself considered it as an honour to be re* 
called in a time of danger, and immediately began to 
repair the mischief done in his absence, by ordering the pay* 
ment of the notes issued by the bank, as far as was possible; 
and although the loss to individuals was great, this mea« 
sure was less odious than a total bankruptcy, which had 
•been proposed. But a new storm burst forth in this cor<^ 
rupt court, which he was unable to oppose with his usual 
firmness. The regent, who had cajoled the parliament to 
nullify the will of Louis XIV. now solicited him to register 
the declaration of tkke king in favour of the bull 'Unigenitus» 
This was doae in compliance with Dubois, now become 

A G U E S S E A U. 247 

Urchbi'sh^ of Cambray, and who, expecting sl cardina^ff 
•6aty liad flattered the court of Rome with hopes of having 
«ibebull registered. D'Aguesseau had refused this, as we 
have seen, in the reign of Louis XIV« without being in-^ 
fluenced by any spirit of party, but purely from his attach*^' 
m'ent to the rights of the crown« But now, when chan* 
cellor, he seemed to view the matter in another light ; he 
thought it bis duty to negociate with the parliament ; and' 
the parliament rejected his propositions, and was banished 
to Pontoise. The regent then imagined be might register 
the declaration in the grand council. In this solemn as* 
' sembly D^Aguesseau met with a repartee which he no doubt 
felt Perelle, one of thie members, having opposed the 
registration with much spirit, D'Aguesseau asked him 
where he bad found all his arguments against it i '^ In the 
•pleadings of the deceased M. chancellor D^Aguesseau,** 
answered Perelle, very cooUy ; nor was this the only 
instance . in which he was treated with ridicule on this 
chai^ge in his sentiments and conduct. In the mean time 
the court having threatened to send the parliament to Blois^ 
the chancellor offered to resign the seals ; but the regent 
requested him to retain them : and at length the parliament 
consented to register the disputed declaration with certaia 
modifications. D'Aguesseau, however, did not enjoy his 
honours longr In 1722, he refused to yield precedence to 
cardinal Dubois, the first minister; and this statesman^ 
who wished to keep at a distance from court every <man of 
virtue and dignity of character, procured the chancellor to 
be again banished, and he was not recalled until 1 727, 
but without having the seals restored to him. In the mean 
time the court and parliament were still at variance on ec- 
clesiastical affairsj and the cardinal Fleuri wished to engage 
D'Aguesseau's influence in favour of the court ; but the 
latter had unfortunately lost his credit in a great measure, 
and was considered as a deserter from the cause which he 
had once defended with so much spirit. 
- In 1737, the seals were again restored to him, but sick 
of court affairs and intrigues, he determined to confine 
himself to his duties as a minister of justice, and in this 
edacity he performed essential service to his coui>try by 
restoring the true spirit of the laws, and rendering the 
execution of them uniform throughout France. In 1730^ 
having attained bis eighty^second year> he felt for the first 
time Siat his infinuities interrupted kh l^kbours^ and did 


ii6t wish io retain % situation of which he could uo longer 
perforin the duties^ The king, in accepting his resigna'^ - 
tion, continued to hloi the honours of the q£^c^ of cfaan-* 
cellor, and bestowed on him a pension pf 100|0Q0 fraiil^s^ 
which he did not long enjoy, as he died Feb. 9, 1751. 
• In 1694, he married Anne le Fevire d'Ormesson^ a lady 
Worthy xsi him, and with whom he iired happily until hev 
.death at the tillage of Anteuil in 1735, when she was in- 
tfcerred^ agreeably- to her own orders, in the common burial 
pfatce of the parish ; and there her husband desired also ta 
)be interred, and for some time a simple cross only pointed 
0Ut the remiatiis of the chancellor D^ A.guesseau, Louis XV, 
however, caused a magnificent monument, in the form of 
an obriisk, to be erected^ which remained until destroyed 
fay «the ilevolutionary rabble^ It h^s since been repair^ at 
jthe public expense; and in 1810 the statue of D'Aguesseati 
was placed before the pericyte of the legislative palace, 

Barallel to that of the famotis L'HopitaU 
' D' Aguesseati, it is tinivetsally acknowledged, was an esc* 
jcelleilt atid nprigfat magistrfiite, and of sentimeats more 
liberal than could be tolerated in a corrupt court. His 
memory was surprising, his apptehension quick, and his 
knowledge of the law extensive and profound. He unde^« 
stood radically, not only his mother tongue, but also 
English) Italian, Spanish, Poortugutise, Latin, Greek, and 
the oriental laxiguages; Studying langaages he called $xi 
amusement ; and reading the ancseUt poets, the only pas^ 
sion of his youth. He made i^erses, which v^ere approved 
by Racitie (and Boileau, who were almost the only 
compani<lns of his leisure. His talents he exencised in 
offices of virtue, but never to shew his superiority ; and h^ 
himself appeared to be the last man who was acquainted 
with the advantages he conferred on society. His coun«- 
trymen fondly compare him to our illustrious Bacon ; but 
although we are not disposed to rank hi^ so high, it may 
be allowed that his imagination was fertile, his ideas cleaf^ 
his images striki^iig, his arguments strong, ^ud his language 
elegant. He was indeed a prodigy of science and virtue^ 
and a model of true elegance and taste ; and the i^eetness 
^£ hiis tjemper, with the gemle^ss and modesty of his de-» 
-fatii'tment and m«itiaers> cast a tndst attractive lustre over 
hi^ gk-eat intetl^tual a^quiiriMnents. He was a stranger to 
pO'^Vimstt\'k4i&n(S^i Mdtnade them all subservient to the 
T'tmem it ttidse retigimg and moral piinciples iia\ 

A G U E S S E A U. J4« 

Mnoble faninan nature. He was one of the first men of 
his &ge, and that was the age of Louis XIV. Anotber 
importaM part of his character we shall give in the wwda 
of one of bis editors : ^' The enemies," says he,. " of re^ 
vealed religion, are perpetually telling us, that it renders 
man abject and pusillanimous i contracts and shackles the 
understanding; retards the progress of science, and iia 
only fit for weak and vulgar minds. -If there were net a 
multitude of examples, adapted to confound the abettors 
of such an extravagant notion, that of the chancellor 
D'Aguesseau would aloue be sufficient for that purpose* 
This illustrious magistrate, whose sablime genius, and 
4aniversal knowledge, bis country, and indeed the lear^ned 
vrorkl in general, beheld with admiration ; who was one of 
the brightest ornaments of the present age; and who, with 
unremittiug activity, consecrated his taknts,,and his whole 
)ife, to the service of his country, wbs an humble and 
zealous disciple of the Christian religion, which be con* 
sidered as the true philosophy ; because it was, accordtog 
to him, the only guide which could shew man what 
be was, what he Is, and can render him what he ought 
Jo be" 

i The works of D*Aguesseau are comprized in 13 vols. 4<s^ 
Paris, 1759— 89. The edition printed at Yverdun, 1772--* 
P5, 12 vols. Bvo, is not complete. A few of them hav^beea 
published siq>aratety. ^ 

AGUILLONIUS, or AGUILON (Francis), was a Je* 
iniit of Brussels, and professor of philosophy at Idoway^ 
and nf theology at Antwerp. He was one of the first that 
introduced nsathenaaticai studies at Antwerp. He wrote a 
book entitled *^ Opticorum lib. VI. Philosopfaicis juxta 
ac Matfaesnaticis utiles,'' printed at Antwerp by Plantin io 
i 61 3, in fol. ; a»d a treatise "Of Projections of the Sphere." 
He was ^anployed in finishing his ^^ Catoptrics and Diop^ 
tries,'' at the time of his death, which happened at Sevilley 
in 16 17. He appears to have been a man of great learnings 
and of great piety. " 

AGUIRRE (Joseph Saen2 de), a very learned man of the 
I7tb century, was born at Logrogno, a city of Spaing 
Marcii 24, 1630, and took the degree of D.D. in the uni-*' 
versity of Salajnanca in i66% and read lectures in that 

1 Biographie Universelle.— Moreri, SuppUto vol. X. p. 74. — Diet. Historique, 
—Life prefiixed to his workSr-Crit. Rev. vol. VI. p. 75— Month. Rev* vol. 
LXX1|I. ^ Gen. Diet.— Siog. tlniverseUe. 

wo A G U I R R E. 

lacultjfor xnanj'years. He was c^sor and secretary of 
tbe sup-eme council of the inquisition in Spain, ohief in- 
-terpreter of the scripttire^ in the university of Salamanca» 
and bad been more than once abbot of the college of St. 
Vineent, when be was honoured with a cardmaVs bat by 
liincMsent XI. in 1686. He died at Rome Aug. 19, 1699. 
•His life was very exemplary ; bs^A the jdignity to whicb be 
was raised was so far froco making any cbahge in bim, that 
be shewed an instaiM:e i^ry miconunon, by retracting in 
an express {»ece the doctrine of probability, which be bad 
h^to^ maintained, as soon as be found it was inconsistent 
/miAi the pnrily of the Christian morality. His first work 
iviis ei^titled ^* Ludi Saloianticense^ sive Tbeologia Floru- 
lerHa,'' printed in 1668, foi. These are dissertations 
which be wrote, according to the custom of the university 
of Salamanca, before be received his degree of D.D. there; 
and there are some things in them to which be objected in 
Ills more mature years. In 1671 be published three vo-' 
iumes in folio upon philosophy, and in 1673 ^^ A com-* 
mentary upon Aristotle^s ten books of Ethics.'* In 1677 
lie published *^ A treatise upon Viitues and Vices, or Dis^ 
pHtations on Aristotle's Moral Philosophy," He then ap- 
jltied himself to the study of St. Auselm's works, upon 
whose principles ia div]|iitr)r he published ^< The Theology 
of St: Anselm,'' 3 vols. fol. 1690, In 16&3 he published 
a large work against the declaration of the assembly of the 
French clergy made in 1682, concerning the ecclesiastical 
and civil power, under the title of ^' A defence of the se^ 
of St. Peter.'* . The work for whicb be is chiefly celebrated 
is his *^ Collection of the Councils of Spain" with an intro* 
doctory history. This was published in 1693-4, in 4 vols, 
ibl. ; and in 1753 in 6 vds. fol. He published a Prodro-* 
mus of this work in 1686, 8vo. It is variously spoken of; 
Do Pin is inclined to depreciate its merit. Abstracts froni 
it may be seen in the Acta £ruditorum of Leipsic, for the 
month of February, 1688, and some farther particulars iq 
the General Dictionary. * 

AGYL^US (Henry), an eminent lawyer and law 
writer, the son of Anthony Agylseus, originally of aa 
Italian family, was born at Bois-le-duc, about 1533, where 
he was educated, and became a distinguished Greek 
acholiin In his youth be carried arms against the, king of 

I Qen. Ptct.-— Moi^n«-'«-Saxii Onomasticoiu 

A<JYLJEU«, esi 

Spain, was appointed a deputy to the States Geoeral, 4 
member of the supreme council, and advocate fiscal. Bat 
he is less known by his share in the defence of his couptry^ 
than by his learning aiid writings* He published ; I. ^* No- 
vellas Justiniani Imp. Constitutiones,^' with Holoaader^s 
translation icorrected, Paris, 1560, 4to. 2. " Justiniaoi 
edicta : Justini, Tiberii, Leanis philosophi €onstitutione% 
et Zenoois una,"' Paris, 1560, Svo. 3. A Latin transla- 
tion of the Nomo-Canon of Photius, with Balsamoq^s com- 
mentary, a better translation, and from a more complete 
copy than that of Gentian Hervet^ Basil, 1561, fol. It 
has been reprinted by Christopher Justel, with the Greeks 
in 1615, and in 1661 by Henry Justel in his Collection of 
the ancient canon lai¥. 4. ^^ Inauguratio Philippi II. flisp. 
^S^f qua se juramento ducditut ArabantisB, &a. obligavit,"** 
Utrecht, 1620, 8vo. He died April 1595.^ 

AHLWARDT (Pete^r), professor of logic and meta- 
physics at Greifswald, was born in that town, Feb. 19, lllO, 
and died there, March 1, 1791, after having enjoyed con- 
siderable fame, from his learning, zeal, benevolence, and 
}ove of truth. His father was a poor shoe-maker, but bj 
extreme ceconomy his son was enabled to pursue his stu- 
died at Greifswald, and afterwards at the university of Jena. 
He became the founder of the society or order of the Abe* 
lites, the object of which was the promotion of candoui: 
and sincerity. His favourite maxim was, *^ Give every 
thing on which you are immediately engaged, be it ever 
so trifling, all the attention of which you are capable.V 
He thought he had discovered that want of attention . is 
the source of lukewarmness in the cause of virtue, andtbp 
great promoter of vice ; and imputed his attachment to the 
duties of his office and of religion, to his constant ob- 
servance of the above rule. His princip&I works are; 
J. *^ Brontotheologie," or pious meditations on the phe- 
nomena of thunder and lightning, Greifswald, 1745, 8vo; 
translated into Dutch 1747. 2. *^ Reflexions on the Augsr 
burgh Confession," eight parts in 3 vols. 1742—50, 4 to, 
which may be considered as a continuation of Reinbeck^s on the same subject. 3,. Some '^ Sermons" and 
f* Philosophical Dissertations." In those whiclh he pub- 
lished in 1734 and 1740, on the immortality of the soul, 
lind the freedom of God, he introduced some opinions, 

J Foppen BiW. Belg.— Biog. Unirerselle.— Moreri.— Saxti Onamattiooo, 

H2 A ta L W A R D T. 



^btch 6n more imtt^re cotisideratian he thought incon* 
sis^^nt with the truth, aiul published a ^confutation of 
them. * 

AHMED-BEN^FARES, sumamed EL.RAZY> an Ara^ 
bian lexicographer and lawyer, was the contemporary of 
the celebrated Djewhary. Besides some works oti th<$ 
fiubjeet of jurisprudence, he \m the author of an >^ Arabic 
Dictionary," entitled " MoudjmiUAlloghat,'* of yhich 
there is a manuscript copy in the Leyd^n library, and 
another in the Bodleian. Golius, who made use^ of it ia 
his Arabic dictionary, thinks that it was prior «o that of 
Djewhary* Ahmed died in Hamdan^ about the year 99^ 
of the Christian sera. * 

native of Djaen, was the first Spanish Arab who composed 
small epic poems in the style of the orientals. The frag^ 
ments which Dobi has preserved in his B5bl. Arab.*Es- 
pagnol. prove that he excelled in that high species, ei 
poetry. He also left a historical work on ^^ the Annals of 
Spain." He died of the gout, brought on by intemper- 
ance, in the year 970,* 

AlCHER (Otho), a benedictine father, was professor 
bf grammar, poetry, rhetoric, and lastly of history, at 
Sakburgh, where he died Jan. 17, 1705. He wrote com* 
mentaries on Tacitus, the Philippics of Cicera, and the 
first ten books of Livy ; several ti^eatises on the legislation^ 
history, and manners of the early part of the Roman re** 
public, and dissertations on various other subjects. The 
titles of his principal works, all printed at Sidzburgh, are : 
1. " Theatriim Funebre, exhibens epitaphla nova, antiqua, 
*eria, jocosa," 1675, 4 vols.4to. 2. *^ Hortas variarnm In<- 
scriptionum veterum et tiovanim,*' 1676, 8vo. 3. " DeCo« 
mitiis veterum Romanorum," 1678, ^vo. 4. ** Iter orato- 
rium,'* 1675. 5. " Iter Poeticum," 1674. 6. " De prin- 
cipiis Cosmographite,'* 1678. 7. ^^ Ephemeridea ^1> anno 
1687 usque ad 1699."* 

' AIDAN, bishop of Lindisfarne, or Holy island, in the 
7th century, was originally a monk in the modasteiy of 
lona, one of the islands called Hebrides. In die 3^ear 634» 
he came into England, at the request of Oswald king of 
Northumberland, to instruct that prince's subjects in the 

^ Biographic Universelle.— Necrolog. de Schlichtegroll, 1791, vol. I* p« 
367-75. « D»flerbeiot.-^Biogra|iliie pHYivwIkt 

3 Biog. Universelle. — Casjri Bibl. Arab. Hisp. 
* Biog. Universelle— Konigii Bibl. Vet. ei Not, 

A 1 D A N, fiSS 


kfiowi»%e at the Christian rdigimi. At hts first conkig 
to Oswald's court, he preiratted upoa the king to remove 
the episeopal see from York, n^faere it had been settled by 
Gregory the gt^at, to LiDdisfarne, or Holy-island ; a peuin* 
iiiAa joitiod lio the coasts of Northumberland by a very nar« 
tow neck of land, and called Holy island from its being in-* 
kabitedchi<^fly by monks ; the beautiful ruins of its mo^ 
nastery are stitt extant* Iti this place Aidan was very suc-» 
ccssfiit in hia preachings in which he was not a little as« 
ttSled by ehc piou» sseal of the king; who, having lived a 
eoostderable ticne in Scotland, and acquired- a sufficient 
knowledge of the language, was himself Aidants interpre- 
tor $ and explained his discourses to the nobility, and the 
vest of bis oouit. After the death of Oswald, who was 
k^led in battle^ Aid^in continued to govern the church of 
Niwchntnberland) under his successors Oswin and Oswi^ 
who reignad jointly ; the former in the province of Deira^ 
. the latter in that of Bernicia; but having foretold the un« 
timciy deadk of Oswin, he was so afflict3ed for his loss, t^at 
ke survived him. but twelve days^ and died in August 651^ 
after hcntig sat' sixteen years. Bede gives him an extra-» 
ordinary character; but at the satne time takes notice thai? 
hewais not alt^ether orthodox in keeping of Easter, inf 
which he followed the custom of the Scots, Picts, and* 
Brifioti& The san^ historian ascribes three miracles to 
bishop Aidan ; two of them performed in his lifetime, and 
tiie other after hia death. He was buried in his church of 
LindiB&Aie ; and part of his relics were carried into Scot«> 
kad by his Accessor Colman in 664^ 

With I6«pect to the mfracles ascribed to Aidan, thejr' 
witi4io|; now bear ^ serious discussion. It is said that he pre- 
aonbed oil to cala:! a turbulent sea ; and Dr. Kippis, in the 
aewedkition of the Biographta Britannica, supposes from 
tkin tbM tibe good bishop might have some acquaintance 
withibe ptfeperty (lately brought to light by Dr. Franklin) 
wbidi oil ha8> of stilling waves. But in the bishop's case, 
we mui^t have a mimcle or nothing; for the quantity he 
prescribed was contained in a phial, which Could not have 
cahoed tile sea; and Dr. Franklin's discovery has never 
been roi the smallest use iu any respect. — • Of the escel* 
lence* ^^ hFia ^haradter, as an ecclesiastic, much may be 
believ«d4 liia apeech to a priesrt; who employed harsh, 
measures in converting the English, is a great proof of his 
'good sense. " Yw^ w^nt of^success, brother," said he^ 

$H A I D A N. 

^^ «Mms to me to be owing to your want of condescetision td 
the weakness of your unlearned hearers ; whom, according 
DO the apostolid rule, you skould first have fed with the 
milk of a milder and less rigid doctrine, tilly being nou«-- 
fished by degrees with the word of God, they were become 
capable of relishing the more perfect and wblime preceptai 
of the Gospel.^' The reason he gave for foretelling Oswin'a 
death is also very striking, ^ I forsaw that Oswin^s life 
was but shorty for in my life, I nerersaw so bumblea 
prince before. His temper is too heavenly to dwell long 
among us; and indeed the nation does not deserve the^ 
blessing of such a governor." ^ , 

AIGNEAUX {Robert and Anthony le CHfiVALiER, 
Sieur&d')^ two brothers^ whose history cannot be separated^: 
as they were connected in all their pursuits^ and shared 
f like in their success. They were bom at Vire^ in No^- 
ssandy, about the middle of the sixteenth, century ; and 
were among the number of those who were encoiuraged by 
the patronage of Francis I. to cultivate pidite learning. 
^fter having studied law and medicine, for some time at 
Paris and Poitiers^ they retired to Noimandy^ ^md dedi- 
cated themselves to poetry onlyv Long, and painful sick* 
Bess, however, interrupted their joint labottrs* ^d f^hon- 
ened both their lives. Robert died at the age of forty** 
ttine^ and Anthony two or three years after. Their- repu-* 
tation rests principally on their translations o£ Vixgil and. 
Horace into French verse The former^ which is most 
praised by French critics, was published in 1582, 4to; and 
reprinted the following year in 8vo^ with the I^n ^ and a 
iramlation of the Moretum and some other |iiecea attributed 
to Virgil. In their translation of Horace, which appeared 
in 1588^ they failed totally in conveying the spirit, graixssL 
and elegance of the favourite of Msecenas. There is; 
slso some original poetry of theirs at the conclusion of. a. 
collection of verses in their praise, published by tbei]^ 
countryman, Pierre Lucas Salliere,. under the title of *^Le 
Tombeau de Robert et Antoine le chevalier, freres, sieoi» 
d'Aigneaux,*' Caen, 12mo, 1591.* 

AIGREFEUILLE (Charles d'), a French antiquary, 
and canon of the cathedral of Montpelier, lived in the 
middle of the eighteenth century ; but we have no parti- 
culars of his birth or death. The family of AigrefeuUleia 

* Mackenzie's Scotch Writers, rol. I.— ^en. Diet— -Biog. Brit new edit— 
Milner^s Church History, veL UL 116*. « Biog. UahrerseUe— 0ict. Hist. 

A t G R E F £ U I JL L £. ftSl 

Languedoc, has produced many distinguished ecclesiastics 
and magistr^uies. Our author published ^^ Histoire de la 
irille de MontpelUery depuis son origine,'* i7S7, foL a( 
valuable work, although little known except in the placd 
it describes ; and a second volume also in fol. '< Histoird 
Ecclesiastique de Montpellier/' 1739; in which are coa-« 
taiired, accounts of the bishops, the history of the churches^: 
diotiasteries, hospitals, colleges, and university. ^ 
- AIKMAN (WiLUiUML), a Scotch painter of considerable 
eminence, was the son of Wiliiam Aikman, of Cairney^ 
e$q* and. bora Oct 24, 1682. His father intended that he 
should follow the law, and gave him an education suitable 
to these views ; but the strong predilection of the son to 
the fine arts induced hioi to attach himself to pointing 
alone. Poetry, painting,, and music have, with justice^ 
been called sister arts. Mr, Aikman was fond of poetry { 
and was particularly delighted with those unforced strains 
which, proceeding from the heart, are calculated to touch 
the congenial feelings of sympathetic minds. It was this 
propensity which attached him so warmly to Allan Rami* 
$ay, the Doric bard of Scotland. Though younger than 
Ramsay, Mr. Aikman, while at collegCy formed an iuti«- 
mate acquaintance with faimt whicb constituted a principal 
part of lus happiness at that time, and of which he always 
bcHre the tenderest recollection^ It was the same delicate 
bias of mind which at a future period of his life attached 
him so warmly to Thomson, who then unknown, and na« 
protected, stood in need of, and obtained the warmest pa-* 
tronage of Aikman ; who perhaps considered it as one: of 
the most fortunate occurrences, in his life that he had it in 
his power to introduce this young poet of nature to sir Ro*«' 
bert Walpole, who wished to be reckoned the patroit 
of genius, and to Arbuthnot, Swift, Pope, Gay, and the 
other^ beauK esprits of that brilliant period. Thomsoa 
could never forget this kindness ; and when he had tha^ 
misfortune, too soon, to lose this warm friend and kind 
protector, he bewailed the loss in strains distinguished 
by justness of thought,, and genuine pathos of expression. 

Mr. Aikman, having prosecuted his studies for some time 
in Britain, found that tp complete them it would be ner 
cessaiy to go into It^ly, p9 form his. taste on the fine 
9iodels of antiquity, which there alone can be found in 
fltbundance. And as he perceived that the profession ^be 

* * 1 • . * Biographie Uniyeneile. 

«5« A I K M A KT. 

' was to follow^ could not permit him to oiatiage pfopevly 
his paternal estate^ situated in a remote place near Air«* 
broath in the county of Forfar to Scotland^ he thought 
proper to sell it, and settle all family claiins tipon him^ 
.that he might beat full liberty to pursue hb studies. Ifi 
the year 1707 he went to Italy, and having resided chiefly 
at Rome for three years, and taken instructions from, and 
formed an acquaintance wiih the principal artists of thai 
period) he chose to gratify his curiosity by travellmg into 
Turkey. He went first to Constantinople^ and from tbencier 
to Smyrna^ There he became acquainted with alt th^ 
British gentlemen 6f the factory ; who wished him to for-^- 
sake the pencil, and to join them in the Turkey trader 
but, that scheme not taking piaoej he went oitce more to 
Rome, and pursued his former studies there, till the yeai? 
1712, when he returned to Jiis native country: he now 
followed bis profession of painting for sometime, applauded 
by the discerning few ; though the public, too poor at that 
period to be able to purchase valuable' pictures, were un-^ 
able to give adequate encouragement to his superior merit* 
John duke of Argyll, who equally admired tfakef artist and 
esteemed the man, regretting that such talents should be 
lost, at length prevailed on Mr. Aikman to move with all 
his family to London, in the yeai? 1729, thinking this thd< 
only theatre in Britain where his talents could be properly 
displayed. Under the auspices Of this ^nobleman, he 
fbfmed habits of intimacy with the first artists, partieularly 
with sii" Godfrey Kneller, whose studies and dispodition^ 
of mind were very congenial to bis own* . 

In this society he sooii became known to and patronised 
by people of the first rank, and was in habits of intimacy 
with many of them ; particularly the eaii <if Buriington, 9^ 
well known for his taste in Hhe fine arts, especially itrchi-' 
lecture. For him h^ painted, among others, a large pic^^' 
ture of the royal family of England : in the middle compart-^ 
jnent are all the younger branches ef the family on a very 
large eanvas, and <m one hand above the door a half let^ftii 
of her majesty queen Caroline $ the picture of the king 
was intended to fill the niche opposite to it, but Mr. Aik- 
man's death happening before it was began, the place feif 
it is lefi: blank. This picture came kitx^ the possession of 
the duke of Devonshire, whose father mariied lady Mary 
Boy4e, daughter and only child to the earl of Bbriingteiir 
T<)wards the close of hia JUfe he paiuted many other pic*^ 

A I K M A N. 257 

teres of people of the first rank and fashion in England. 
At Blickling in Norfolk, the seat of Hobart earl of Buck- 
inghamshire, are a great many full length pictures by Mr. 
Aikroan, of noblemen, gentlemen, and ladies, relations 
^nd friends oC the earl. These, with the royal family 
above named, were his last works ; and but a few of the 
•number he painted in London. He died June 7, 1731. 
i In bis style of painting Mr. Aikman seems to have aimed 
at imitating nature in her pleasing simplicity : his lights 
are. soft, his shades mellow, and his colouring mild and 
harmonious. His touches have neitlier the force nor harsh- 
ness of Rubens ; nor does he seem, like Reynolds, ever to 
have aimed at adorning his portraits with the elegance of 
adventitious graces. His mind, tranquil and serene, de^ 
lighted rather to wander with Thomson in the enchanting 
fields of Tempe, than to burst, with Michael Angelo, into 
the ruder scenes of the terrible and = the sublime. His com- 
positions are distinguished by a placid tranquillity and ease 
rather than a striking brilliancy of effect : and his portraits 
may be more readily mistaken for those of Kneller than 
any other eminent artist ; not only because of the general 
resemblance in the dresses, which were those of the times, 
they being contemporaries, but also for the manner of 
working, and the similaiity and bland mellowness of their 

. There are several portraits painted by Mr. Aikman in 
Scotland in the possession of the duke of Argyll, the duke 
of Hamilton, and others. There is also a portrait of 
Aikman in the gallery of the grand duke of Tuscany, 
painted by himself; and another of the same in the pos- 
session ol' his daughter, Mrs. Forbes, in Edinburgh, whose 
only son now represents the family of Aikman. * 

AILLI (Peter d'), or ALLIACUS, an eminent Ronjish 
ecclesiastic, and cardinal, wasbornatCompiegnein 1350, of 
an obscure family. He eaine very young to study kt Paris, 
and was admitted into the college of Navarre in 1372. From 
this time he began to distinguish himself by his writings in 
philosophy, in which he followed the principles of Occham, 
aiid. the Nominalists; and his reputation made him be 
chosen to assist at the synod of Amiens, in which he made 
a discourse to the priest, although he was then only asub- 
deacon« He received the doctor's degree at Paris, Api-il 

» From Dr. Jamci Anderson's Bee, published at Edinburgh, 1 792-3,-^ WaU 
pullc's Anecdbtes. 

Vol-. 1. § 

»54 A I. L L I, 

11, 1330) and ne^t year be made a discoifne in tbe prc^ 
atence of the duke of Anjou, in the name of tbe university^ 
to show that it was necessary to assemble a general council 
in order to put an end to schism^ That same year be was 
made canon of Noyon, and continued there ^o the year 1 384^ 
when he was recalled to Paris, to be superior of the college 
of Navarre. Here he taught divinity, and acquired in- 
creased reputation by bis lectures and sermons. From his 
school came Gerson, Clemangis, and Giles D'Eschamps^ 
the most ifamous divines of that time. The university of 
Paris could not find any person more capable of maintain- 
ing her cause against Monteson, at pope Clement VII/s 
tribunal, than this learned doctor. She accordingly de^ 
puted him to Avignon, where he pleaded the cause of tbe. 
university with so much force, that the pope and cardinals 
confirmed the judgment passed by that seminary. Having 
returned from this mission, he was honoured, in 1389, with 
three considerable dignities, . that of chancellor of the 
church and university, and almoner and confessor to king 
Charles VI. In 1394 he was appointed treasurer of the 
holy chapel at Paris, and was sent by the king to Benedict 
XIII. to treat with him about the peace of the church. He 
was afterwards successively elected to two bishoprics : that 
ofPuy, in Velay, in 1395, and that of Cambray next year. 
He took possession of the latter, and laid down his charge 
Qf chancellor of the university in favour of. John Gerson, 
After this he employed his time in extinguishing schism^ 
as it was called, and assisted at the council of Pisa. At 
length pope John XXIII. made him cardinal of Chryso- 
gonus in 1411. He assisted in that quaUty at the general 
council of Constance, and was one of those who took the 
greatest share in its transactions, and composed several 
sermons upon subjects handled there. He then returned 
to 'Cambray, where he died in 1425. He wrote many 
works, isome of which were published after the invention 
of printing; as his ^^ Commentaries on the Master of Sen- 
tences," which are inserted in the appendix to the " Fas«» 
ciculus rerum expetendarum," 1490 ; a volume "of Tract* 
and Sermons,'' about the same time. He wrote also on 
Astrology, in which be was a believer. His principal 
works, however, confirm the opinion which the Roman 
Catholic writers give of liis learning and talents; and 
learning so extraordinary is to be venerated in an age of 
comparative darkness : but it is a great deduction from 

kis ch'ai^t^f that; ialthough he p6sdess€fd 9uperiof under- 
standing and liberality to many of his contemporaries, ^nd 
even is supposed td hare leaned a little towards freedoia 
of opinkm, he was an implacable persecutor of schism^ 
that is, the iirst beginnings of the Reformation ; and was a 
principal agent in bringing John Huss to the stake, and ia 
disturbing the ashes of WicklifFe. » 

of Revesby in Lincolnshire in the reigns of king Steph'ea 
and king Henry II. was born of noble parents, in 1 109, 
and educated in Scotland, together with Henry, son of 
David, king of Scots. ' Upon his return into England, he 
took the habit in the Cistertian monastery of Revesby, 
where his extraordinary piety and learning soon raised hioi 
to the dignity of abbot. Lelahd gays he outshone his- 
brethren as the sun eclipses the brightness of the inferior 
luminaries: and endeared himself no less to the great 
men of the kingdom than to the monks of his own house* 
His grieat love of retirement, and a life of contemplation 
and study, induced him to decline all offers of ecclesiasti-* 
cal preferment, and even to refuse a bishopric. He was 
particularly attached to St. Austin's works, especially his 
?* Confessions;" and was a strict imitator of St. Bernard 
in his writings, words, ^nd actions. He left behind him 
several monuments of his learning ; in the composition of 
which he was assisted by Walter Daniel^ a monk of^ the 
same convent. This abbot died January 12, 1166, aged 
fifty-seven years, and was buried in the monastery of 
Kevesby, under a tomb adorned with gold and silver ; and, 
we are told, he was canonized on account of some miracles 
saii to have been wrought by him after his death. 

Of his works, the following have been printed in the 
** Collection of ten English Writers" by Roger Twisden, 
Lond. 1652: " De BeMo Standardii tempore Stephaui 
fegis, anno 1138;^* " Genealogia Regum Anglorum;" 
** Historia de Vita et M iraculis S. Edwardi Regis et Con- 
fessoris ;" " Histori£i de Sanctimoniali de Watthun.*^ Ail- 
red wrote another " Life of St. Edward" in elegiac verse, 
which is extant in manuscript in the library of Gonvil and 
Caius college in Ciambridge. The following were published 
by Richard Gibbons, a Jesuit, at Doway, in 1631, and 

I Dupin, in D'AUly.— Gen. Dict,--Moreri.-.Cavc, Foppen, and Saxiua in 

S 2 

i60 A I L R E D. 

afterwards in the *^ Bibliotheca Cistertiensis,^' and in the 
^* Bibliotheca Patrum ;" namely, ** Sennones de Tempore 
et de Sanctis ;" *^ In Isaiam Prophetam Sermones XXXI ;" 
** Speculum Charitatis libris III.'* ** Tractatus de puero 
Jesu dnodecenni in illud Luc. ii. cum factus esset Jesus, 
&c." " De spirituali Amicitia." He wrote abo " Regular 
ad Inclusas, seu Moniales," which is erroneously ascribed 
to St. Augustin, and usually printed with his works ; and 
among the works of St. Bernard is *^ Tractatus de Dominica 
infra octavas Epiphaniae, et Sermones XI. de oneribua 
IsaisB)'* which was written by Ailred. Leland, Bale, and 
Pits, have enumerated his unpublished writings, as has 
Tanner under the article Ealredus. ' . 

AINSWORTH (Henry), an eminent English noncon- 
formist divine, who flourished in the latter end of the six- 
teenth, and beginning of the seventeenth centary, but it 
is not known when or where he was born. In 1590 he 
joined the Brownists, and by his adherence to that sect 
shared in their persecutions. He was well versed in the 
Hebrew language, and wrote many excellent commentaries 
oathe holy scriptures which gained him great reputatioti.' 
The Brownists having fallen into greiat discredit in Eng- 
land, they were involved in many fresh troubles and dif- 
ficulties ; so that Ainsworth at length quitted his cou^try^ 
and fled to Holland, whither most of the nonconformtsts^ 
who had incurred tlie displeasure of queen Elizabeth^s 
goveniment, bad taken refuge. At Amsterdam Mr. John- 
sou and he erected a church, of which Ainsworth was the 
minister. In conjunction with Jobn^ion he published, in 
,1 602, '^A confession of faithof the peoplecalied Brownists ;^ 
«but being men of violent spirits, they split into parties 
about certain points of discipline, and Johnson excom* 
tinunicated his own father and brother : the presbytery of 
.Amsterdam offered their mediation, but he refused it. 
This divided the congregation, half of which joining. Aina-> 
worth, they excommunicated Johnson, who made: the lika 
•return to that party. The contest grew at length so vio« 
lent, that Johnson and bis followers removed to Embdeiv 
.where he died soon after, and his congregation dissolved. 
Nor did Mr. Ainsworth and his adherents live long in bar* 
mony , for in a short time he left them, and retired to Ireland ^ 
but when Xhe heat and violence of his party subsided, he 
returned to Amsterdam, and continued with them until his 

} Biog, BriU 


A I N S W O R T H. 261 

deathk Dr. Heylyn's account of their contendoi^s at Am* 
dterdam, sufficiently shows what impUcit obedience some 
men expect who are liot muchiucUned to pay it, either to 
the church or the state. 

Ainsworth's learned writings, however, were esteemed 
even by his adversaries, who, while they refuted his ex^ 
travagant tenets, yet paid a proper deference to his abilities; 
particularly Dr. Hall, bishop of Exeter, who wrote with 
great strength of argument against the Brownists. But 
nothing coul^ have effect upon him, or make him re- 
turu home : so he died in exile. His death was sudden, 
and not without suspicion of violence : for it is reported, 
that having found a diamond of great value,, he advertised 
it ; and when the owner, who was a Jew, came to demand 
it, he offered him any gratuity he would desire. Ainsworth^ 
though poor, requested only of the Jew, that he would 
procure him a conference with some of his rabbis, upon 
the prophecies of the Old Testament relating to the Mes^ 
fiiah,. which' the Jew promised ; but not having interest to 
obtain such a conference, it was thought that he contrived 
to get Ainsworth poisoned. This is said to have happened 
in 1622. He was undoubtedly a person of profound learn- 
ing, and deeply read in the works of the rabbis. He had 
a strong understanding, quick penetration, and wonderful 

His most esteemed works are bis annotations on some 
hooks of the Bible. Those on the Psalms were printed 
1612, 4to; on the Pentateuch, 2 vols. 4to, 1621, and again 
in 1627, fol. and i639; which last edition Wendler and 
"Vogt have inserted among scarce books. The Song of 
Scdomon, which makes part of this volume, was printed 
separately in 1623, 4to. He published also several trea-» 
tises of the controversial kind, as, 1. '^ A Counter-poison 
against Bernard' and Crashaw,^' 1608, 4to, and 1612, 
which Anthony Wood improperly attributes to Henry Jacob. 
Bishop Hall answered this tract ; yet, whenever he men* 
tions Ainsworth, it is with the highest praise as a man of 
learning. 2. " An Animadversion on Mr. Richard Clyfton's 
Advertisement, who, under pretence of answering Charles 
Lawne's book, hath published another man's private letter, 
with Mr. Francis Johnson's answer thereto; which letter is 
here justified, the answer hereto jrefuted, and the true 
causes of the lamentable breach that has lately fallen out 
in the English cjuled church at Amsterdam, manifested : 

262 A I N S W O R T H, 

printed at Amsterdam, by Giles Thorp, A.D. 1613," 4tof 
3. "A treatise of the Communion of Saints;" 4. "A treatise 
of the 'Fellowship that the Faithful have with God, his 
Angels, and one with another, in this present life, 16 1 5,'* 
8vo; 5. "The trying out of the Truth between John Ains-^ 
worth and Henry Ainsworth, the one pleading for, and the 
pther against popery," 4toj 6. **An Arrow' against Idola« 
try;" 7. *' Certain Notes of Mr. Ainsworth's l^^lt Sermon 
on 1 Pet. ii. 4, 5, printed in 1630,-' 8vo. * 
' AINSWORTH (Rotbert), an eminent Grammarian and 
Lexicographer, was born at Woodyale, in the parish of £c« 
cles, in Lancashire, four miles from Manchester, in Septem- 
ber 1660, and was educated at Bolton in that county, where 
he afterwards taught school. On. coming to London, he 
opened a considerable boarding-school at Bethnal-^green, 
. Itnd in 1698 published a short treatise on grammatical insti^r 
tution^ inscribed to sir William Hustler, and reprinted iq 
1736, 8vo, under the title of "The most natural and easy 
way of Institution, &c.V He soon after removed to .Hack-»> 
Hey, and successively toother villages near London, where 
he taught with good reputation many years, and at length 
having acquired a moderate fortune, he left off teaching &a4 
lived privately. He had a turn both for. Latin and English 
poetry, some single poems of his having been printed ii^ 
each of these languages, but are not now known. He ifcw 
remarkably near-sighted, 'but wrote a beautiful hand. Ta 
the latter part of his life, he employed himself in searching 
the sbops of obscure brokers in every quarter of the town, 
by which means he often recovered old coips ahd other va^ 
luable curiosities at a small expence, and became possessecl 
of a very fine collection of English corns, which he sold 
singly to several gentlemen a short time before his death* 
This happened at London,. April 4, 1743, at the age of 
eighty -three. He tvas buried, according to his own desirej 
in the pemetery of Pdplai*, tinder the following' monu* 
mental inscription, compofsed by himself : 

" Rob. Ainsworth et uxor ^juis, admodum seties 
Dormiluri, vesten dqtritanii hie exuernnk, . 
Nov^m prirao mane ^urgentes inOuturi. , 

Dum fas, mortalis, sapias, & respice finetii i 
Hoc suadent Manes, hoc canit 'Amramides. 

•To thy Inflection, mortii} friend, . . 

Th' advice of Moses I commend : 
Be wise and meditate thy end." 

. > Biog. Brit— Hey!yu»sHiit.ofaie.PrfMbytcriJmi, P.S74, 375.— Neal'iHJit, 
of the PuriUos. 

AINSWORTrt. 263 

Of his private life, little else is known, c!fecept that ih 
1721 or 1724, he was elected a fellow of the society of An- 
tiquaries; and honourable notice is taken of him in the his- 
tory of the society prefixed to the first volume of the 
Archeeologia. He published, 1. " Monumenta Vetustatis 
Kempiana, &c." 1 720, 8vo. The greatest part of this col- 
lection was originally made by Mr. John Gailhard, who had 
been governor to George, first lord Carteret, and sold to 
his lordship for an annuity of 200/. After lord Carteret's 
death in 1695, Mr. John Kemp bought a considerable part 
of the collection during the minority of John lord Carteret, 
afterwards earl Granville, and more after his death. Some 
years after Kemp's death, the collection was Sold by auc- 
tion, fl. " I(7f»v, sive ex veteris monumenti Isiaci de- 
scriptione Tsidis Delubrum reseratum,*' 1729, 4to. 3. " De 
Clypeo Camilli antiquo,'* 1734, which had before appear- 
ed at the end of " Museum Woodwardianum,'*' the latter 
part of which Was drawn up by Ainsworth, though Dr. Wood- 
ward himself had described most of the statues, tables, and 
Vases, and written lar^e notes upon most of them. But the 
-work which has contributed most to Mr. Ainsworth*s name 
is his well-known Latin Dictionary. About the year 1714, 
it having been suggested to some principal booksellers, 
•that a new compendious English aiid Latin Dictionary, upon 
a plan somewhat similar to Faber's 'Thesaurus, was much 
•wanted, Mr. Ainsworth was considered as a proper person 
•to execute what proved to be a long and troublesome un- 
dertaking : and how well he completed it has been suffi- 
*ciently shewn by the approbation bestowed on it by a suc- 
cession of the ablest teachers and scholars. The first edi-» 
tion appeared in 1736, 4to, in which Dr. Patrick appears 
to have assisted Ainsworth ; and the second edition in 1746 
was entirely entrusted to Patrick's care, who introduced 
*inany additions and improvements. Dr. Ward also con- 
tributed to this edition. The third edition in 1751 wUs 
'Superintended by Mr.Kimber, but with little or no variation. 
In 1752 another appeared, greatly improved by Mr. Wil- 
liam Young (the parson Adams of Fielding), and an editor 
far superior to either of the preceding. An abridgment in 
2 vols. Svo, 1758, by Mr. Nathan ael Thomas, is chiefly va-» 
}uable for the clearness of the print, and the facility of re- 
ference. In 1773, Di:. Morell corrected, for the third 
time, the quarto edition, and continued to improve it as 
jg^ ^ the edition of 1780 ^ the last edition of 1808 was re* 


vised by a gentleman, whose name we are not at liberty to 
mention, amply qualified for the task. By a curious Kst 
of-the sums given to the various editors of this work, pub- 
lished by Mr. Nichols, we learn that Ainsworth received 
for the first edition, 666 L lis. 6d.y and for what he had 
contributed to the second, his executors were paid 250L 

Mr. Watson, in his history of Halifax, notices a WiLLlA^f 
Ainsworth, curate of LightcHfFe, and some time lecturer 
of St. Peter's, Chester, who, in 1630 published *' Triplex 
Aiemoriale, or the Substance of three commemoration Ser- 
mons, preached at Halifax in remembrance of Mr. Natha- 
nael Wattehouse deceased." This gentleman taught school 
in aid of his maintenance, which appears to hav^e been very 
scanty, but whether related to our Lexicographer, cannot 
now be ascertained. • 


AIRAY (Christopher), vicar of Milford in Hampshire, 
was born at Clifton in Westmoreland, and admitted a stu- 
dent in Queeifs college, Oxford, in 1621 ; where having 
passed the servile offices, and taken the degree of M. A. 
he was elected a fellow. Soon after he went into holy or- 
ders, and in 1642 took the degree of B. D. He wrote 
•* Fasciculus pr8eceptorum logicalium in gratiam Juventutiis 
Academicse compositus ;" besides a few other small pieces, 
the titles of which Wood has not recovered. He died the 
18th of October, 1670, aged 69, and was buried in the 
chancel of his church of Milford, with an epitaph, wbicb 
praises him as a vigilant vicar of that church, a gentlenrno 
of the greatest integrity, judgment, and learning, and who 
in the most difficult and troublesome times, adhered faith- 
fully to bis principles. Wood speaks of a Christopher 
Airay, nephew to Dr. Adam Airay, principal of Edmun^l 
ball, whoia 1660 contributed to enlarge the buildings of 
old Queen's college. They were probably both related to 
the subject of the following article, « 

AIRAY (Henry), provost of Queen's college, Oxford, 
was born in Westmoreland in 1559, educated in grammati- 
cal learning under the care of Bernard Qilpin, usually call- 
ed the Northern Apostle, and by him sent to St. Edmund's 
ball, Oxford, in 1579. He was then 19 years of age, and 
was maintained at the university by Gilpin, who afterwards 
left him a handsome legacy by his last wilK Mr. Airay 

^ Nicholses Life of Bowyer, vol. V. — ^Bioj. Brit— PcpuWic of Letters, toI. 
XVU. p. 460.«.WaUoa's iiaiifax, p. 453. % Biog. Brit— Wood's Athene* 

A I R A Y. S65 

soon removed from St. Edmund^s ball to Queen^s college^ 
and in 1 683, took his bacbeloi'^s degree, was made iabarder, 
and in 1586 be commenced master of arts and was chosea 
fellow. About this time be went into orders, and became a 
constant preacher in the university, particularly in the 
diurch of St. Peter in the east. In 1594, be took the de« 
gree of B, D. and Mairch 9, 1598-9, was elected provost of 
his- college ; and in 1606 he was appointed vice-chancellon 
He wrote the folio wiug pieces : 1. ^'Lectures upon tb« 
whole £pistle of St. Paul to the Philippians," London, 1618, 
4to. 2. '< The just and necessary Apology touchipg his 
i)uit in Law^ for the Rector of Charlton on Otmore, in Ox» 
fordshire," London, 1621, 8vo. 3. "A Treatise against 
bowing at the Name of Jesus."' The lectures were preached 
in the church of St. Pet^ in the east, and were published 
by Christophe. Potter, fellow, and afterwards provost of 
Qtieen's college, with an epistle of his o^n composition 
prefixed to them. Airay ranks among tli^ zealpus Puritans^ 
wbo wer^; mostly Calvinists, and was a gi^at supporter of 
•his party, io the unii^ersity, wb^re he was consid^ed asai 
man of sincere piety, integrity, and learning* In 1602 wheo 
Dr. Dovvson^ then vice*chancellor, wished to. jrepress the 
practice of sQme Puritan divines of Oxford w^o preached 
against the ceremoiiies and discipline of the chorcb, Dr^ 
Airay ^d one or two others were ordered to makeaubmis- 
sion by the queen's conamissioners who had investigated the 
matter ; apd this the others did, bu| Dr. Airay, according 
to Ant. Wood, iippears to have been excused. In 1604» 
when king James, in commemoration of his escape from the 
Gowrie conspiracy, not only appointed an anniversary, but 
that there should always be a sermon and service on Tues- 
days throughout the year. Dr. Airay introduced, this last 
custom into Oxford, first at All Saints church, and then at 
St. Mary's, with a rule that the sermons should be preached 
by the divines of the colleges in thair respective: turns^ In 
16Q6, whei^ vice-^ibancelior, be was one of the first to call 
JMr. Laud, afterwards the celebrated archbishop, to task for 
preaching sentiments which were supposed to favour popery. 
He died ifi Queen's college, Oct. 10, 1616, aged fifty- 
seven, and was buried in the chapel. He bequeathed to 
the coUegpe. aom.e lands lying in Garsington, near Oxford. ' ' 

A Wood'! iVUiens.— Anaals &t CoUegci and Halls,--Biog, Brits. 

866 A 1 T O N. 

AlTON (William), an eiKlinent bbtanist, was born ift 
2731, at a small village near Hamilton, in Lanarkt^bire. 
He had been early initiated in horticulture; and in 1754, 
coming for employment to the southern parts of the king- 
dom, be attmcted, in the following year, the notice of Mr. 
Philip Miller, author of the Gardener's Dictionary, who was 
at that time superintendant of the botanioal gardeti at 
Chelsea. The instructions which he received from that 
eminent gardener, it is said, laid the foundation of his fu* 
ttire fortune.^^His attention to his profession procured for 
bim a recommendation to the late- princess dOwager of 
Wales^ and -his present majesty. In 1759, he conse- 
^ently was appoifnted- to superintend the botanical garden 
irt. Kew, an opportunity for the exertion of his talenta 
which was not neglected. The tnost curious plants Were 
collected from every part of the world, and his skill in 
the cultivati^Tl of them was evinced by his attention 
lo» the various soils and degrees of warmth or eold whieii 
were necessary for their growth. The borderain tJi^ gar- 
den were enlarged for t^e more free circulation of the air 
where it was required^ and the stoves wete improved for 
th^ ret;eptk)n of plants, and, as near as it was thought pos^ 
Ml>le, adapted to the climates froiri which they were pro*- 
daced» His professional -abilities were not unnoticed by 
the most eminent botanists of the time; and in 1764 be 
became acquainted with sir Joseph Banks, wjhcm, (equally 
honourable to both, a friendship commenced which sub* 
•isted for life. In 1783, Mr. Haverfield, having been ad- 
iranced to a higher station, was snceeeded by Mr. Aiton, iik 
the more lucrative office of superSnteiiding the pleasure 
and kitchen gardens at Kew, wkh which he was permitted 
tivretain his former post. His labours proved that his ma-^ 
jesty's favours were not injudiciously bestowed;, for in 17R^ 
he published an ample catalogue of the plants d^t 'Kew^ 
with the title of " Hortus Kewensis,** 3 vols. 8vo. In this 
eatalogue was given an account of the several foreign plants 
Which had been introduced into the Ef^glish gardens at 
different times. The whole impression of -tMs elaborate 
performance was ^Id within two years,- ^s^nd a- second 
and improveA edition was published by- his 's^mWilHaift 
Townsend Alton in 1810. 'Though active^nd temper-*- 
ate, Mr. Aiton bad for some . time been afSictfed with a 
complaint which is thought by the faculty to be incur- 

A I T O N. 267 

«Me, It was that of a 'scirrhous liver, tior was it to be 
tsurmonnted by the aid of medicine, though every possible 
assistance was liberally bestowed. He died on February 
ist,17^3, in the 63d year of his age, having left behind 
him a wife, two sons, and three daughters. He had been 
distinguished by the friendship of those who were moiA 
4ieiebj£ated for their botanical science. The late earl of 
£ute, sir Joseph Banks, the late Dr. Solander, and 'Mr. 
Dryander, were the friends to whom he always was inclined 
to declare his laeknowledgements for their kindness, and tt» 
|;he three latter for die assistance whidh they afforded hiflk 
in completing the *^ Hortus Kewensis." He was a^sidil- 
10US in his employment, easy in his temper, and faithful t^ 
his duty. As a friend, a husband, and a father, his cha- 
racter was exemplary. On his burial in the chufch-yard 
at Kew, his pall wsts supported by those who knew and 
esteemed, him ; by^ir Joseph Banks, the Rev. Dr. Good- 
enough, Mr. Dryander, Dr. Piftcairh, Mr. Dundas of Rich* 
^ond, and Mr. Zoffanij. The king, attentive to his faith- 
/ul servants^ demotistrxned his kindness to Mr. Aiton, by 
appointing his eldest son to his fatiier's places* There is a 
|>ortrait of our author in the library at sir Joseph Bahks^s, 
.Soho s(i[uare, which is thought a good likeness. He holds 
ixr his hand a plant called, in compfliment to him, Aitoniay 
by the celebratsed Thunberg. • 

AITZEMA (Leo d'), a gentleman of Frizeland, w4i^ 
born at Doccum in 1600, of a considerable family. His 
father, Menard Aitzema, was burgomaster and secretary to 
the admiralty^ and his uncle Foppius was^ resident for the 
states-genefai at Hitmbtirgb, and often employed in nego- 
ciadotis of the first importance. ' Leo had scarcely reached 
iiifi sixteenth year, before he published liis Poetnfuta Jn- 
cvenilia, but was soon engaged in ihore serious studies, 'his 
uncle having procured him to be appointed councilor of 
the Hanse towns, ah d their resident at the Hague. He is 
likewise said to have; been twice in Ei^gVand on public afr- 
iairs* The work for whi^h he is best known is a compila^ 
tion on the history of the United Provinces, ^vritten iti 
JDutch, under the title of " Zaken van Staat en Oorlog.'* 
-Of this thfere have Keen two editions, the first in 1-6 vdk. 
4to, 1657 — 1671, including the period between 1621 and 
J668. The second, edition is in7 vols. fol. 1669 — 1671, 

' Gent. Mag. 1793.— Lysons's Environs, Tol lY, 

3«S A I T Z E M A. 

with an account of the peace of Munster, slbd a treatise en* 
titled the " Lion restored/* or an account of Dutch af- 
fairs in 1650 and 165], which had been separately 
published in 1652, 4to. The first edition is most 
esteemed by collectors of history, as in the second there 
iwere several omissions, although not of great importance ; 
on the other hand thisi second is more correct, and the ar« 
tides better arranged. It consists of an immense collec- 
tion of original acts, instructions, memorials, letters, cor- 
respondence of crowned heads, &c. taken from the most 
authentic and often most secret sources. He is said to 
have employed much address in procuring the documents 
which he wanted. His connection with men in office srave 
him considerable advantages, but he often used means not 
quite so ingenuous and delicate. The Dutch reproach 
him with having divulged their secret correspondence with 
foreign courts, and particularly with. England, and he is 
also ^.ccused of irreligious principles. Wicquefort, in his 
.Ambassador, speaks slightingly of the original part of this 
great work, in which Bayle says he cannot agree with him. 
Voluminous, however, as it is, and in many parts uninte- 
resting, it throws great light on the history of the times^ 
and from it the " Histoire des Provinces Unies," S vols. 
4to, Paris, 1757- — 1771, is principally taken. A continua- 
tion of it, eiLtending to the year 1697, was published by 
Lambert Bos, 4 vols. tbl. Aitzema died in 1669 at the 
Hague, his usual resideiice '. 

AKAKIA (Martin), professor of medicine in the uni- 
versity of Paris, and created doctor in 1526, was a. native 
of Chalons in Champagne, and according to the custom of 
the time, changed his name from " SansMqlicey'* or Harm- 
less, to that of Akakia, a Greek word of the same import. 
He . translated Galen " De ratione Curandi,'* and " Ars 
Medica qute est ars parva.'' He also published ^^ Consilia 
Medica,^' and two volumes on Female Diseases. He was a 
man of high reputation in his time, physician to Francis I. 
and one of the principal deputies from the university to the 
council of Trent, in 1545. He died in 155l.« 

AKENSID£ (Mark), an English poet and physician, 
was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Nov. 9, 1721. His fa- 

1 Gen. Diet.— iBiog. UniverecUe.*— Morcri.— Saxii Onomasticon. 

s Gen. Dict.»— Moreri— Manget. Biblioth. But it seems doubtAihwhether tbts 
Akakia, or his son, a physician who died ia 1588, was the auUior of Uie two lasft 
mentioned work«. 

A K E N S 1 D E. 2£9 

ifcer was a reputable butcher of that place. Of this cir* 
cumstance^ which he is said to have concealed from his 
friends^ he had a perpetual remembrance in a halt iu his 
gait, occasioned by the falling of a cleaver from his father's 
stall. He received the first rudiments of his education at 
the gramjnar-school of Newcastle, and was afterwards 
placed under the tuition of Mr. Wilson, who kept a pri- 
vate acadelny. At the age of eighteen he went to Edin- 
burgh to qualify himself for the office of a dissenting 
minister, and obtained some assistance from the fund of the 
dissenters, which is established for such purposes. Having, 
however, relinquished his original intention, he resolved to 
study physic, and honourably repaid that contribution, 
which, being intended for the promotion of the ministry, he 
could not conscientiously retain. 

In 1741 he went to Ley den, to complete bis medical 
studies; and May 16, 1744, he took his doctor's degree in 
, physic. On this occasion, he, according to the custom of 
the university, published a dissertation on the Origin and 
Growth of the Human Foetus. In this his first medical 
production he is said to have displayed much sagacity and 
judgment, by attacking some opinions which were then ge- 
nerally adopted, and by proposing others, which have been 
since cotifirmed and received. 

Akenside gave early indications of genius. — Several of 
his poems were the produce of his youth. His capital per- 
formance. The Pleasures of Imagination, was first pub- 
lished in 1744; and, like most extraordinary productions, 
it was not properly appreciated till time had matured the 
public judgment. I have, says our late eminent biogra- 
pher, heard Dodsley, by whom it was published, say, that 
when the copy was offered him, the price demanded for it 
being such as he was not inclined to give precipitately, he 
carried the work to Pope, who having looked over it, ad- 
vised him not to make a niggardly offer, for this was no 
every-day writer. 

Upon the publication of his ^^ Pleasures of Imagination,'* 
he gave offence to Warburton, by a note in the third book, 
in which he revived and maintained the notion of Shaftes-' 
bury, that ridicule is the test of truth. Warburton attacked 
him with severity in a preface; and Akenside was warmly 
defended in " An Epistle to the rev. Mr. VV^arburton.'* 
Though the pamphlet was anonymous, it was known to be 
the production <jf his friend Jeremiah Dyson. In the re- 

fl7a A KEN S 1 D E» 


visal of bis pdems, which he left unfiiiisbed> he ot^itted th^ 
lines and the note to which Warburton had objected. lit) 
1745 he published a collection of his Odes; and wrote a 
vehement invective against Pulteney, earl of Bath, whoixi 
he stigmatizes, under the name of Curio, as the betrayer or 
his country. He seems to have afterwards been dissatisfied* 
with his epistle to Curio ; for he expunged about half the 
lines, and changed it to the form pf an ode. At different; 
and long intervals some other poems of his appeared^' 
which were, together with the rest, published after his de-* 

As a physician, he commenced practice at Northampton^ 
soon after his return from Ley den. But not finding the 
success which he expected, or being desirous of moving in 
a more extensive sphere, he removed to Hampstead, where 
be resided more than two j^ears, and then pettled in 
London. That he might be enabled to support^ the figure 
which was necessary for his introduction to practice in town, 
his generous friend Mr. D) son allowed him 300/. ^ year/ 
Whether any bond or acknowledgment was taken is uncer- 
tain ; but it is known that after his d^ath Mr. Dyson pos- 
sessed his effects, particularly his books and prints, of which 
he was an assiduous collector. 

Having commenced his career in medicine, our author 
distinguished himself by various publications in his pro- 
fession ; and having read the Gulstonian lectures on ana- 
tomy, he began the Cronian lecture, in which he intended 
to give a history of the revival of learning, but soon desist-* 
ed. He was admitted to a doctor's degree at Cambridge, 
after having taken it at Edinburgh and Leyden ; was elected 
a fellow of the College of Physicians, and one of the phy- 
sicians at St. Thomas's Hospital ; and, upon the establish-* 
ment of the queen's household, appointed one of the 
physicians to her majesty. His discourse on the Dysen- 
tery, 1764, was admired for its pure and elegant Latinity; 
and he might probably have attained a still greater emi^ 
nence in his profession if his life had been longer. He 
died of a putrid fever, June 23, 1770, in the 59th year 
of his age ; and is buried in the parish church of St. James, 

His poems, published soon after his death in 4to and SvOf 
consist of the ^' Pleasures of Imagination," two books t^* 
** Odes," a Hymn to the Naiads, and some Inscriptions. 
*^ The Pleasures of Imagination," as before observed, wa$ 


fiirat puUtsbed in 1744; and a yary extraordinairy product 
tion it Was, from a man who had not reached his 2Sd year. 
He was afterwards sensible, however, that it wanted revisioa 
and correction, and he went on revising and correcting it 
for: several years; but finding this task to grow upon his 
bands, and despairing of ever executing it to his own satis- 
faction, be abandoned the purpose of correcting, and re- 
solved to write the poem over anew upon a somewhat dif* 
ferent and enlarged plan. He finished two books of his 
new poem, a few copies of which were printed for the usi6 
t>f the author and certain friends ; of the first book in 1757, 
of the second in 1765. He finislied also a good part of a 
third book, and an introduction to a fourth; but his most 
munificent and excellent friend, conceiving all that is ex- 
ecuted of the new work, too inconsiderable to supply the 
place, and supersede the republication of the original 
poem, and yet too valuable to be withheld from the public, 
has caused them both to be inserted in the collection of his 
poems. Dr. Akenside, in this work, it has been said, has 
done for the noble author of the " Characteristics,** what 
Lucretius did for Epicurus formerly; that is, . he has dis« 
played and embellished his philosophic system, that system 
which has the first-beautiful and the first-good for its foun- 
dation, with all the force of poetic colouring ; but, on the 
other hand, it has been justly objected that his picture of 
man is unfinished. The immortality of the soul is not once 
tinted throughout the poem. With regard to its merit as 
a poem, Dr. Johnson has done ample justice to it, while 
be speaks with more severity of his other poems* It is 
not easy to guess, says that eminent critic, why he ad- 
dicted himself so diligently to lyric poetry, having neither 
the ease and airiness of the lighter, nor the vehemence and 
elevation of the grander ode. We may also refer tlte 
reader to an elegant criticism prefixed by Mrs. Barbauld to 
an ornamented edition of the *^ Pleasures of Imagination/* 
12mo, 1795. 

His medical writings require some notice. Besides his 
** Dissertatio de Dysenteria," which has been twice trans- 
lated into English, he wrote in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, K ^^Observations on the Origin and Use of the 
Lymphatic vessels,"- part of his Gulstonian lectures, 1755 
and 1757. Dr. Alexander Monro, the second of that name 
at Edinburgh, having taken notice of some inaccuracies in 
this paperi in his ^^ Observations Anatomical and Physical,'* 

«718 A K E N S I D E. 

Ih. Akenside published a sman paqaphlet, 1756, in his own 
vindication. 2. ^^ An account of a Blow on the Heart and its 
cfFects," 1763. He published also, 3. " Oratio Harvei- 
ana," 4to, 1760; and three papers in the first volume of the 
Medical Transactions. Being appointed Krohnian lecta- 
rer, he chose for his subject " The history of the Revival 
of Learning," and read three lectures on it before the col- 
it'ge. But this he gave up, as was supposed, in disgust ; 
some one of the college having objected that he had chosen 
a subjecyt foreign to the institution. He wrote also, in 
Dodsley's Museum, vol. I, on " Correctness," " Table of 
Modern Fame;" and in vol. II, "A Letter from a Swiss 
Gentleman." ^ 

AKIBA, a famous Rabbin, who flourished a little after 
the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, was a Jew only by 
the mother's side, and it is pretended tliat his father was 
descended from Sisera, general of the army of Jabin king 
of Tyre. Akiba, for the first forty years of his life, kept 
the flocks of Calba Schwa, a rich citizen of Jerusalem/ whose 
daughter is said to have iuduced him to study in hopes of 
gaining her band, if he should make any considerable pro* 
gress. He applied himself accordingly to his studies with 
so much assiduity and success, for upwards of twenty years, 
that he was considered as one of the most able teachei^ in 
Israel, and was foUowcHl by a prodigious number of scho« 
lars. He declared himself for the impostor Barchochebas^ 
and asserted that he was the true Messiah ; but the troops 
which the emperor Hadrian sent against the Jews, who un* 
der the conduct of tbis^ false Messiah had committed horrid 
massacres, exterminated this faction, and Akiba was taken 
and put to death with great cruelty. He lived an hundred 
and twenty years, and was buried with his wife in a cave 
upon a mountain not far from Tiberias. The Jewish wTiters 
enlarge much upon his praises, and hU sayings ate often 
mentioned in the Mishua and Talmud. When he died, 
they say, the glory of the law vanished away. This hap- 
pened in the :year 135, He was in truth a gross impostor^ 
and the accounts banded down ta us of him are entitled to 
very little credit. He is isaid to have forged a work under 
the name of the patriarch Abraham, entitled <^ Sepher Je* 

zirah," or, ^^ The 3ook of tbef Creation," which was tran^ 

^ .. • 

* l&iog. Brit.-— Jolinyon's Poets.— Pope's Workd, Bowles's edition j see Iw1eK« 
»*-V3atr*t Lectures.-^MasoQ's Life of G/ay.-— Gent. Mag, i^dtx, and vo!. LXIIf. 
9^5, LXIV, J2, 115, «(Ku 

A k t ft A. 


llAted into Latin by Postel, and pnblisfaed atP^risin ti52y 
8vo, at Mantua in 4to, and at Basil in folio, 1587. Scnne 
charge bim also with having altered the Hebrew text of the 
Bible, in order to contei^ with the ChristiaDs on certain 
points of chronology. * ♦ 

ALABASTER (Wiluam), an EngKsb divine^ was bom 
in Suffolk, and educated in Trinity college, Cambridge, 
where he took the degree of M. A. and was afterwards in- 
corporated of the university of Oxford, Jnn^ 7, I592r. 
Wood says, he was the rarest poet and Grecian that any qn^ 
age or nation produced. He attended the unfortunate earl 
of Essex in his voyage to Cadiz, as his chaplain ; and en- 
tertaining some doubts on religion, he was prevailed upon 
to declare himself a Roman Catholic, and published ^^ Seven 
Motives for his Conversion," but he soon discovered many 
more for returning to the church of England. He applied 
himself much tp caballistic learning, the student^ of which 
consider principally the eombination of particular words, 
letters, and numbers, and by this, th^y pretend to see clearly 
into the sense of scripture. In their opinion there is not 
a word, letter,^ number, or accent, in the law, without some 
mystery in it, and they even venture to Ibok into futurity 
by this study. Alabaster made great proficiency in it, and 
obtained considerable promotion in the church. He was 
Blade, prebendary of St. PauPs, doctor of divinity, and rec- 
tor of Tharfield in Hertfordshire. The text of the sermon 
which he preached for his doctor's degree, was the first 
verse of the first chapter of the first book of ChronicleS)^ 
namely 'f Adam, Seth, Enoch,'' which be explained in the 
mystical sense, Adam mgnifying, misery y &c. He died April 
1&40. His principal work was ^^ Lexicon Pentaglotton, 
Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, &c." Lond. 163.7^ 
fql. He published also, in 1621, ^^ Commentarius de bes^ 
tia Apocalyptica,'* and other works of that stamp. As a 
poet he has been more highly applauded. He wrote the 
Latin tragedy of ^' Roxana," which bears date 1632^ and 
WHS acted, according to the custom of the times, in Trinity 
college hall, Cambridge* " If," says Dr. Johnson, in his 
life of Milton, ** we produced any thing worthy of notice 
before the elegies of Milton, it was perhaps Alabaster's 
Koxana.'' He also beganr to describe, in a Latin poon en^ 
titled ** Elisceis," the chief transactions of queen EMto^ 

•» Gen. Diet;— Iiardaert Works, vol. ITIl. pp. W, 145, t4«. 

Vol. L T 


beth^s reign, but left it unfinished at the time of his deaths 
The manuscript was for some time in the possession of 
Theodore Haak, and some manuscript verses of his are in 
the library of Gonvil and Caius college, Cambridge^ and 
the Elisceis is in that of Emmanuel/ 

ALAIN (Chartier). See CHARTIER. 


ALAMANNI (Luigi, or Lewis), an eminent Italian 
poet, was bom of a noble family at Florence, in 1475, and 
passed the early part of his life in habits of friendship with 
Bernardo and Cosimo Rucellai, Trissino, and other scholar* 
who had devoted themselves more particularly to the study 
of classical literature. . Of the satires and lyric poems of 
Alamanni, several were produced under the pontificate of 
Leo X. In the year 1516, he married Alessandra Serristori, 
a lady of great beauty, by whom he had a numerous off- 
spring. The rank and talents of Alamanni recommended 
him to the notice and friendship of the cardinal Julio de 
Medici, who, during the latter part of the pontificate of 
Leo X. governed on the behalf of that pontiff the city of 
f lorence. The rigid restrictions imposed by the cardinal 
on the inhabitants, by which they were, among other marks 
of subordination, prohibited from carrying arms under se- 
vere penalties, excited the indignation of many of the 
younger citizens of noble families, who could ill brook the 
loss of their independence; and among the rest, of Ala- 
manni, who, forgetting the friend in the patriot, not only 
joined in a conspiracy against the cardinal, immediately 
after the death of Leo X. but is said to have undertaken 
to assassinate him with his own hand. His associates were 
Zanobio Buondelmonti, Jacopa da Diaceto, Antonio Bru- 
cioli, and several other persons, of distinguished talents, 
who appear to have been desirous of restoring the ancient 
liberty of the republic, without sufficiently reflecting on 
the mode by which it was to be accomplished. The de« 
signs of the conspirators, however, were discovered, and 
Alamanni was under the necessity of saving himself by 
flight. After many adventures and vicissiti^des, in the 
course of which he returned to Florence, and took an 
active part in the commotions that agitated his country, 
he finally withdrew to France, where he met with a kind 
and honourable reception from Francis I. who was a great 

1 Gen. nkt— Wood's Athen».-*FBUer'i Woiihie8.-^T«Ud*i «datioa of SipcB* 
-fcr,n»l. T. p. 100. VIII. p. 34, 

A L A M AN N 1 Hi 

admirer of Italian poetry, and not only conferred on him 
the order of St. Michael, but employed him in niany im- 
portant missions. 

On an embassy from Francis I. to the emperor Charles 
v. Alamanni gave a singular instance of his talents and 
promptitude. Among the several poems which he had 
composed in the praise of Francis I. there was one pretty 
severe upon the emperor, wherein, amongst several other 
satirical strokes, there is the following, where the cock says 
to the eagle, 

L* Aquila gri&gna 
Che per piu divorar due beechi porta. 

Two crooked bills the ravenous eagle bears^ 
The belter to devour. 

The emperor had read this piece; and when Alamanni now 
appeared before hit% and pronounced a fine speech in 
his praise, beginning every period with the word Aquila, 
he heard him with great attention, and at the conclusion 
thereof made no reply, but repeated 

L'Aquila gri&gna 
Che per piu divorar due beechi porta. 

This, however, did not disconcert Alamanni, who imme* 
diately made the following answer : " Sir, yrheti I com- 
posed these lines, it was as a poet, who is permitted to use 
fictions ; but now I speak as an ambassador, who is boui^d 
in honour to' tell the truth. I spoke then as a youth, I 
speak now as a man advanced in years : I was then swayed 
by rage and passion^ arising from the desolate condition 
of my country; but now I am calm and free from passion.** 
Charles, rising from his seat, and laying his hand on the 
shoulder of the ambassador, told him with great kindness 
that he had no cause to regret the loss of his country, hav« 
ing found such a patron as Francis I. adding, that to a 
virtuous man every place is his country. 

On the marriage of Henry duke of Orleans, afterwards 
Henry 11. with Catherine de Medici, Alamanni was ap- 
pointed her maitre d'hotel ; and the reward of his services 
enabled him to secure to himself great emoluments, and to 
establish his family in an honourable situation in France, 
where he died at Amboise, of a dysentery, April 18, 1556. 
His principal works are, 1. ** Opere.Toscane,'* a collec- 
tion of poems on different subjects, and ^^ Antigone,*' A 
tragedy, Lyons, 1532 and 1533, 8vo, 2 vols.; Florence, voU 

T a 

ITl A t A M A N N t. 

I. llfl^a; VftiieCySvohL 1533^1542. Notwithstanding tiie(9# 
Cre^ueol editionsi ifaey were prohibited in the pontificate of 
Clement VII. both at Florence and Ronie, in the latter of 
wbicb plac«» tiney were publicly byurnt. 2. ** La Coltiva- 
Kioiie^" Piiri$9 1 64€, a beautiful edition corrected by the 
Ibutbof and dedid^ted to Fraiicis 1. again reprinted the si^ne 
year at Florence ; and frequently reprinted, particularly a 
fiQtrect a&d fineediilion^ in large 410^ by Comino,^ at Paduaj 
1718^ with tl»e Api of Rucellai^ and the epigrams of Ala<* 
manni; and at Bologne in 1746. This work, whi^h Ala* 
manni conapleted in six books, and which he appears to 
have undertaken rather in competition with, than in imita- 
tion of, the Georgics, is written not only with great ele-» 
gance and correctness of style, but with a very extensive 
knowledge of the subject on which he professea to treat, 
apd contains naany passages which mf^y bear a comparison 
with the most celebrated parts of his immortal predecessor. 
3. " Girone ij Cortese," an heroic poem in 24 cantos, 
Paris, 1548, 4to; Venice, 1549. This work is little more 
than a transposition into the Italian ottava i^ma, of a French 
romance entitled Gyron Courtois, which Alaomnni under- 
took ^t the request of Francis- 1, a short time before .the 
death of that monarch, as appears from the information of 
the author himself in his dedication to Henry IL in which 
he has described the origin and laws of the British knights 
errant, or hnights of the round table. 4, " La Avarchide,'* 
or tbe^iege of Bourges, the Avaricum of Csesat, an epfcj 
»ko in 24 cantos, Florence, 1170, 4to. The plan and con - 
diiot of it is so closely founded on that of the Iliad, that if 
we excej^ only the alteration of the names, it appears ra- 
ther to be a translation than an original work. Neither of 
these have contributed much to the author^s fame, which 
nsts chiefly on *« La Coltivazione.'* 5. " Flora," a co- 
medy in five acts^ and in that verse which the Italians call 
Saruccwli, Florence, 1556 and 1601, 8vo. 

Alamanni left two sons, who shared in the goOd fortune 
due to his talents and reputation. Baptist was almoner ta 
queen Catherine de Medicis, afterwards king*s counsellor, 
ftbbot of Belle-ville, bishop of Bazas, and afterwards of 
Macon; he died in 1581. Nicholas, the other son; was a 
knight of St. Michael, captain of the royal guards, and 
Bdaster of the palace. Two other persons of the name of 
Xouia Alamanni, likewise natives of Florence, were dis^* 

A L A M A. N N I. 871 

tiftguisbed in the republic of letters. One was a colonel in 
tbe French service, and in 1^91 consul of the atoademy df 
Florence. Salvino Salvini speaks of him in ^^ Pastes CoiH 
sulaires." The otlier lived about the same time, and wm 
n member of the same academy. He wrote three tst\n 
eclogues in the ^^ Carmina illustrium Poetarum Italoruoiy*' 
and a funeral oration in the collection of ^^ Floi^entiii^ 
PrQse,^' vol. IV. He was the grandson of Lndovico AIobmb^ 
pi, one of the 6ve brothers of the celebrated poet« * 
ALAMOS (Balthazer), a Spanish writer, born at Me* 
dina del Campo, in Castile, about the end of the sixteenth 
century. After having studied the law at Salamanc») h0 
entered into the service of Anthony Perez, oecret^y 0f 
state under Philip II. He was in high esteem and confU 
deuce with his master, upon which account be was im« 
prisoned after the disgrace of this minister, And kept ia 
confinement eleven years, when Philjp UI« coming to tbd 
throne, set him at liberty, acc(Mrdiog to the oi'ders given by 
his father in his will. Alamos continued in a pr^^e ea** 
pacity, till the duke of Olivare^^ the favourite of PhiHp IV« 
called him to public employments* He was apppiotedad* 
vocate-^geueral in the court of criminal caused, and i^ ihft 
council of war. He was afterwards chosen oiember of th# 
council of the Indies, and then of t|ie counoil of the king^i 
patrimony^ and a knight of the order of St. Jamea^ He was % 
man of wit as well as judgment| but his writings wer^ su* his conversation. He died in tjbe 88th ye^r of hi^ 
age. His Spanish translation of Tacitus, and the apherismfl 
which he added in the margin, gained him great reputiH 
tion ; the aphorisms^ however, have been censured ^y §0|n9t 
authors, particularly by Mr. Amelot, who says, << tb^^t ifi-^ 
stead, of being more concise and sententious than th^ teicV 
the words of the text are always more so than the aphon. 
rism." This work was published at Madrid in 1614i,and 
was to have been followed, as mentiofied in the king's pri^ 
vilege^ with a commentary^ which, however, has never yet 
appeared. The author composed the whole during his im-* 
prisonment . He left several other works which have neyer 
yet been printed. * 

1 Principally from |loseoe>s Le#, asd Pii]i|;aepe's lifo of Alama^ni, i|» ^Ipp 
UniverseUe. — (Sen. Ditt. — Monri^ 
$ Gen. Pictrf-Morejj^ 

878 ALA N. 

ALAN (op Lynn), in Latin Alanus de Lynna, a famous 
divine of the fifteenth cenitufy, was born at Lynn, in the 
county of Norfolk, and educated in the university of Cam* 
bridge; where he applied himself diligently to the study 
of philosophy and divinity, and, having taken the degree of 
doctor, became an eminent preacher. Bale, who giveft 
Alan an advantageous character, yet blames him for using 
allegorical and moral eicpositions of scripture ; while Pits 
commends the method he took to explain the holy scrip* 
tures, which was by comparing them with themselves, and 
having recourse to the ancient fathers of the church. But 
he is^more generally celebrated for the useful pains he took 
in making indexes to most of the books he read. Of these 
Bale saw a prodigious quantity in the library of the Carme* 
lites at Norwich. Alan flourished about the year 1420, 
and wrote several pieces, particularly ** De vario Scrip* 
tura sensu ;** ** Moralia Bibliorum ;" " Sermones notabi- 
Ics ;'• " Elucidarium Scripturae ;" " Prelectiones Theolo- 
giC3B ;^* *^ Elucidationes Aristotelis.^' At length he be-* 
came a Carmelite, in the town of his nativity, and was bu^ 
ried in the convent of his order. ' 

ALAN, of Te)Vkesbury, another English writer, who 
flourished about the year 1177, and died in 1201. He 
wrote *♦ De vita et exilio Thomae ^antuarensis,'* of the 
Efe and banishment of Thomas a Becket, archbishop of 

ALAN, or ALLEN, or ALLYN (William), cardinal 

{>riest of the Roman church, and styled Cardinal of £ng-» 
and, was the son of John Allen, by Jennet Lyster, sister 
to Thomas Lyster, of Westby, in Yorkshire, and was born 
at Rossal in Lancashire, in 1532. His father, according to 
Camden, was a gentleman of a reputable family, and had 
him educated at home until his fifteenth year, 1347, when 
he was entered of Oriel college, Oxford, and had £Dr his 
tutor Morgan Philips, or Philip Morgan, a zealous Roman 
Catholic, and usually called the Sophister, which was a 
title, in the learning of those times, highly honourable. 
Young Alan made a rapid progress both in logic and phi- 
losophy, and was elected a fellow of his college, and took 
his bachelor's degree in 1550. In the Act celebrated July 
16, he went out junior of the act, having completed hit 
degree of M. A. with the distinguished reputation of 

1 Biog. Brit.— Tanner.— rFaller'f Wort]M6f.«-Balt i|nd Piti, 
t Ibid, and Care Td. 11, 


ALAN. fi7d 

great parts, learning, and eloquence. Of this we have a 
proof in his being chosen principal of St. Mary hall, in 
1556, when only twenty-four years of age, and the saoie^ 
year he served the office of proctor. In 1558, he was made 
canon of York ; but on the accession of queen Elizabeth^ . 
when the reformed religion was again established, although 
he remained for a short time at Oxford, yet, as be refused 
to comply with the queen's visitors in taking the oaths, &c. 
his fellowship was declared void; and in 1560 he found it 
necessary to leave England, and retire to Louvain, then a ^ 
general receptacle of the expatriated English Catholics, and 
where they had erected a college. Here his talents and 
zeal recommended him to his countrymen, who looked up 
.to him as their supporter, while they were charmed with 
his personal appearance, and easy address, chastened by a 
.dignified gravity of manners. 

He now began to write in support of the cause for which 
Jie had left bis country;, and bis first piece, published in 
.1565, was entitled ^^ A defence of the doctrine of Catho- 
lics, concerning Purgatory and Prayers for the Dead," 8vo. 
This was intended as an answer to the celebrated bishop 
Jewell's work on the same subject; and if elegance of style, 
and somewhat of plausibility of matter, could have pre- 
vailed, it would have served his cause very essentially ; but, 
unluckily, of all the subjects which Jewell had handled, 
there was none in which he reasoned with such irresistible 
force. Alan's work vrss at the same time answered by Dr. 
William Fxilke; but whatever its fate in England, it pro- 
cured him the highest reputation abroad, among the chiefis 
of .his party, who, as a mark of their confidence, put under 
his care a young man, afterwards sir Christopher Blount, 
and who was concerned in the earl of Essex's insurrection. 

.The care of this pupil, and hi«. constant application to 
stud}^, having injured his health, his physicians recom- 
mended him to try his native air; and with this advice, aU 
though it subjected him to personal danger, he complied^ 
and arrived in Lancashire sometime in 1565. He had 
scarcely reached this place, before he began to exert his 
-powers of persuasion in the making of converts ; and in or*; 
der to promote this object, wrote and circulated little trea^ 
tises wherever they were likely to be successful. This 
open hostility to the church alarmed the magistrates, and 
they were in search of him, when he retired to the neigh- 
bourhood of Oxford, »nd wrote a kind of apology for bia 


:?«Q ALAN. 

psurty, under &e title of ^'-Biief Reasons concerning tto 
Catholic Faith.'' Some,- however, think that this was writr 
ten at the duke of Norfolk's house^ in Norfolk, where it iis 
certain be was for some time concealed. It appears like- 
wise, that he returned to the neighbourhood of Oxford, 
find distributed his pamphlet with much boldness ; and was 
so fearless in bis zeal, that he refused a convenient oppor» 
tunity of a ship going to the Nedierlands. He now ven^ 
tured to establish ^ correspondence with his old friends in 
the university, who were considerably numerous, and suc«- 
ceeded in bringing over one who had formerly been a Pa- 
pist, but was now of the establishment This^so exasperated 
the reratioQs of this person, thkt they forced Alan to fly to 
Loudon, whence in 1 568 he made his escape into Flanders. 
It has been supposed that some friends in power, who 
knew him formerly, connived at his easy departure^ It is 
<sven said that sir Christopher Hatton bore a regard for 
)iim, in consequence of having received part of bis educa^ 
tion in Sl Mary's hall, while Alan was principal; and 
that Alan repaid this kindness with such honourable men* 
lion of sir Christopher abroad, as occasioned some very in- 
vidious r<^flectious against the latter at home. 

Be this as it ms^y, Alan, having arrived safely in the Ne- 
therlands, went to MecUiii^ in the duchy of Brabant, where 
)ie read a divinity lecture in one of the monasteries with 
great applause. Thence be went to Doway, where he he- 
came Doctor in Divinity, and laboured very assiduously in 
founding a seminary for the support of English scholars ; 
and, knowing how obnoxious such institutions were in Eng- 
land, wrote a book in defence of them. While thus em- 
ployed^ a ci^onry of Caoibray was conferred pn him, as a 
reward for his zeal. ErythraeiiB (Jean Vincent Le Roux) 
in bis Pinacotheca, giresus some reason to thtok that a pre- 
tended miracle contributed to this promotion, byinspiring his 
patrons with an idea of the sacredoess of his person. The 
miracle io, than when in England, a person who knew him 
well was employed to apprehend him, but had such a mist be- 
fore his eyes when he came for that purpose, as to pass him 
without knowing him. Such miracles, however, are capa- 
}>le of a very easy explaaattion. 

In this seminary of Doway, many books were composed 
to justify the Popish reUgioii, avud to answer the books 
written in defence of the chwrch of EnglaiKi, which occa- 
fipned a proclamaiioa £roa the queen, {qrbidding ' the 

- - >--^ 

ALAN. S81 

Doway Tiooks to be either sold or read ; and we sball soon 
jee that they were not merely books of religious contro*- 
versy. In 1569, Alan appointed one BrUtovr to be mode^ 
rator of studies at EKowsiy, the same, it is supposed, whom 
be gained over when in the neighboudiood of Oxford. 
Not kmg ofter^ Alan was appoitlted canon of Rheinis, 
tbroogh die interest of the Guises, and to this city be trans* 
ferred the seminary which bad been settled at Doway; a 
matter, however, not of choice, as the then governor of 
die Netherlands, Don Lewis de Kequesensi had x>bliged 
the English fugitives to withdraw out of his government. 
In the mean time, AJan labom*ed incessantly in the ser«- 
lice of his party, by writing various treatises in defence of 
the doctrines or practices of the Papists, by licensing and 
recommeading many books written by others, and by many^ 
jouf ileys into Spain and Italy. He also procured a semi^ 
nary W be established, in Rome, and two in Spain, for the 
edueadon and support of the English youth. 

Ill England, be was justly reputed an enemy to the state^ 
And ail coniespondence with him was considered as aspe** 
cies of high treason ; and Thomas Alfield, a Jesuit, was 
exeeuted for bringing some of his writings into England, 
and 'particularly bis ^* Defence of the Twelve Martyrs ia 
mie Year.^' In this work he insinuates, in language which, 
til those days, mnst have been very well understood, that 
queen Elizaibeth, by reason of her heresy, had fallen from 
her sovereignty. The indictment of Ai5eld, taken fpom 
tiie treasonable expressions in these writings, was among 
the papers of the loid treasurer Burleigh. 

Alan therefore, having overstepped the bounds of re- 
ligious controversy, was now determined to mesesures of 
more open hostility. The celebrated Parsons, the Jesuit, 
who was his great friend and counsellor, is supposed to 
have suggested to him the project of invading England^ 
For many years there had been differences, discontents, 
and even injuries committed between the Englitvh and 
Spaniards; and now Al^rn, and some fugitive English no* 
blemen, persuaded Philip IL to undertake the conquest of 
England. To &DiUtate this, die pope, Stxtus V. renewed 
the excommunication thundered against queen Elizabeth 
by his predecessor Pius V. While this was in agitation, 
sir William Stanley, oommander of the English and Irish 
garrison at Daventer,> betrayed it to the Spaniards, and 
went into th^r service ivith i 200 men ; and Rowland York^ 

a«2 ' . ALA N. 

who bad been intrasted with a strong fort in ^e trnms 
country, performed the same act of treachery. Akm, no 
longer the conscientious controversialist) wrote a defence 
of this base proceeding, and sent sieveral priests to Stanley, 
in order to instruct those he had drawn over to the king of 
Spain's service. Alan's defence, which appeared the year 
•after these transactions, 1588, was first printed in English 
in the form of a letter, and afterwards in Latin, under the 
title of " Epistola de Daventriae ditione," Cracov. His 
only argument, if it deserve the name, was, that sir WiU 
liam Stanley was no traitor, because he had only delivered 
to the king of Spain a. city which was his own before; and 
he exhorts all Englishmen, in the service of the states, to 
'follow his example. 

Such writings, however, were too valuable to the popish 
cause, to go unrewarded. Accordingly on July 28, 1587| 
Alan was created cardinal by the title of St* Martin in 
Montibus ; and soon after, the king of Spain gave him an 
abbey of great value in the kingdom of Naples, with assur-^ 
ances of greater pretferment. In April 1588, he composed 
that work, entitled The Admonition, which rendered him 
most famous abroad, and infamous at home. It consisted 
of two parts; the first explaining the pope's bull for the 
excommunication and deprivation of queen Elizabeth;- the 
second, exhorl|ng the nobility and people of England to 
desert her, and take up arms in favour of the Spaniards^ 
It contains the grossest abuse of the queen, and threatens 
the nobility with judgments from heaven, and devastation 
by the Spaniards, unless they joined the forces of Philip; 
it boasts of the vast strength of these forces, and asserts 
that th^y had more good captains than Elizabeth had sol- 
diers ; that the saints in heaven all prayed for victory, and 
that the holy angels guarded them. Of this libel, well cal- 
culated at that time to effect its purpose, many thousand 
copies were printed at Antwerp, in order to have been put 
on board the Arniada, and circulated in England. But the 
Armada, it is well known, completely failed, and covered 
its projectors with di^race and destructioii ; and these 
books were so carefully destroyed, that a genuine copy was 
scarcely to be found. 

No part of the failure of this vast enterprise, however, 
was attributed to Alan, to whom the king of Spain now, 
gave the archbishopric of Mecklin, and would have had 
him reside there, as a place where he might more e&cta>» 

ALAN. 28S 

ally promote the popish and Spanish interests in England ; 
but the pope had too high an opinion of his merit to suffer 
him to leave Rome, where, therefore, he continued to ia« . 
hour in the service of his countrymen, and in promoting the 
Catholic faith. Some have asserted, that be and sir Francis 
Inglefield assisted Parsons, the Jesuit, in composing hi^ 
treasonable work concerning the succession, which he pub- 
lished under the name of Doleman, in 1593, and which was 
reckoned of such dangerous consequence, that it was made 
capital by law for any person to have it in his custody. 
Others, however, maintain that he had no hand in it, and 
that he even objected to it, because of its tendency to pro*, 
mote those dissentions which had for so many years dis- 
tracted his native country ; and this last opinion is proba- 
ble, if what we have been told be true, that towards the 
close of his life he had changed his sentiments, as to 
government, and professed his sorrow for the pains he 
had taken in promoting the invasion of England. It is 
even asserted, by a very eminent popish writer (Watson)^ 
that when he perceived that the Jesuits intended nothing 
but desolating and destroying his native land, he wept bit- 
terly, not knowing how to remedy it, much less how to 
curb their insolence. Such conduct, it is added, drew 
upon him the ill-will of that powerful society, who chose 
now to represent him as a man of slender abilities, and of 
little political consequence. On his death- bed, he was 
very desirous of speaking to the English students then at 
Rome, which the Jesuits prevented, lest he should have 
persuaded them to a loyal respect for their prince, and a 
tender regard for their country. He is generally said' to 
have died of a retention of urine; but, as the Jesuits had 
shown so much dislike, they have been accused of poison- 
ing him. Of this, however, there is no proof. He died 
Oct. 6, 1594, in the sixty-third year of his age; and was 
buried with great pomp in the chapel of the English col- 
lege at Rome, where a monument was erected to his me- 
Vkory, with an inscription setting forth his titles and merits. 
What these merits were, the reader has been told. We 
have seen cardinal Aian in three characters: that of a 
zealous propagandist; of apolitical traitor to his country; 
and lastly, repenting the violence of his endeavours to ruia 
his country on pretence of bringing her back to popery. In 
die first of these characters he seems to have acted from 
the impulse of a mind firmly persuaded that every devia-» 

i»M ALAN. 


tion from popery was dangarois heresy; aQ4 tbeemly wetr 
pons he employed were those of controversy. As a writer^ 
the popish party jus^tly considered biiyi as the fijrslt cbam*- 
))ioQ of his ^ge; and both his learning and eloquence wer<$ 
certainly of a superior stamp. But in his wQrst character, 
as a traitor^ there is every reason to think him ii)flue<)ce4 
by the Jesuits, who at that time, and ever wliile a society^ 
had little scruple as to the means by which they effected 
their purposes. Yet even their persuasions weire not Mif* 
ficient to inspire him with permanent hostility toward^ the 
political existence of his country. Some writers, not suf? 
ficiently attending to his history, b^ve called him a Jesuit; 
but in all controversies between the Jesuits and the ^cviW 
priests, the latter always gloried in cardinal Alan, as a man 
to whom no Jesuit could be compared, in any respects 

At Rome, and every where abroad, he was styled Cardi** 
Dal of England, and regarded a^ the protector of the fia«> 
tion. After his death, however, and when all bopies of 
conquering England had vanished, less notice was tak^n, pf 
English priests^ and few of them were made bishops ; nof 
was it until the reign of Charles 11. when the popish jnte^ 
rest was supposed likely to gain the ascendancy in £ng^ 
land, that Philip Thomas Howard, younger brother to ^b^ 
duke of Norfolk, was created cardinal^ and sometimes called 
the Cardinal of England. 

Of his works, besides- those already mentioned, thero 
are extant, 1. ^^ A defence of the lawful power and au- 
thority of the Priesthood to remit Sins,"' with two other 
tracts on Confession and Indulgences, Louvain, 1567, 8vq« 
^. ^ De Sacramentis in genere, de sacramento EucbaristieB, 
et de MisssB Sacrificio, libri tres/' Antwerp^ 157^, 4tp^ 
and Doway, 1605. 3. ^^ A true, sincere, and modest de*> 
fence of English Catholics,^' without place, 1583. This 
wa3 an answer to the ^^ Executioji of Justice in England^^ 
written by lord Burleigh, the original of which, Strype s^yst 
is yet preserved. It is esteemed the best of Alan's work% 
4. ^^ An apology and true declaration of the institution 
and endeavours of the two English colleges, the one ijn 
Rome, the other now resident in Rheims, against certain 
sinister insinuations given up s^gainst thfi same,'* lV}ons» 
1581. Besides these, he wrote some other smsiill treatises* 
without his name, of which we have nowhere seen acofrcet 
account. That in the Atbenae is perhaps the bes^. Fufi* 
pen, on the authprity of Posseviu in his <^ App^ratiif 

ALAN. 98Jf 

Sac.** says, that he translated the English Bi^le printed at 
Ithetitis, in conjunction with Gregory Martin and Richard 
Bristow, two English divines ; and that he wrote a letter td 
the bishop of Liege, " de miserabili 5tata et calamitatd 
regni AngliaE?,- fervente schismate,*^ which is printed in the 
^^ Gesta Episcoporum Leodiensium,** vol. IIL p, 588. Le 
Long, who also mentions his translation of the Bible, adds, 
that he was employed by pope Gregory XIV. in reforming 
the Vulgate. ^ 

ALAND (Sm John Fortesct;e), lord Foitescue of the 
kingdom of Ireland, a baron of the exchequer, and puisne 
Judge of the king's bench and Common pleas in the reigns 
4of George I. and IL was born March 7^ 1670, being the 
•ecqnd son of Edmund Fortescue, of London, esq. and 
Sarah^ daughter of Henry Aland, of Waterford, esq. in 
honour of whom he added Aland to his name. He was 
descended from sir John FortesCue, lord chief justice and 
totd high chancellor of England under king Henry VI. 
He was educated probably at Oxford, as that university, 
in complimenting him with a doctor's degree, by diploma, 
in 1733, alluded to his having^tudied there. On leaving 
the university he became a member of the Inner Temple, 
where he was chosen reader in i7l6, 2 Geo. I. as appears 
by a subscription to bis arms, and was called to the bar 
about the time of the Revolution. For his argruments as 
pleader in the courts of justice, the reader is referred to the 
following authorities; viz. the Reports of Mr. justice 
Fortescue Aland ; Mr. serjeant Carthew ; Mr. recorder 
Comberbach ; lord chancellor (of Ireland) Freeman ; lord 
chief baroti Gilbert's Cases; Mr. justice Levintz ; Mr, 
justice Lutwyche ; lord chief justice Raymond; Mr. Ser- 
jeant Salkeld; Mr. Serjeant Skinner; and Mr. justice 

We may presume our barrister shone as an advocate 
^ith naeridian lustre, since the celebrated Pope has recorded 
His name, by prefixing ft to his Itnitation of Horace, Sat II. 
1. add distinguished his legal abilities, by asking his opi? 
Dion, as to libels, in the foliomiig lines : 

*' Hm'rous by nature^ of the rich in awe, 
I come to counsel learned in the law ; 
Youli give mo, like a Mend both sage and free^ 
Advice, and (as you use) without a fee." 

^ Biqf . Br)t:M-Gen. Pict. art» AUa.— ^Strype's AiiDftl8*--9Wood*» Atfi6iue.<«» 
Ifiumei^t BlM.-^£ryChriei ruiacotheca, I. 90.— ^oppen Bibi. Beig, I. :^SSr 


286 ALAND. 

The reader is informed in a note on the first line, that the 
delicacy of the address does not so much lie in the ironical 
application to himself, as in seriously characterising tha 
person for whose advice the poet applies. 

On Friday, October 22, 1 7 1 4, he was appointed solicitor* 
general to his royal hij^hness the prince of Wales, after- 
wards king George the Second; and on December 21^ 
1715, he was constituted solicitor-general to the king» 
in the room of Nicholas Lechmere, resigned ; which ar^- 
<luous and important oflEice he executed so much to the 
satisfaction of his majesty and the people, that he wad 
thought deserving of a higher post; and accordingly, 
24th January, 1716-7, Hilary term, the king appointed 
him one of the barons of the exchequer, in which 
court he succeeded sir Samuel Dodd, the late lord chief 
baron, deceased. In the office of solicitor-general he was 
himself succeeded by sir William Thompson the recorder 
of London. The reader is referred to the reports of the 
lord chief baron Comyns, and of the lord chief baron Gil- 
bert, sir John Strange and Bunbury, for our baron's re- 
solutions and opinions while he sat in this court. 

In May 1718, he was constituted one of the justices of 
the court of king^s bench ; but after the slccession of king 
George II. all the judges had new patents, except Mr. 
justice Aland, whose commission was superseded, for rea- 
sons which have not transpired* It appears, however^ 
that he regained his majesty's favour, as in January 1728 
be was appointed one of the justices of the court of com- 
mon pleas. He continued on this bench from Michaelmas 
vacation, 2 Geo. II. 1728, until Trinity term IS and 20, 
A. D. 1746, when he resigned the same, having sat in the 
superior courts of Westminster for the long period of thirty 
years, and "eighteen of them in the court alluded to. His 
majesty, in further testimony of his judicial integrity and 
abilities, was 'pleased to create him a peer of Ireland, by 
the style and title of John lord Fortescue Aland, baron 
Fortescue of Credan, in the kingdom of Ireland, by privy 
seal, dated at Kensington, June 26, 1746^ 19 Geo. 11. and 
by patent dated at Dublin, August 1 5. But he did not 
enjoy this honour long, dying Dec. 19 of the same year, 
in the seventy-seventh year of his age* The family is 
now extinct. 

The juridical writings of sir John Fortescue Aland are : 
4V << The Diiference between an absolute and limited Mo« 


harchy, as it more particularly regards the English consti* 
tution ; being a treatise written by sir John Fortescue, 
knight, lord chief justice, and lord high chancellor of 
£ngland, under king Henry VI. faithfully transcribed . , 
from the MS copy in the Bodleian library, and collated 
with three other MSS. published with some remarks by 
John Fortescue Aland, of the Inner Temple, esq. F. R. S." 
Lond. 1714: reprinted, 1719. 2. " Reports of Select 
Cases in all the courts of Westminster hall, tempore Wil- 
liam the Third and queen Anne ; also the opinion of all 
the judges of England relating to the grandest prerogative 
of the royal family, and some observations relating to the 
prerogatives of a queen-consort," London, 1748, fol. This 
is a posthumous publication. 

Sir John, in his preliminary remarks to the work of hig 
great ancestor, proves himself to be a distinguished pro- 
ficient in Saxon literature. He lived also in habits of 
intimacy with Pope and his associates ; and many of Pope^s 
letters to him are published in Mr. Bowles's edition of the 
works of that Poet. Mr. Fortescue also furnished Pope 
with the admirable burlesque of " Stradling versus Styles" 
in vol. VI. » 

ALANUSdeInsuus, or ALAINde L'Isle or De Lille^ 
is the name under which two persons, who were Qoutem- 
poraries, have been confounded by most biographers. Th^ 
subject of the present article, usually termed Alanus senior^ 
or major, was born at Lille in Flanders, about the begin? 
ning of the twelfth century; and his parents having devoted 
him from his birth to the service of religion, be received a 
suitable education. When the fame of St Becnard began 
to spread abroad, Alanus was sent, in 1128, to study at 
Clairvaux, under that celebrated ecclesiastic, and very 
tOon acquired a distinction above his companions. St. Ber^ 
nard afterwards placed him at the bead of the abbey of 
RivQur, in the diocese of Troyes in Champagne ; and iu 
1151^ procured him the bishopric of Auxerre, over which 
he presided until 1167, when he resigned it, and returned . 
to Clairvaux, where he remained until his death in October 
1181. His works, still in existence, are, 1. ^^ Vita sancti 
Bernardi,'^ printed in the second volume of St. Bernard'^ 
works, 1690, foi. 2. " Testamentum suum," orhisTes* 
tsuneut, made in 1181, printed in Nicholas Camusat^s col- 

> Abridged from a desultory account id the preceding edition of this Die* 
l|onary,<— Park's editign of Lord Orfbrd's Royal and Noblt Authors, vol. V. 

288 Aa A k U S. 

lection. 3. '* Expknationes in Proph^tia* Meriirii Angli,** 
in seven books, Francfoit, 1608, Sro, Alarms coinposed 
this treatise under the reign pf Lottis*the- Young, about 
1 171, on account of the noise which these pretended pro- 
phecies made. The subject is curiously illustrated by quo- 
tations from the English, Norman, and French historians^ 
and even from the Latin poets. In the chapter-house of 
Auxerre is a manuscript life of Alanus, compiled in 1182 
by one of the canons. » ' 

ALANUS DE Insulis, or ALAIN de L'Isle, sdrnamed 
the Universal Doctor, from his extensive knowledge, wa» 
born about the middTte of the twelfth century, not at Lille 
in Flanders, as most biographers have asserted, but either 
at L'Isle, in the Coiiitat-Venaissain, according to the abb6 
Le Beuf, or in the island or peninsula of Madoc ii> the Bor- 
delais. In all the accounts we have of him, he seems to be 
mistaken for the preceding. He appears to have taught 
theology in the university of Paris ; but it is not true that 
he ever was a lay-brother of the Cistertians, or fed the 
sheep belonging to that abbey, or that he was called to 
Rome to assist at a general council. He died in the early 
part of the thirteenth century, in the abbey of the Cister- 
tians, whither, after the example of many distinguished 
persons of his time, he retired to pass the remainder of his 
days. He was buried in the abbey with an inscription of 
•even lines, the last four of which Casimir Oudin, the ec^ 
clesiastical biographer and historian, discovered to have 
been added long after his death, and with a view to authen- 
ticate the stories that he had been a lay-brother, &c. But 
although our accounts of him are imperfect and confused^ 
it appears that he enjoyed the esteem and admiration t>f 
his contemporaries, and that it was usual to say, " To hav6 
•een Alanus is enough." — Sufficiat vohis vidisse Alanum* 
Among his works are, 1. ** Anti-Claudianus, sen de viro 
Optimo, et in omni virtute perfecto, lib. ix. Carmine,** Ba- 
sil, 1536, and Antwerp, 16^1. 2. **De planctu naturae 
•contra^ Sodomiae vitium," published with notes by Led 
Allatius. 3. " Contra Albigenses, Waldenses, Judaeos, ct 
Paganos,*' Paris, 1618, 8vo. 4. " Dicta de Lapide philo- 
tophico," Leyden, 1600, 8vo. All his works, both prose 
and verse, were collected by Charles de Visch, and pub- 
lished at Antwerp, 1654, foL but some of them have been 
attributed to the preceding Alanus. His ^^ Parables" bare 

1 Biographic Uaivene]le,««Jtforeri« 

A L A N IJ S* 2«& 

he^n trtin^lated into French, Paris, 1492, foL and by 
D^iys Janot) 8vo, without a date. ^ 

" ALARD (Francis), of a noble family at Brussels, was 
born about the beginning of the sixteenth century. His 
father William Aiard de Centier, a zealous convert to 
popery, obliged him to enter the order of Dominican friars^ 
where he wa$ much admired for his talents as a preacher. 
While thus employed, a Hamburgh merchant, who was 
pleased with his preaching, procured him privately the 
works of Luther, which Alard read with conviction, and 
the same merchant having assisted him in escaping from 
his convent, he studied divinity at Jena and Wittemberg; 
But the death of 'this faithful friend having deprived him of 
resources, h6 ventured to return to Brussels and solicit as- 
sistance from his father. Before, however, he could obtain 
a private interview with him, he was discovered in one of 
the streets of Brussels by his mother, a violent bigot, who, 
after some reproaches, denounced him to the Inquisition ; 
and when no persuasions could induce him to return into 
the bosom of the church which he had left, his mother was 
so irritated, as to call forth the rigour of the law, and even 
offered to furnish the wood to burn him. Sentence of death 
being pronounced, be was conducted to prison, but on the 
night previous to the appointed execution, he is said to 
have heard a voice saying, *^ Francis, arise and depart :'• 
how far this and other particulars of his escape are true, we 
know not; but it is certain he cleared the prison, and after 
some hardships and difGculties, arrived in safety at Olden- 
burgh, where he became almoner to the prince. Here he 
remained until hearing that freedom of religion was granted 
Bt Antwerp, his affection for his native country induced 
him to return, which he did twice, notwithstanding the 
^persecutions of the duke of Alba and the dangers to which 
he was exposed ; and when his father came to see him at 
Antwerp, in hopes of bringing him back to popery, he ar- 
gued with so much power, as to make a sincere convert of 
tois bigotted parent. At length, when it was not longer 
safe for him to remain in the Netheriands, Christian IV. 
king of. Denmark, gave him the curacy of Wilster in Hol- 
stein^ at which asylum he died July 10, 1578. His works, 

> Care, vo!. IT.— Fo^pcn Bibl. Belg.—Moreri.— Tanner, who is inclined 
IroBi Deinpster^s autbority to pUce hjm among British writers. — Biographic 
Ujiit^rselle, which. we have principally followed*— Saxii Onumasticon. 

Vol, I. U 


t^ ALAR IX^ 

^kicti %re in Flemish or German, eon^t ofj 1. " The Con^ 
fession of Antwerp." 2. "Exhortation of the Ministers 
of Antwerp.** 3. *^ Agenda, or Discipline of Antwerp." 
4. " Catechism." 5. " Treatise on original Sin," &c.* 

ALARD (Wiluam), son of the preceding, was. born 
]Mov. 22, 1572. After having received the principles of 
education in the college of Itzehoe, which be left at the age 
of sixteen, he passed five years in the coUego of Luiie^ 
burgh, and went from that to Wittenftberg, where he disr 
tioguished biiQself by the able d^ence of bis theses. In 
1595, he was called home, and made joint rector of the 
college of Krempen, and afterwards chosen pastor of the 
church of that place. He died May 9, 1644, aged 72 
years and six months. His works, ia Latin, are, 1. ^' Chris*- 
tianus, hoc est, de nomine, ortu, &c. Christiaaorum," 
Leipsic, 1637, 1640. ^^ Perioopa pentateuchi biblica, tri- 
glossometriqa,^* &c. 1618, 4to. 3. *^ De diversia minis- , 
trorum gradibus cotiti*a Sezaoa."' 4. " Defensiotractationis,*' 
&c. a defence of the preceding against Beza^s answer, 
Francfort, 1600.* 

ALARD (Lambert), son of the preceding, was born at 
Krempen in 1600, au4 hrst studied there and at Hamburgh. 
At the age of nineteen, he went to the academy of Leipsic, 
where 1^ entered on a course of theology and political 
science. In 1624, he had acquired much reputation both 
as a philosopher and a poet. When he returned to Krem* 
pen, he was made dean of the college, and held that sta- 
tion during five years. After this, the king of Denmark 
, appointed hin» inspector of the schools at Brunscwick, and 
assessor of the council of Meldorf. In 1643, by order of 
the emperor, he was created mmster of arts, and not being 
able, on account of the war, to go into Saxony, be was 
jnade a licentiate in divinity by diploma, or bull, which was 
sent to him. He died May 29, 1672. His works arev 
I. << Deliciae Attica}," Leips. 1624, 12mo. 2. ^ Hera^ 
chus Saxonicus, &c." ibid. 162^^ 12mo. S. '^Gnectaia 
nuce, seu lexicon novum omnium GrascsB lingusprimog^** 
niarum," Leips. 1628, 1632, 12mo. 4. ^^PromptuariiiaL 
pathologicum Novi Testamenti,'* Letps. 1635^ 1636, 12moL 
^, Laurifolia, sive ppematum juveailium apparatus,^' 16S7t 

t M«rerK-p-Biosra|kbie UDivcrieUe.i-*i>ecv8 • Alardonua icriptis «l«r«nuBr 
Hamb. 1'721, 2 ▼ott. written by b^s KceM-gcaadgon^ MicboUi Alaffd^ wb»dia# 
there in 1756. ^ e 1^14, 

A L A R &/ S9l 

T2til^, and iotfie other worts both i» fi^t^ attd Vefse, par- 
ticularfy a commentary on the ArgonauticOn of VaWiwl 
Flaccus, which i* very little esteemed. * 

A LA8CO, or LAS€0, or LASKI (John)^ iimisIOf 
styled the PoKsb reformer, a-tnan of high rpinb, talent?^ anJd 
jyioiw zeal, is said by Fox, the mertyrologist^ vfrho was hi» 
contemporary, to have been uncle to iSigisiifiOdd, kiog of 
Poland. He certainly was of a noble family in Pdlanrf^ 
whieh took its nai^e from Lasco, Latzki, or Latzeo, and ' 
subsisted under one of those titles long after his tioie. H« 
was born, according to Siaxius, in 1499, but we have n6 
particulars respecting his family, unless that feis bi?othet 
Jerome was an able politician, and' employed by the em* 
peror Ferdinand, as his ambassador to the Turkish govefnt- 
ment. He had also an unc(e, of the s^me n»i»e, who was 
archbishop of Gne^ia, to whom Erasmias* dedicated bis edi- 
tion of the works' of St. Ambrose, afid* whomf Le Clere mis- 
takes for our John Alasco. Erasmists in one of his epistles 
(ep. &62) mentions two others of the same illustrious family, 
Hieroslaus, and Stanbiaus Al^asco (usually written h Lasco) ; 
and in ep. 1167, he speaks of a John a Lasco (Joannes 
Lascanus), a young man, who died in Germany. 

,After receiving: an education suitable to his birth iand 
talents, his thirst for knowledge iiidaced hirti tx> travel into 
various countries, where be acquired considerable distinc- 
tion. In 1 525 he was at Basil, lodging and boarding witfc 
Erasmus, and ajt the same tiifie, which proves his high rank, 
he was the correspondent of Margaret, sister to Francis h 
and queen of Navarre. Erasmus highly commends him 
wherever he has occasion to introduce his name, as we 
shall notice hereafter. Alasco probably chose to dwell 
with Erasmus, that he might improve in literature by hav- 
ing free access to him ; and the biographer of Erasmus re- 
marks that many of his friends were led by his conversa- 
tion and writings to embratjc the principles of Luther and 
the other reformers, although he himseW did not go so far. 
While under the roof of this eminent scholar, Alasco ap^ 
pears to have contributed to keep up a liberal domsestic 
establishment, which occasioned Erasmus to obswve to 
him in a letter, that " his departure was unfortuna4j© ia 
many respects; ^or, omitting other ftiatteiis, it- costf him 
some months labour to reduce the^ {fatld esiablishmeH«i 

U 2 

«#? A L A S C 0. 

Alasco had introduced, to the former frugal system. pur« 

It appears by another letter from Erasmus to Pole, af- 
terwards the celebrated cardinal, that Alasco left him to 
fo to the university of Padua. " You will love him," saya 
Irasmus, ^^ because he has all those qualities which make 
you amiable : noble extraction, high posts of honour^ and 
^till greater expectations, a wonderful genius, uncommon 
erudition, and all this without any pride. I have hitherto 
been happy in his company, and now lose it with great 
regret" This letter is dated Basil, Oct. 4, 1525. His' 
stay at Padua was probably short, as he went afterwards to 
Home, and thence into Switzerland, where he became ac- 
quainted with Zuinglius, who, struck with his talents and 
amiable character, prevailed on him to examine more se- 
riously the controversies of the times respecting religion. 
The result of this was his embracing Protestantism accord- 
ing to the tenets of the Geneva reformers, and with respect 
to the sacrament, he zealously adopted the opinion of Zuin- 
glius. In 1526, he returned to Poland, where he was made 
provost of Gnesna arid Lencziez, and was nominated bishop 
of Vesprim in Hungary. His family and connections would 
have added to these, but prefeiment in the popish church 
was no longer consistent with his principles ; and after 
struggling with much opposition, he quitted the kingdom, 
with the knowledge and consent of the king, by whom. La- 
yater the historian says, he was much respected and fre- 
quently consulted. 

: He left Poland in 1540, fourteen years after he had re- 
turned from his travels, and during this long period we 
have very few particulars of his history, except that on the 
death of Erasmus in 1536, he generously offered an hun- 
dred pieces of gold to Froben and Episcopius, to assist therai 
in publishing his .works, and at this time he completed his 
purchase of Erasmus's library, which he had contracted for 
in 1525, while under his roof. The agreement between 
them stated that, during Erasmuses life, both should have 
the use of the books, but the property should be in Alasco 
and bis heirs. The price was three hundred crowns of 

. About the latter end of the year 1542, we find Alasco 
at Embden, where he took upon him the office of pastor, 
and preached constantly at a church in that town. In the 
following year he was e^igaged by Anne, countess dowager 

A L A S C O. 495 

of Oldenburg, in East Friesland, to introduce and esta-^ 
blish the reformed religion in that territory. This he was 
pursuing with great success, when he was invited by Al<* 
bert, duke of Prussia, to a similar undertaking; but as 
that prince was a zealous Lutheran in the article of the 
sacrament, and Alasco had candidly informed him of his 
strict adherence to the Zuinglian doctrine on the same 
subject, the engagement did not take place, and Alasco con* 
tinued for some years, nearly in the same quarter, labour* 
ing to promote the reformation by assiduous preaching, lec<»* 
turing, and exhortation. 

When Germany became an unsafe residence for the 
friends of the reformation, and the contest respecting the 
interim was eagerly pursued, Alasco, whose fame had 
leached England, was invited thither by archbishop Cran«* 
men This illustrious founder of the English church had 
for some time afforded a quiet . asylum to such learned 
foreigners a^^ had been expatriated on account of their re*^ 
ligion; and had at one time residing at Lambeth palace^ 
those celebrated reformers Bucer,. Martyr, Fagius, Ochin, 
and others of inferior note. Al^isco arrived accordingly 
about the year 154S, and was introduced not only to the 
archbishop, but by his means to sir John Cheke, sir Wil-* 
liam Cecil, and to the duke of Somerset, the protector* 
In a conference with the latter, he was encouraged to re? 
quest that he and his congregation ^light have leave t(^ 
come over to London, and be protected in the exercise 
of their religion ; and he urged that such a favour would 
be a matter of policy as well as charity, as by this step 
many useful manufactures might be introduced into Eng- 
land. He requested also that they might be incorporated 
by the king's letters patent ; and some old dissolved church* 
or monastery, given them as a place of worship. Having 
proposed these measures, and obtained the assistance of 
the archbishop and other iriends of rank and power, to 
assist in forwarding them, he returned again to Embden, 
where be corresponded with the archbishop and Cecil. As 
;soon as they informed him that his request comr 
plied with, he again came to England, and brought with 
him a considerable number. of German Protestants, who 
found an asylum for their persons, and toleratioi^ for their 
priucciples, under the mil^ reign of Edward Vi., Thr^^e 
h^pdred. and eighty of these refugees were natqralisj^d, 
;^4 er^cti^d jnto js^ sp^0es of.ecclesiyas4ca]i..cQrporsMLi9nf 

*0* A L A S C O. 

yAneh w^« govei^n^d by its own laws, and enjoyed ks own 
ferm rf ^fship, although dot exactly agreerog with that 
of the ehureh of Englaml. — A place ef worship in London, 
f«rt ^ file once splendid priory of the Augwstine friars, 
pi th^ trai^d of Broad-street, which is still standing, was 
grdnfeed 4o them July 24, 1549, with the rerenues belong- 
iwg to it, for the subsistence of thdr ministers, who were 
ekber expi^ssly noinfnated, or at least approved of by the 
kiftg. Hk majesty also fixed the precise Humber of them, 
namely, fo&r OHnistevs and a sttperintendant. This last 
office was conferred on Alasco, who, in the letters patent, 
ps called a person of singinlar probity, and great learning ; 
amd it was an office which comprehended many important 
dUilies. it appears that as among the refugees from the 
(ccmtinetit there were sometimes concealed papists, or tlan-^ 
gei^ns eftthusia^ts, a power was given to Alasco to exa« 
inaine intd their c^haracters, and' none were tolerated in the 
exercise of their religion but sucrh as were protected by 
kkfii. liis ei£ee Dketinse extended not only over this par-' 
l^ular cMgregatioti of Germans, but over all the other 
fDve^ churches in JLondon, of which we find there was a* 
iPr^nch, ^ Spanish, and an Italian church t>r congregation ;' 
and oV^ their schools and seminaries, all ^faich were sub-r 
j6ct to his inspection, and declared to be within his juris-' 
didtion. In 1552*, we find him »sing his iivfluence to pro- 
e«re for a member of the l>each church the king's Kcence 
to ^t Hp a printing-house for printing the liturgy, &c in 
French, ^for the use of the French iskiiids (Jersey and 
©uernsey) under; the English government. 

It is to be regretted that a teception so hospitable, an 
(bstablisJiH^nt so munificent, and a toler-ation so complete, 
•honid not 'have induced tdiis leartied reformer to abate the 
ikeai ei ccmtroversy. But be bad not engoyed his new 
e&ee lohg before he p^bHshed- a book against the church 
(rf England, her ritual, ecclesiastical habits, and the ges- 
teire of kneeling at the mcrament. It is an excuse, indeed, 
that be was requested by Edward VI: to write an some of 
these Subjects-; ^nd k was probably owing to this circum« 
Stance, that ne cfeHswre was passed on kis book. ' 

The reigtt of Edward VI. was short ; and on the acces-* 
«toh df bis bigotted and remiorseless'sisterj the reformation 
was overthrown ; and those who chos^ to- adhere 'to it sooa 
*m\f that they must be. consiMseitt' art' the ex^eneie of their 
Jives. At the coflMBenoemctot, • hoit etefj * ^f * the 

A L A S C O. StD$ 

tynmny, whether from -a respect for Alwco's illustrioiis 
family, or some regard for the rites of hospitality to those 
foreigners who had been invited into the country undet the 
royal pledge of safety, Alasco and his congregation had 
the fair warning of a proclamation which ordered all fo- 
reigners to depart the realm, particularly lieretics. Ac- 
cordingly, about one hundred and seventy-five persons, 
consisting of Poles, Germans, French, Scotch, Italians, 
and Spaniards, belonging to the various congfegations 
under his superintendance, embarked in two ships, Sept. 
J 7, 1553, with Alasco and his colleagues, and set sail for 
the coast of Denmark. Their reception here has been very 
differently represented. It has been said that, although 
known to be Protestants, yet because they professed the 
opinions of Zuin^lius respecting the sacrament, they were 
not suffered to disembark, or to remain at anchor mor^ 
than two days; during which their wives and children were 
prohibited from landing. Such is the account given by 
Melchior Adam, and bjf^ those who have followed him with- 
out eitamintfig other writers. According, however, to 
Hospinian, who may be the more easily credited as he wa$ 
imfriendly to the Lutherans, it appears that the landing 
was not opposed, and that the Lutherans even admitted of 
a conference with Alasco and one of his colleagues, Micro- 
nius; but in the end, as neither party would give way> 
Alasco and his company were obliged to leave the kingdom 
in the depth of wintef, and were refused admittance, with 
equal inhumanity, at Lnbeck, Wismar, and Hamburgh. 
After thus suffering almost incredible hardships at sea, 
during the whole of a very severe winter, they arrived iit 
March, 1554, atEmbien; and being reefeived with kind- 
ness and hospitality, most of them settled there. Anne, 
countess dowager of Oldenburgh, again extended her 
friendship to Alasco, became the patroness of his flock, 
and procured them every comfort their situation required. 

In 1555, Alasco went to Franckfort on the Maine, where 
he obtained leave of the senate to build a church for re- 
formed strangers, and particularly for those of the Ne- 
therlands. VVhile here, he wrote a defence of his conduct 
to Sigismond, king of Poland, against the aspersions of 
Joachim Westphale (one of the most violent controversial* 
writers on the side of Luther), Bugenhagen, and others. 
Jn the same year, with the consent, if not at the desire of 
jiie duke of Wirtembarg, he maintained a disputation 

336 A 1 A S C O. 

against Brentius, then a Lutheran^ upon the subject of the 
eucfaarist. The unfair representation Brentiiis published 
of this controversy, and the garbled account he gave of 
Alasco's arguments, obliged the latter to publish an 
apology for himself and his church, in 1557 ; in which he 
proved that their doctrine did not militate with the Augs- 
burgh confession concerning the presence of Christ in 
the supper; but that, if they had differed from that con- 
fession, it did not follow that they were to be condemned, 
provided they could justify their dissent from the holy 
scriptures. Westphale was yet more illiberal than Bren-» 
tins in his censure of Alasco and his flock ; and reviled 
them with a virulence that would have better become their 
professed persecutors. 

After an absence of nearly twenty years, Alasco re-» 
turned to his native country, where he was protected from 
the hostility of the ecclesiastics, by the king, who em- 
ployed him in various important affairs ^ find when ad- 
dressed by the popish clergy to remove him, answered 
that ^^he had indeed heard, that the bishops had pro- 
nounced hioi a heretic, but the senate of the kingdom had 
determined no such matter ; that John Alasco was ready 
to prove himself untainted .with heretical pravity, and. 
sound in the Cathplic faith." This answer, however, so. 
unfavourable to their remonstrances, did not prevent their 
more secret eflforts to injure him ; but we do not find that 
these w^re effectual, and he died in peace at Franckfort, 
Jan. 13} 1560, after ^ short illness. His piety, extensive 
learning, liberality, and benevolence, have been celebrated 
by all his contemporaries, and the^ bigoted part of the 
Lutherans were his only enemies ; and even of these some 
could not bring any other accusation against him than that 
he differed from their opinion respecting the corporal pre-? 
sence in the sacrament; a subject which unfortunately 
split the early reformers into parties, when they shoul4 
have united against the common enemy. We have already 
quoted Erasmus's opinion of him when a very young man ; 
and it may be added (from ep. iii. lib. 28.) that he pro- 
nounced him *^ young, but grave beyond his years ; and 
that himself was happy in his conversation and society^ 
and even became better by it; having before him, in 
Alasco, a striking example of sobriety^ moderation, mo* 
desty, and integrity.** In another lettei* he calls himjs " a 
man of so a:miable a disposition, that he should have 

A L A S C O, 297 

ihotght himself sufficiently happy in his single friendship.^ 
Nor was Melanchtbon less warm in his praise. On the 
accession of queen Elizabeth, although he did not return 
to England, he corresponded with her on affairs of the 
church ; and according to Zanchius, bad much influence 
both with her, and the leading ministers of her court. It. 
may here be noticed th^t the congregation he had settled 
in Austin Friars were tolerated again under her reign, and 
that bishop Ghndall was appointed superintendant of this 
foreign church, the last of whom we have any account as 
holding that office. The chuixh is to this day vested in 
. a congregation of Dutch Calvinistic protestants, and the 
library belonging to it contains a vast collection of the 
manuscript letters and memorials of the reformers, and 
particularly of Alasco, whose portrait was there before the 
fire of London. 

Alasco was twicfe married : his first wife died in 
1552, and the second survived him; he appears to have 
bad children by both. It was probably a descendant of 
bis, Albertus Alasco, who was most magnificently enter- 
tained by the university of Oxford in 1583, by special 
command of queen Elizabeth. ^* Such an entertainment 
it was," says Wood, " that the like before or since was 
never made for one of his degree, costing the university, 
with the colleges, about £350. And, indeed, consider- 
ing the worthiness of the person for whom it was chiefly 
made, could not be less. He was one tam Marti quam 
Merctirto : a very good soldier, and a very good scholar, 
an admirable linguist, philosopher, and mathematician." 

Of his works we have a catalogue in Melchior Adam, 
Verheiden, and others, but mostly without ds^tes. His 
book on the sacrament, already noticed, bore this title : 
** Brevis et dilucida de Sacramentis ecclesiae Christi trac- 
tatio : in qua fons ipse et ratio totius sacramentarisB nosti;i 
tfBmporis controversiae, paucis exponitur," Lond. 1552, 8vo* 
Together with this, says Strype, was bound up a tract, 
entitled ^^ Consensio mutua in re Sacramentaria ministro* 
rum TigurinoB ecclesise, et D. Jo. Calvini, ministri Gene- 
vensis ecclesiae, dataTiguri, Aug. 30, 1S49." The whole 
was introduced by an epistle dedicatory to king Edward, 
which Strype has given at large. It treats chiefly of the 
controversy respecting the habits, and was reprinted in 
1633, .when these matters were considered as of sufficient 
importance to hazard the existence of church and state. 

i9» , A L A S C O. 

Of this work on th« «aerament^ an abridgement was after- 
wards piibUsbed under the title " Epistola contineiis in se 
swinmam controrersiae de coena Domini breviter expUca"- 
lam." His other works are: 1- " Confessio de nostra 
euM Christo Domirre communione, et corporis item siii in 
eflc^na exhibitione, ad ministros ecclesiarnm Frisii orientalis.'* 
2. ** Epistola ad Bremensis Ecclesiae ministros.*^ 3. " Con- 
tra Mennonem catabaptistarom principem." 4. ** De 
Recta Ecclesiaruin instituendarum ratio ne Epistolae tres.'* 
$. ^ Epi^ola ad rcgem Poloniae Sigismundum, &c. in 
quadoctrinsB ministerii fidem, ac nominis sui existimatio- 
»eni, contra adversariorum calnmnias vindicat." 6. ** Pur- 
ffatiovministrorum in ecclesiis peregrinis Francofurti, qua 
<ftemon$trat ipsornm doctrinam de Christi domini in coena 
Mia praesentia non pngnare cum Angnstana confessione^ at 
adversarii eos accusabant.'* 7. " Responsio ad virulentam, 
ealumniisque et mendaciis consarcinatam, Joachiufi West- 
phali Epistolam, qna purgationem ecclesiarum peregrina- 
fum Francofurti convellere conatur.*' 8. " Forma ac ratio 
totius Ecclesiastici Ministerii Edwardi VI. in peregrinoram 
maxime Germanoram ecclesia." He also published a 
form of prayer and religious service, usied in the church at 
London, of whix;h we find a notice of a translation from 
Latin into. French, printed at London in 1556. ' 

ALAVA ESQUIVEL (Diego m), a celebrated Spanish 
bishop, who lived in the sixteenth century, was a native of 
Vitoria, a city of Alava in the province of Biscay. He 
studied the civil and canon law at Salamanca, and made 
such considerable progress, that having been admitted one 
•f the judges in several courts of judicature, he was at last 
made president of the council of Grfetnada. He afterwards 
entered into holy orders, and was advanced to the bishop- 
ric of Astorga. In that rank he assisted at the fifth 
eonnt^il of Trent, where his principal endeavours were to 
restrain pluralities. On his return he was made bishop of 
Avila, and afterwards of Cordova. He died in 1562, The 
only work he has left, the subject of which is general 

> Melchior Adam.---Verheiden, EiBgies, &c.-*Liid. LavAie^. io hkt« de ortM 
&c. controversial sacramentariae. — Sieidep in Comment. -~Thuaau«. — Uos- 
pinian Hist. Sacrament part S, p. 224. — Gerdesius in Hist Evangelii renovati, 
et Fiorileg. Ubr. rar. p. 2^26. 230, — Freytafi^ in Analcctit Litterarris, p. 515, 
516.— S{rype»8 Craomer, p. 195, 234, 246, 261, 290, 317; App. 139, 141„ 
145.__Strype'8 Annals, I. 119.— Strype's Memorials, vol. II. 83, 224, 240, 
841, 255, 574.; III. SSC— Strype»s Parker, 288.— Jortin's Erasmus. — ^Bumct'ft 
Hiat Tpl. ill Records, p. 203. 

A L A V A. 299 

cfMAcils, is said to be well written : " De Conciliis uni-^ 
versalibus, ac de his qus ad religionis et reipublic^B Christ, 
reformationem iiistituenda videntur," Granada, 1582, fol. 
The family of D* Alava produced at least two other writers 
of soaM3 eminence, Diego d' Alava de Beaumont, the son 
of the master of the ordnance to the king of Spain, an able 
engineer, who wrote " El Perfecto Capitan, &c." or the 
Perfect Captain instructed in the tailitary science, and the 
art of fortification, Madrid, 1590, fol. ; and Francis Ruis 
de Vergara y Alava, who wrote the history of the college 
of St. Bartholomew, in the university of Salamanca ; and 
by order of Philip IV. superintended an edition, 1655, fol. 
af the Statutes of the order of the knights of St. James. ' 

ALAYMO (Marr Anthony), a celebrated physician of 
Sicily, was born in 1 590 at Ragalbuto, in the valley of 
Pemona, and when young acquired great reputation for 
fcis proficiency in classical learning, and in the study of 
ptulosc^hy. He theo made choice of the profession of 
Biedicine, and received his doctor's degree at Messitm in 
16 lO. In 16 1 ^ he settled at Palermo, where he practised 
with uncommon success, his advice being eagerly sought 
M borne and abroad, by persons of all ranks who corre- 
sponded with him in cases where his visits could not be pro- 
cured. His fame rose highest, however, in 1624, when 
he practised with so much skill, humanity, and success, 
duri-ng the rage of the plague in Palermo and other parts 
of Sicily. While in this prosperous career, he was in vain 
solicited to accept a professor's chair in the university of 
Bologna^ and the office of first physician to the king of 
Kaples. Notb4ng could seduce him from his connexions 
in Palermo, where he had the principal hand in founding 
the medical academy. He is celebrated also for his piety 
and munificence towards religious institutions. He died 
August 29, 1662. His principal works are in Latin. 
i. ^^ CoQ^tatio pro ulceris Syriaci nunc vagantis curatione,'* 
l^lermo; 16S2, 4to. 2. " De succedaneis Medicamen- 
tis,*' ibid. 1637, 4to. 3. And in Italian, *^ Discorso in** 
torno alia preservatione del morbo contagioso, e mortale, 
che regna al presente in Palermo, SacJ*^ ibid. 1625, 4tow 
4» *^ Consigli Medico*poIitici,'' also relating to the plague, 
jfbid. 1652, 4to. He left, likewise, some works in nianu<* 
script, on the treatment of malignant fevers^ and a com^ 
mentary on the epidemics of Hippocrates. ^ 

1 Gen. Diet. — Fra. Paol. Hist. de-Concil. de Trent. — Nic. Anton. Bibl. Hispan. 
3 MangeU BibU Script. Med« 

300 A L B A N. 

ALBAN (St.) is said to have been the first period who 
suffered martyrdom for Christianity in Britain ; he is there- 
fore usually styled the protomartyr of this island. He was 
bora at Verulam*, and flourished towards the end of the 
t)iird Century. In his youth he took a journey to Rome, 
in company with Ampbibalus^ a mopk of Caerleon, and 
served seven years as a soldier under the emperpr Diocle- 
tian. At his return home he settled in Verulam; and, 
through the example and instruction of Ampbibalus, re- 
nounced the errors of Paganism, in which be had been 
educated, and became a convert to the Cliristiau religion. 
It is generally agreed that Alban suffered martyrdom du« 
ring the great persecution under the reign of Diocletian ; 
but authors differ as to the year when it happened : Bede 
and others fix it in the year 286, some refi^r it to 296, but 
Usher reckons it amongst the events of 303. His death is 
said to have been accompanied with several miracles, to 
which, however, it is impossible to give credit. Collier, 
only, of all our historians, contends for their credibility. 
Between 4O0 and 500 years after St. Alban's death, Offa, 
king of the Mercians, built a very large s^nd stately mor 
nastery to his memory ; and the town of St. Alban's in 
Hertfordshire takes its name from our protomartyr. * 

ALBANI (Alexander), an eminent virtuoso, was born 
at Urbino, Oct. 15, 1692, and promoted to the rank of 
cardinal by Innocent Xlll. He died Dec. 2, 1779, aged 87. 
He showed great dignity in his embassy to the emperor ; 
and displayed much learning while he held the place of 

* This town was ancientljr called it was esteemed a niunici|»ium, or a 

Werlamcest^r, or Watlingacester, the town whose inhabitants enjoyed the 

former name being derived from the rights and privileges of Roman citizens, 

river Warlame, which ran on the east It was entirely ruined by the Britons^ 

side ; the latter, from the Roman high- during the war between the Romans 

way called Watling-street,- which lay and Boadicea, queen of the Iceni. Af« 

to the west. (Mat. Westm. Flor. Hist, terwards Verulam flourished again, 

ann. 313.) Tacitus calls it Venila- and became a city of great note. About 

Baium ; and Ptolemy, Urolium. The tbe middle of the fifth century, it felt 

situation of this place was close by the into the bands of the Saxons $ bi|t 

<own of St. Alban'Sj in Hertfordshire. Uther Pendragon,. the Briton, reco- 

Tbere'is nothing now remaining of old vered it with miich difficulty, after n, 

. Verulam but ruins of walls, chequered very long siege. After his death, Ve* 

pavements,, and Roman coins, which rulam fell again into the hands ci thp 

are often dug up. It is conjectured, Saxpns ; but by frequent wars, it was 

from fbe situation, that this was the at last entirely ruined. Camden's 

town of Cassivelaunus, so well de- Britannia, by bishop GibsOD) vol. l« 

iended by woods end marshes, which col. 555, 
was talien by CSssar. In Nero's time 

I Biog.'Brit. 

A L B A N r. sol 

librafian of the Vatican. He had great taste and know- 
ledge of antiquities^^ and became a munificent patron of 
learning artd learned men. His house, known by the name 
of the Villa Albani, was decorated with valuable statues 
and other treasures of the fine arts. He also found leisure 
from his political engagements to write some historical and 
literary works, which are held in much esteem. In 1762, 
his collection of drawings, consisting of three hundred vo- 
lumes, one third of which are original drawings of the firsf: 
masters, the others, collections of the most capital en- 
gravings, were sold to his present majesty of Great Britain, 
for 1 4,000 crowns. * 

ALBANI (John Francis), nephew to the preceding, 
and heir to his taste and munificence, was born in Rome, 
1720, and educated for the church, in which he was 
speedily promoted to the highest honours, being advanced 
to the purple, soon after he entered the priesthood, in 
1747, and not long . afterwards appointed arch-priest of 
the Basilic of St. Maria Maggiore, and bishop of Porto, 
one of the seven suburban sees which depend on the pope 
as on their immediate metropolitan. He derived more 
lustre, however, from following the example of his uncle 
in patronizing learning and learned men, and in adding to 
those rare and valuable monuments of art, which so long 
rendered the. villa Albani the resort of the virtuosi of 

In 1767, when the question of the suppression of the 
Jesuits was agitated, the cardinal took an active part at 
the court of Rome in their favour, but without discovering 
the principles of a very enlightened mind. He dreaded in 
this suppression the commencement of the downfall of the 
church, and considered any concession to those monarchs 
who were for the measure, as a dangerous symptom of ser- 
vility on the part of the church. In 1775, he was ap- 
pointed bishop of Ostia and Velletri, and consequently 
dean of the sacred college ; and in 1779, he succeedetl to 
his uncle Alexander in almost all the charges which that 
prelate had long possessed. He was appointed plenipo- 
tentiary of the house of Austria, protector of the kingdoni 
of Poland^ of the order of Malta, of the republic of Ra- 
gusa, and what was most congenial to his temper, of th^ 
tollege of La Sapienza in Rome. He was also presented 

) Aon. Register, 176^ p. 112.— Diet Uistorique. 

309 A L B A N f, 

with some rich abbey* and priories, both ki tbe RomiAII 
nod in the Neapolitan state. 

I'he circumstances of his being almost* set apart froni 
every affair of government, and of possessing a larg^ iir-* 
Gome, were a source of reBned gratifications to himself 
and of signal benefit to all the literary characters in Rom« 
who had gained his esteem. He renewed towards the 
close of the century, that example which about the middle 
of it had been set by his illustrious uncle. Besides 
bis patronage of men of established fame, of such men a9 
Visconti, Fea, Testa, and Piranesi, whenever among the 
children of his servants and dependants he discovered % 
promising genius, he took upoti himself the care of his 
education. He increased the valuable librjury of his uncle 
from twenty-five to thirty thousand volumes ; and in the 
year 1793, it was computed that the villa Albani contained 
about two hundred thousand works of art, and specimen* 
of antiquities. 

The cardinal was now in his seventy -seventh year, and 
in all probability expected to close his life in the full en^ 
joyment of his splendid and unrivalled collections, when 
the French took possession of Rome. The depredations 
they committed in the Vatican and other public places of 
Bome, and the violences offered by them to the most emi* 
nent persons in that metropolis, may be easily accounted 
for from their characteristic rapacity,, and the hatred whick 
they then professed for religion under any shape. But ^ 
the outrages which they practised on the family of Albani 
had such a base and spiteful motive, as to brand tlient 
with eternal infamy. :Owing to the successive marriages 
of the two last princesses of Carrara and of Modena, the 
family of Albani was a relative to the imperial house of 
Austria ; and the French tlK)ught thei^ the distress and hu- 
miliation of the oiie would be commxmicated to tbe othes. 
The estates were confiscated, tbe magnificent and elegant: 
palace, within the precincts of Rome, was saxsked, and 
the unrivalled villa was plundered and destroyed. " This 
palace,*'- 9ays Mr. Dappa, which is not yet razed 1x> the 
ground, nor its villa made an absolute heath, now re^ 
mains (I7il8) a melancholy monument c^ the Vandalisia 
of the eighteenth century. Every statiiie^ every bus^ 
every column, every chimney<«piece, every piece of 
marble that served for ornament or use, was torn from its 
situation, and was either sent to Paris> or became the perqui- 

A. L B A N L ^9Q» 

tite of c^rtMii ^ngents eoaployed fay the Directory to * see 
that there might be nothing wanting to, the entire ceoft* 
pletion of its ruin : even the shrubs in the garden weia 
rooted up, and sold.'* 

During this devastation, the cardinal took refuge, first, 
in a Qjimaldolese convent on the southern frondecs 
of the Roman state ; but, it being intimated that he 
could not be safe there, he went to Naples ; and, on the 
approach of the French, to Messina. In 1800 he was 
present at Venice, at the election of the reigning pope ; 
and when the Austrian and Neapolitan troops reconquered 
the Roman territory, he returned to Rome, whcare he took 
private lodgings, but never had strength of iniod to view 
either his palace or villa, nor could they be mentioned in 
bis presence without throwing him into the deepest sor^ 
row. Here he died, in 1803, in the eighty-fourth year 
of his age. He was handsome in person, sprightly and 
eloquent ; sincere, cordial, unassuming, and afl'able ; and 
both from his intellectual and moral qualifications, he was 
jufitly considered as one of the most accomplished charac- 
ters of the age. * 

ALBANI (John Jerome), of the same family with the 
preceding, born in 1504, at Bergamo, was the sod of 
count Francis Albani, and intended by his father for the 
army, but preferred the study of the civil and caAon law, 
in which, as well as in polite literature, lie attaiaed 
great eminence.. At first, however, he bore arms in the 
Venetian army, and afterwards went into the churdi^ 
Pope Pius V. was no sooner raised to that dignity, thaa 
be laade Albani a cardinal, in 1 57(9. It is even said tisat 
after the death of Gregory XIII. the conclave would haive 
elected him pope, but he was then a widower and had 
children, a curcumstance which interfered with their ia^ 
tentioms. He died April ^5, 1591. His principal works 
are : l. ^^ De Immunitate ecclesiarum," 1553. a« <^ De 
pqtestate^ Papas et confiilii,'' Lyons, 155$; Venice, 1561^ 
4tQ. 3. *^ ]>e Cardiiialibus, et de donatioiieCQastwDilim»f 
1584, foL Morqri gives an account of a lawy^ «f Ber«^ 
gaivio, who wrote on these sulsgects, and \» evideotlj tfae 
«aine person. * 

1 Atbooarom, vot. ni.-^DQppa*s Sabverslomof the Papal GoTernmcDt, p. 13(» 
«^t-. 1'799t ltitT«mMrkablettmt done of the recentlf pabliahed French biow 
f raphies- take the least notioe qf Cardinal Albanu 

s Pict., l|iatoriqu«.«^iQ(rapihict t^nWenielle. 

404 A L B A N 0. 

ALBANO, or ALBANI (Francis), a celebrated paintef^ 
born at Bologna, March 17, 1578. His father was a silk 
merchant^ and intended to bring up his son to that busi^ 
ness ; but Albano having a strong inclination to painting, 
when liis^ father died> devoted himself entirely to that art^ 
though then but twelve years of age. He first studied 
under Denys Calvart ; Guido Rhehi being at the sam6 
time under this master, with whom Albano contracted k 
very great friendship. Calvart drew but ojie profile for 
Albano, and afterwards left him entirely to the care of 
Guido ; under whom he made great improvement. He 
followed Guido to the school of the Caraiccis, but a little 
after their friendship for each other began to cool ; which 
was owing perhaps to the pride of Albano, who could not 
bear to see Guido surpass him, or to the jealousy of Guido 
at finding Albano make so swift a progress. They cer- 
tainly endeavoured to eclipses one another ; for when Guido 
had set up a beautiful altar-piece, Albano would oppose 
to it some fine picture of his : and yet they continued to 
speak of each other with the highest esteem. Albano, after 
having greatly improved himself under the Caraccis, went 
to Rome, where he continued many years, and married 
in that city ; but his wife dying in childbed, at the earnest 
request of his relations, he returned to Bologna, where he 
entered again into the state of matrimony. His second 
wife (Doralice) was well descended, but had very little for- 
tune ; which he perfectly disregarded, so strongly was be 
captivated with her beauty and good sense. Besides the 
satisfaction of possessing an accomplished wife, he reaped 
likewise the advantage of having a most beautiful model ; 
so that be had now no occasion for any other woman to 
sit to him for Venus, the Graces, Nymphs, and other dei- 
ties, whom he took a particular delight in representing. 
His wife answered this purpose admirably well ; for, besides 
her bloom of youth, and the beauty of her person, he dis- 
covered in her so much modesty, so many graces and per- 
fections, so well adapted to painting, that it was impossible 
for him to find a more finished woman. She afterwards 
brought him several boy$; all extremely beautiful and 
finely proportioned ; and she and her children were the 
originals of his most agreeable and graceful compositions. 
It was from them too that the famous sculptors Flamand, 
and Algardi modelled their little cupids. 

Albano was well versed in some branches of politic lite- 

A t B A N 0. WS 


hklufe; b-ttt, not understanding Latin, htf ^rideavotii^^ to 
i^iipply this defeet by carefully perusing the Italian tranjsi 
lations of such books as could be serviceable to him in' his 
profession. He excelled irt all parts of jpaintingj but xii^ai 
particularly admired for his small pieces ; though he him*-^ 
self was much, dissatisfied that his large pieces, m^iiy' df 
which he painted for altars, were not equally applaud<^dj 
He delighted much in drawing the fair sex, whom he hal^ -tb^ 
presented with wonderful beauty ; but has been reckoriefdi 
Hot so happy in his imitation of men.- tie. sometime^ 
represented divine stories, but his compositions on love 
subjecl}S were most eagerly sought after.- " H6 did hcft^^* 
says Malvasia, " feign Cupid heavy and sle^ng, as Guidd 
did, but .represented him seated iiiajestioaUy dn a thr6ne'^* 
now dire<^ting the sportive exercises of the little* -LdVe* 
shooting at a heart fixed on a trunk of •«. tr^€! } nfoW p#^i' 
siding over their sprightly dances, round the ntetble^imcW 
numeut of. Flora crowned -with a chaplet of bidoming'' 
flowers ; and now surveying the conquest of the little winged 
boys over the rural satyrs and fauns. If he represented a^ 
dead Adonis, he always introduced a band of loves, som^ 
of whom, viewing the wound, drew back in the utmost 
horror ; while others, exasperated, broke to pieces their 
bows and arrows, as being no longer of use to them since 
Adonis was no more; and others, again, who, running' 
behind the fierce wild boar, brandished their darts with aa 
air of vengeance." Albano was of a happy temper and 
ndi^position ;his paintings^ says the same author, breathing 
nothing but content and joy ; happy in a force of mind' 
that conquered every uneasiness, his poetxal pencil carried 
him through the most i agreeable gardens to Paphos and 
Cytherea : those delightful scenes brought him over the- 
lo£ty Parnassus to the delicious abodes of Apollo and tbe- 
Musas« • » 


, Our fiiountryman, sir Robert Strange, gives this cha- 
racter of Albano's paintings.: *'. The pictures of Albant> 
ar^ es^ceedingly agreeable. His subjects are in general of 
the poetical kind. We may be almost sure of finding, in < 
apy picture of this master, beautiful figures of women ; 
an^ children^ who seem as if they had been nourished by 
the Gifai^^A. This artist, .bred.iu the school of the Gan-acci, 
could not fail being an agreeable painter; and if he wa^s 
not always successful in expressing the stronger passions 
of the soul, he knew how to touch and flatter the senses^ 
Vol. L X 

^ A L K A N Q. 

hf off^iag Ho, his> ${>QetaftGrs tbe moat pleasiiig axict deKgbt^ 
CuJi iois^es^ i w^ere i;^igA» witU daeevqy, an agreeable, and 
it* I. nvay. b€^ aliIow€4 the expr^asion^ even a vohiptuous 
pl^$uiie. Wbal c^QliiibttleA ibQ Fosider his woaks iiies-^ 
(uu^ble^ U a pencil wboae fsoshness of ccJouiB and delicacy 
^ toucU i& adwrable : \mt h^ may bid reprehiSiuied with 
ovj^rfi^i^biug m^ny of his pktureai'^ Thia emineut aitis^ 
ejagra^ved tbcee of im pi<:tures : ^ Tbe. Thuee: Martea at tba 
Igepulcb^e; A Hqly Fapiily, winb Angah; aad anotbetf 
Holy Fawly.'*' Albani's piouurea of tbe " Four Ekenients/^ 
fonqevly u> the paJace of the king of SaGdim% at Turin, 
and now' in Paris,, avo of extraordinary beauty, and wetl 
{tfe^^s^* The design i^ evceilent^ tbe drapeiies per<^ 
£ect^ elegaiH, tb^a eolomuag lovely, and die «rhole verj^ 
qpiy^^qt. Tbe i^omposiuoa is perhaps a liu£8 too- drssipated, 
but.thai^ i$ a circujiisitaoce froqvketitly oh&erred ia his works. 
tJii^picttiir^Siwere foMmeriy in coost of the palaces of £u-^ 
vfifi^ b^dl t^ gfeateat assemblage, we believe, is now ao 
^ajsis^ Att Burghley bOo^e^ are somft fine tapestries from- 
]^f^ (iesigas ; and. there wece probably some of his pictures 
i&;.king; Chs^rlet; the First's cbUeKiUioB^ a^ tliat prince once^ 
i^>vite4 him to EjUgland. 

Albany died Oct, 4, 1660, and lefb a heather, iomt 
SapTJST ALB4NO9 who painted much in the style of hi» 
brother^ but excelled principally' in landscape. ' 

AJUBAT£GNl» an Arabic prince of Batan in Mesopo-^ 
tiunia, was a. eekbcated asu-ooomer, about tbe year 880, 
asai^eara by his observations. He ia also oaliod Afohan^- 
npiedi bea Qeber Aibatalii (Mahome^ the son of Geher) 
and Muhai»ed(iii Aracten^s. He made astronomieal' ob^- 
servation^ at'A«iii9€fa> and at Racah or Acacta, ato«n>o<P 
Qhaldem wbii::b some authoBs^call a towsn o<^ Syria ot oP 
Mesofpotamia. He is highly, spoken of by Dr. Raltey, a^ 
a man of great acuteness, and accuracy in making obaerva*- 
tiooft* Finding that the tables of Ptdleuyf wer^ imperfect^ 
hA<;0>iiputedoew ones, which were long used as the best 
among- ^boAjraiiia.: tbi^ wera adapted to tbe^ meridian or 
Ar^Qtti or Kac»lt H» composed} in Aitabic a wofik «nd^ 
ti^o tijble ofi ^^ Tbe IScsience ot tln^ Stars," comprifziog alt- 
pailtloC a0twfiQmy9 iie<x>rding to hie own- obverrations and 
those. of; if totemyi The>origiiiat' of* this> wilich has never' 

I Gen. Diet. — D'ArgcBvillo.. — Pilltii^gtw! s, Dictionary .—BJof^UaiwrB^ttBif**- 
S9nnge*a Dtscriptivc Citalc>£:ue«-*MeDi. of'LiteratHie, vol. I. p. 9^0« 

• -• /► 

A L B A t E (^N" f. iof 

been ][)iiblisl>ell, is in the libfary o^ the Vatican*, tt was 
ti'anslated into Latin by Ptato of Tibilf, and was published at 
Nuremberg in 1537j with soAtie adJitioris and demonstra^ 
fions of Regiomontanus ; dnd the same was reprinted at 
Bologna in 16-45, with this autbor's notes. Dr. Hallej de* 
tected many faults in these editions. (Philos. Trans; for- 
1693, No. !y04.) In this work Albategni gives the idotioiv 
of the sun^s apogee since Ptolemy's time ; as well as the* 
itiotion of the sta^s, which he makes one degree in seventy,. 
f^wts. He made the longitude of the first scat of Aries ta 
Be 18* ^ ; and the obliquity of the ecliptic 23* 35' ; anc^ 
upon bis observations were founded the Alphonsine tableS: 
6f the moon^s motion. » 


ALBENAS (John Poldo r>'), a lawyer and antiquary, 
i^as born at Nism^s, and not at Vivar^is, as Castel assena 
ifi his history of LangUedoc. His family was noble, but 
ihore famous for the talents of Poldo, ana his father J ameir. 
He originally studied with a view to practice at the bar^ 
but Nismes becoming, in 1552, the seat of the presidiat 
court, he was appointed to the omce of counsellor^ which 
he h^td during life \Vith much reputation, and employed 
his leisure hours in the cultivation of .i-urisprudence and 
polite literature. His first work was a French translation 
cff St. Julian, archbishop of Toledo, on death, and a fu* 
ture state. This was followed by a translation, from the^ 
Eatin of ^neas Sylvius (Pius IL) of a history of the Ta-* 
Horit'es of Bbfiemia; but his most curious work is hits^ 
** History of Nismes," fol. 1557, illustrated with many 
cutious views and monuments engraven in wood, and very, 
singular specimens of the art at that time. D'Albenas waa 
attldng the first who enibraced the reformed religion^ atui ' 
contributed not a little to the extension of it. Before his 
death, in 1563^ the grestter part of the inhabitants of 
Nismes, and its neighbourhood, professed Calvinism. ^ 

A LB ERG ATI (Fabio), a native of Bologna, flourisbed • 
ill the middle of the sixteenth century. He was the author 
of ai work eiititled <^ £1 Cardinale,'^ Bologna, 1599, 4tQ. 
and of ^* Traftato del modi di ridurre a pace V inimicitie ; 
private," .Venice, 8vo, 1614; a. i^bject whioh ha» been 

1 Hutton's Mathematical Dictionalry. — Vossius de Sclent Math.— •D'lierbelft 
BibW Ot{M.'*-^Uit UiXhrettislIe. ^ Moreti.— ITiq^: Cnivers«Il«. 

X 2 

SOS A L B E R G A T 1, 

treated by J. B. Olevano. In 1573, Zanetti published ttt 
Rome six volumes of Albergati's moral Works. » 

ALBERGOTTI (Francis), an Italian lawyer, the son 
of Alberic Rosiati of Bergamo, one of the most learned 
men of his time, was born at Arezzo, near Florence, in 
the fourteenth century. He studied under the celebrated 
Baldi, and made a rapid progress in philosophy, law, his- 
tory, &c. He afterwards became an advocate at Arezzo, 
but went to Florence in 1349. Here his learning, talents, 
and integrity, procured him one of those titles which were 
frequently bestowed at that time on men of celebrity. He 
was called doctor solida verifatis. By the republic of Flo- 
rence he was entrusted to negociate several very important 
affairs, particularly with the Bolognese in 1558; and as 
the recompense of his services, he was ennobled. He died 
at Florence in 1376, leaving three sons; two eminent in. 
the church, and one as a lawyer. His works are principally 
" Commentaries on the Digest," on " some books of the 
Givil Code," and consultations, much praised by Bar- 
tboli. — His father, mentioned above, wrote on the sixth 
book of the Decretals, a work much esteenied and often 
reprinted, and a Dictionary of Law, with other profes- 
sional treatises. * 

ALBERIC, a historian and monk of the Cistertian order,. 
in the monastery of Trois- Fontaines, in the diocese of 
Chalons-sur-Marne, was born near that place, in the be- 
ginning of the thirteenth, century. He is the author of a 
** Chronicle" containing: the remarkable events from the 
creation to 1241. Leibnitz and Menckenius have printed, 
it, the first in vol. II. of his. " Accessiones Historicae,", 
Leipsic, 1698, 4to ; and the second in vol. I. of" Scrip- 
tores renlm Germanicarum et Saxonic.'* ibid. 1728, fol. 
This chronicle, of which the imperial library at Paris pos- 
siesses a more complete manuscript than those used by the 
above editors, is valued on account of the cua'ious parti- 
culars it contains, although it is not very exact in chro- 
nological points, particularly in the very ancient periods. 
Alberic wrote also several poetical pieces, of which 
mention is made iu father du Visch*& " Bibl. ordiu. Cis- 
terc." » 

' Diet. Ilistorique. — Biog. Universelle. 2 Moreri. — Bio$. UaiTorsdle* 

3 Care, wl. li.— Fabricii Bibi. Lat. Med.— Biog. Universelle, 



ALB E R ONI. 309 

ALBERONI (Jdlius), an eminent Spanish statesman, and 
cardinal, was born May 1 5, 1 664. His birth and early em- 
ployments afforded no presage of his future ambition and 
lanie. He was the son of a gardener near Parma, and when 
a boy, officiated as belUringer, and attended upon the pa- 
rish church of his village. The rector, finding him a 
shrewd youth, taug-ht him Latin. Alberoni afterwards took 
orders, and had a small living, on which he resided. While 
here, M. Campistron, a Frenchman, secretary to the duke of 
Vendome, who commanded Louis XI V's armies in Italy, was 
robbed, and stripped of his clothes and money, by some ruf- 
fians near A Iberoni's village. Alberoni, hearing of his mis- 
fortune, took him into his bouse, furnished him with clothes, 
and gave him as much money as he could spare, for his 
travelling expences. Campistron, no less impressed with 
the strength of hi« understanding than with the warmth of' 
his benevolence, took him to the head quarters, and pre- 
sented him to his general, as a man to whom he had very 
great obligations. 

M. de Vendome first employed him in discovering where 
the people in his neighbourhood had concealed their 
grain ; an undertaking which rendered Alberoni's depar- 
ture for Spain, with Vettdome, as prudent as it turned out 
to be advantageous. By degrees he obtained the marshal's 
confidence, and ventured to propose the daughter of his 
sovereign, the duke of Parmd, to him, as a fit match for the 
king of Spain. Alberoni's proposal was attended to, and 
the princess was demanded in marriage by that monarchy 
then Philip V. The duke of Parma consented with great 
readiness to a match that was to procure for his daughter 
the sovereignty of so great a kingdom as that of Spain. 
When every thing was settled, and immediately before the 
princess was to set out for her new dominions, the ministers 
of Spain had heard that she was a young woman of a 
haughty imperious temper, and extremely intriguing and 
ambitious. They therefore prevailed upon the king to 
write to the duke, requesting another of his daughters in 
marriage, to whose quiet disposition they could not possi- 
bly have any objections. The king did as he was desired, 
and sent his letter by a special messenger. Alberoni, who 
was then at Parma, hearing of this, and afraid that all his 
projects of ambition would come to nothing, unless the 
princess whom he recommended^ and who of course woiild 
011 nk herself highly obliged to him for het exalted sit^k'* 

919 A L:B E R O N I. 

evinced by three letters of his to lord Mclcatnbe, which 
Mr. Sewiard has published. 

From the game authority, we shall conclude this ^rticla 
with two jinecdotes, which, although difl'erent in their kind, 
?ire highly characteristic of th^ humorous pride and turbu-r 
Jent spirit of this statesman. When the marshal de Maille- 
bois commanded the French troops at Parma, in 1746, 
^Iberoni waited upon hiui concerning some business, but 
was refused admittance to him by his secretary, who told 
him the marshal was engaged in some affairs of import- 
ance, and could not see him. " Mou ami," replied thei 
cardinal, very indignantly, and opening the door of the 
piarshaPs apartment at the same time, ^^ sachet que M, de 
Vendome me recevoit sur la chaise perc^e," 

When he was legate of Romagna, and at the age of seventy, 
he endeavoured to bring the little republic of San Marino, 
which was near his government, under the dominion of the 
pope. He had intrigued so successfully with some of the 
principal inhabitants, that the day was fixed on which these 
republicaiis were to swear allegiance to the sovereign under 
whosp protection they had put themselves. On the day 
^appointec^, Alberoni rode up to the mountain with hisi 
suite, and was received at the door of the principal church 
by the priests and the chief inhabitants of the place, and 
conducted to his seat under a canopy, to hear high mass 
and Te Deum sung (a ceremony usual in all Catholic 
countries upon simria,r occasions). Unluckily, however, 
for him, the niass began, as probably is usual in that re- 
public, with the word Libertas (liberty). This word 
had such an effect upon the minds of the he^r^rs, wbo/ be-? 
gan then, for the first time perhaps, to recollect that they 
were about to lose the thing itself, that they fell upon the 
cardinal and his attendants, drove them out of the church, 
sii^d made them descend the very steep mountain of San 
Marino with great rapidity ; and the popes ever after left 
the inhabitants of San Marino to their old form of goveru- 
ment. This singular event took place in the year 1740, 
fSLnd was communicated to Mr. Seward by general Paoli, 
A bon Vfiot of Benedict XIV. on the occasion was current 
in pvery mouth. ** Alberoni is like a glutton, who, after 
having .^aten a large salmon, cannot help casting a wistful 
eye at a minnow." The " Testament Politique" of cj^r- 
dinal Alberoni, collected from his memoirs and letters, was 
published at Lausanne in 1753, but is a compilation of no 

A I. B E R O N I. 31$ 

authority, and was written by Maubert de Gouvest. His 
life, to the year 1719, was published by John Rousset, 
translated from the Spanish into French, and in the same 
year was translated into English, and published in London. 

M. Beauchamp, his latest biographer, observes, that it 
has been said he was rather an intriguer than a politician; 
that he was as ambitious as Richelieu, and as supple as 
Mazarine, but had less forecast and less depth than either. 
Such is the character, ^dds M. Beauchamp, which most 
French writers have given of Alberoni, either from judging 
of events after they happened, or from prejudice against 
him, because he showed himself the enemy of France. But 
if we reflect, that within a very few years Alberoni retrieved 
a considerable part of the ancient glory of the Spanish 
monarchy ; that in midst of his complicated and extensive 
designs, his genius, which comprehended every branch of 
public administration, established regulations favourable to 
agriculture, arts, and commerce; that he neglected no 
endeavours which might inspire the Spaniards with a love 
of industry, while he prompted them to display their an- 
cient valour; and if we lastly consider, that the failure of 
his projects was owing to the indiscretion of his agents, it 
may probably appear, that he wanted nothing to place him 
in a rank vtdth Ximenes or Richelieu, but that success 
which justifies every thing, and which oftener depends on 
chance than on genius. ' 

ALBERT, or ALBERIC, canon and guardian of the 
church of Aix in Provence, his country, and where he died, 
about the year 1 120, in his sixtieth year, is the author of a 
^* History of the First Crusade," from the year 1095 to 
1J20, the second year of the reign of Baldwin IL king of 
Jerusalem. Albert was not a witness of the exploits he re- 
cords, but appears to have had recourse to the best infor* 
mation for his facts. Like most of bi^ contemporaries, 
however, he abounds in the marvellous, and often disfigures 
the names of persons and places. Rhener Reinech printed 
this work, fox* the first time, in 1584, at Helmstadt, 2 vols. 
4to, under the title of " Chronicon Hierosolimitanum," 
with notes by the editor, and by Matthew Dresser^ and 
Bpugar reprinted it in the first volume of his " Gesta Dei 
per Francos." Some late compilers of biography have di- 

} Se«ar4'8 Anecdotei, Tot. IlL-^Dictionnaire Historique.— Rapines History, 
yol. v. fol.-— Biographie Universelie.—- Moreri. 

II* A L B E R T. 

vided Albert into two persons, Albert find Alberic, Votih of 
^om wrote the above chronicle; but Albert went to the 
cmsadei and Alberic staid at home. * 

ALBERT (Eiusi«us), a Lutherao divine, born, accord- 
ing to soine, in Weteraw, or, according to others, at a small 
\iU«ge near Francfort on the Main, studied divinity at 
Wittem^rg, and became one of the most zealous adherents 
of Luther, who had a great friendship for him. He was for 
aoote thne preacher to Joachim IL elector of Brandenburgh, 
btit on a dispute respecting tlie revenues of the clei'gy, he 
kfit that shuartion, and^travelled itito various placed, main* 
taiuing tbe doctrines of the reformation. In 1 548 he was 
a preacher at Magdeburgh ; but the Interim, proposed by 
Cltarles V* and fatal to so many of tbe Protestant clergy, 
obliged kka to leave that place, and reside in a private sta- 
tion at Hamburgh. He was afterwards appointed super- 
intendant-geaeral of New Brandenborgb, in Mecklenburgh^ 
where be died May 1, 1553. He collected from the book, 
wrioen by Albizzi (See Albizzi), of the conformities of 
St. Francis with Jesus Christ, the most rentarkafale ab- 
surdities and follies, ami published them under the title of 
tbe ^^ Alcoran of the Cordeliers.*' He printed this collecr- 
tion in German, in the year 1531, without name of place or 
printer ; and again in Latin at Wittemberg, in 1 542-^4, 
. and called the Alcoran, because the Franci^ans of his time 
paid as much veneration to the conformitied as the Turks 
do to their alopran. Luther botMured the compilation of ' 
his disciple with a preface. Conrad Baudtus augmented it 
witb a second book, translated it into French, and pub- 
lished it in 1556, one vol. 12mo; afterwards at Genera, in 
1560, in 2 vols. 12mo. Tbe last edition of this satirical 
work is that of Amsterdam in 1734, in 3 voh. 12mo, with 
copper^plates. There i& also of this Albert, *^ Judicium 
do Spongift Erasmi, Roterodami ;** and several other pieces 
iu Latin and German, particularly a collection of forty-nine 
fables, called " The book of Wisdom and Virtue,'* Franc- 
fort, 1579, 8vo, in German verse. His satirical turn per- 
vades all his writings. < 

ALBERT (Louis Joseph D'), grandson of the constable 
de Luynes, was the ninth child of Louis- Charles, duke de 
Luynes, grand almoner of France. He was born in 167^, 

"^ Vossias de Hist Lat.F— Cave, vol. II. p. 306.— Moreri."*-Bio^. UDivers^^le.-* 

Saxii Onomasticon. , . ' 

* Diet. Ulster— Biog. Universelle. 

A I- B E R T* 9t5 

•J)d b^d ID Uis youth the titla of the chevalier d' Albart la 
iCS3, be served as a VQluxjteer at th£ siege of PhiJipsburgb; 
in 1690 be was twix;re wounded in the battle of Fleuras ; and 
i/ci 1693, commanded the Dauphin regiment of dragoons at 
$teinldd^9 wb-erehe was again wounded. In 1703, be ac« 
i;ompanie<i marshal Villars into Bavaria, where the elector 
promoted him to the ranl^ of lieuteoavtt«genera]. He W4s 
iJDj&n. known by the title of coDnt d' Albert, and ,was mt^ 
^.easively chamberlain, master of the horse» ministery and 
colonel of the Bavarian guar^st The elector having arrived 
at the throne in 1742^ by the royal title of Chajdes VIL 
Ap|xointed cou^t d' Albert field marshaf, and sent hio^ ta 
F]:ance a$ amb^sador extraordinary; The same yepr tbfi 
emperor created him & prince of the holy Romau empire^ 
by the title of prii^c^ of Grimbergben} taken from the ricU 
domains he acquired by marrying a prioce/i^s of Bergbeo, 
He died Nov. 10, 1758, aged eighty-seven. Amidst all 
bi^ jcam|)f»igii3 and poUtical engagements, he cultivated a 
taste fioir literature. Hi$ works are ^' Le Songe d'Alci^ 
blade/' a supposed translation from the Greek, Paris, 1735, 
l2mo, reprinted with '^ Timandre instruit par son genie/' 
9ii4 other pieoes, published at Amsterdam, JL7399 12mo» 
yndiec the title " lie^^ueil de diderentes pieces de litterai* 
ture." ' 

ALBERT (x>E Stade), an abb6 of the cloister of St, 
lyiary at Stade, io the thirteenth century, ai¥l supposed to 
be an Italian by those writers who have mistaken him fo« 
Albert of Pisa. The monks of Stade living- io great diii»» 
prder, their abb6 went to Rome, and obtained a bullagaiQ$t 
them ; but this not producing any good effect, he joined 
the order of the Fraiuuscaas. He wrote in Latin, a ^< Chro^ 
idcle,'* from the creation to the year 1256, to whii^h Andra 
fJoier added a saipplement, bringing it down to the year 
}316. It was published at Helmstadt, in 1587, 4to, by 
^.eioer Beineck, with notes, * 

ALBERT (OF Strasburgh), sometimes called Argenr 
^npnsls, \v9ed in the fourteenth century, and wrote a his- 
8ory, or chronicle, frona the time of the emperor Rodolphua 
L to that of Charles IV. or from the year 1270 to 137K. 
Cluspiuian quotes, him often, and has given a fragment of 
(bi^ work; and Ursticius ha» published the whole in bia 

» Diet. Hist,— Biog. Univcrselle. , ,, « u ^ci t * %ji^ 

* Broj.UniverteUe.*^Vw»ti» de Hi^BU Lat^^Cave, vol. IIv-^Fab, BiW. W. Wtci. 

316 ALBERT. 

Collection of German historians. There is usually joined 
to it, the fragment of a chronicle, from the jear 631 to 
1 267. His other works are enumerated in Du Pin*s Bibfio- 
cheque for the fourteenth century.* 

- ALBKRTANO (of Brescia) lived in the thirteenth 
century, in the reign of the emperor Frederic II. While 
he wiis judg^ 2ind governor of Gavardo, he was taken pri- 
soiier, and in confinenjent wrote a treatise, entitled " De 
dilectiotie Dei et proximi, de formula vitae honestte.*' He 
ifterwards wrote two others, ^ De consolatione et consilio," 
and " De doctrina ^oquendi ettacendi." Bastian de Rossi, ' 
<iallled in the academy of De la Crusca I'lnferiguo, pub- 
lished an Italian edition^ compared with several manuscripts, 
under the title of *' Trattati di Albertano, &c.'* Florence, 
1610, 4to, a veiy rare book. There was a second edition, 
finely printed, at Mantua, 1732, 4to.* 
' ALBERTET, a mathematician and poet, of the thir- 
teenth century, was a gentleman of Provence, and born in 
the environs of Gap, from which cir<;umstance he was sur- 
named Gapengois. He resided a long time at Sisteron, 
where he died. Others writers say, that he was of Taras- 
con, of the family of Malettjine; bnt perhaps he only lived 
in the latter of these towns. He was equally devoted to 
polite literature and to the fair sex, and composed several 
poems in honour of his platonic mistress, the marchioness 
of Malespine, who was the most accomplished lady of Pro- 
vence in that age. He wrote also some treatises on mathe- 
matical subjects. It is said that he died of grief, and that 
fie delivered'-his poems to a friend, in order to be presented 
to his favourite marchioness; but this friend sold them to 
Faber d^'Uzes, a lyric poet, who published them as his own. 
When the fraud was discovered, d*(Jzes was seized, and 
underwent the punishment of whipping for his plagiarism, 
agreeably to the law established by the emperors against 
that crime, but which, unfortunately for authors, has been 
r^j>caled in all countries.* 

ALBERl'I-ARISTOTILE, otherwise called Ridolfo Fi- 
oraventi, a 'celebrated mechanic, born at Bologna, lived 
mtbe 1.5th century. Astonishing performanoes are as- 
cribed to this artist. In 1455 he transported, at Bologna, 
the campanile of St. Mary del Tempis, with all its bells, 

' Vossius de Hist. Lat. — Moreri. j 

9 Biographie Universelle. — Haym*s fiiblioteca Italiana, Vol. IIL 
3 Gen. Diet.— 'Biog. UuiTerselle. 



to the distance of 35 paces. In the town of Cento he 
righted that of tl^e church of St. Blaise, which was got 
five feet and a half out of its perpendicular. Being ia* 
vited tQ Hungary, he rebuilt several bridges on the Dan^ibe^ 
and cpnstructied many. other work&^ with which the reign- 
ing sovereign was so highly satisfied, that he created him 
a chevalier, and allow^ed him to coin money with the im- 
press of his own bust.. He was likewise employed by Ivan 
Vassillievitch, grand duke of Russia, in the construction 
of several churches. * 

ALBERTI (Gherubino, Borghegiano), a painter of 
some distinction, but whose reputation is chiefly established 
by his engravings, was born in lo52 atBorgo S. Sepolcbro,. 
from which he derived one of his names. From hi> father^ 
Michele Alberti, he learned the first rudiments of historic 
cal painting, in which art he made very considerable pro* 
gress. His greatest works are in fresco at Rome ; and jhe? 
also painted in oil, and combined some thought with much 
practice. From whose instructions he became an engraver 
is uncertain^ but his best style of execution* seems evidently- 
to have been founded on the prints of C. Cort and Agos- 
tino Caracci, though in his friezejf and other slighter plates 
he owed much to the works of Francesco Villemena. The- 
engravings of Alberti are never very highly finished,, or. 
powerful in effect. The lights are scattered and.lett nn*,; 
tinted, as well upon the distances, as upon the priacipal 
figures of the fore-ground, which destroys the hannQuy, a«d* 
prevents the proper gradation of the objects. The drawing : 
of the naked parts of the 6gure, in the. works of thisarttisty: 
is rarely incorrect; the extremities are well marked^ ando 
the characters of the heads generally very expressive- but-r 
his draperies are apt to be rather stitFand hard.. His p^iiit^- 
may be considered as very extraordinary efforts of a g^oaio 
genius, whilst the art was as yet at some considerably di$c*.> 
tdnce from perfegtion. The number of plates, great. find'' 
small, engraved ty tlxis artist, amounts to nearly one/^*>f|y,. 
dVed and eighty, of which seventy-five are from hia^.i^swi . 
compositions, the rest from Michael Angelo Buoiiajrott^* 
Raphael, Polidoro, An^drea del Sarto, &c. The " Mirage . 
of St. Philip Benizzo" is one of the most excellen,^. . :>^4-^-. 
b^rti died in 1615. V ■ ') 

' ALBERTI (Giovanni), brother of the above^ waS;bQ,rn:J 
near Florence m 1558, and received his early instruction 

1 Bloff. Uoiverieile.-^Dict Hist. > Strutt a^d PiULin^u*8 0ietionarM4. ' 

Sltf A L fl I: R T t. 

from his fathet, biit aft^rwawb went ta Rdttftf, where hrf 
studied geometry f and also the works of Buonatoti, and 
other great itiastets. He devoted his principal attention 
to perspective, in which bra'nch he arrived at eminence/ 
and gave a demonstrative proof of his great abilities in one 
of dae pope's palaces, having painted a design in that style 
which procured him much fame. The chief nobilitj^ at 
Bome were solicitous to employ him, and he worked in 
mai^y of th« chapels and convents with general approba- 
tion, for he recommended himself to all persons of taste* 
by the elegance of his composition, the firmness and deli- 
cacy of his pencil, the grandeur of his thoughts, the ju- 
dicious distribution of the parts^ and by the spirit visible 
throughout the whole. ■ 

ALBERTI (George William), a preacher at Tundern 
in Hanover, was born' in 1725, and having finished his 
edueation, spent some years in England, where, after he 
had acquired the language, he wrote " Thoughts on Hume's 
Essays on Natural Religion," and on this occasion dis- 
guised hinwelf under the name of Alethophilus Gottin- 
gensis. On his return to Germany, he published " Letters 
on the state of Religion and the Sciences in Great Britain,'* 
Hanover, 1752-— 54*, and "An Essay on the religion, wor- 
sfaip^ manners and customs of the Quakers,'* 1750. He 

ALBERTI (JoHK), a German lawyer <>f the 16th cen- 
tury, born at Widmanstadt, deeply learned in the Oriental 
languages, gave an abridgment of the Koran, with critical ; 
notes^ 1-543, 4to ; a work which proctired him the title of 
chancellor of Austria, and chevalier of St. James. He 
jAlblished in 4to, inl566, a New Testament in Syrlac, 
ffom the manuscript used by the Jacobites, at the expence 
of the emper6r Ferdinand I. It cdtitiains neither the Se- 
conal epistle of Peter, nor the second and third of John, ^ 
nbrthac olJ«de, nor the Apocahjrpse. Only 1000 copies 
w6f» printed, of which five himdred remained in Gerniany,» 
and ^e rest were- sent to the Levant. It is impoissibte for 
aay Aing' to be more elegant, or better proportioned, saya 
pew Simon, than the characters of tbifi? editibii. Some 
cejffes hs^ve the date' of 1562. tfe also' compbsed a Syrlac 
erammar, to which is prefixed a very currous pr^jE^^^e. !Sc 


■» ♦ . ■ "• . . 

• / . ■ •■ . 

1 Pilkington'8 Diet « Biog. UnireneHe, 

i. L B £ H T 1 Si» 

' ALBERT! (John), pfofessor'of Divinity in the liiriver*- 
Aty of L^yden, was born* l€d8, at As^e i» Holland. 
Afteir the examp^ of Eisner, Raphdius, and ifhe cele>- 
hrated Lambert Bos, wko had been bis tutors at the uni- 
revsity of Franeker, and of soaie other divines who have 
been calied sacred pfailologiaavs, he collected from prophane 
autho4rg aH the parallel passages in fevour of the Greek 
j>hras€$s in the New Testament, with a view to defend tl»e 
«tyle of the evangelists and apostles ag^amst those critics 
who maiiitain that it is barbarous and lull of Hebraismsi 
The result of his labours be published in 1725, under the 
tkle of " Gbserva^tiones PbiloJogieae in sacros Novi Peederrs 
libros,'* 8vo, Leyden ; and encouraged by the reputatiort 
he derived from this work, be next ptiblfshed " Perictr- 
kiHi criticum in quo loca qusedam cum Yi are N. T. tnnt 
Hesycbii et aliorum,illu6tirantury vindicantur, emehdatitur,'' 
Leyden, 1727, 8vo. In this be displayed an uncommon 
acquaintance with the Greek lexicograpbeps and gram-i 
B^arians, and some ye%rs after conceived adesignof % nevt 
edition of Hesyehius. While making collections for tfci* 
undertaking, Fabrieius sent him an unpublished g!ossai*j^ 
of the words of the New Testament, which he tbougfaie 
worthy of publication by itself, with a comment and some 
aritical pieces. It appeared aiccordingly in ITS-S, under 
Ac tide ^ Glossarium Graecum in saeros N. T. libros. Ac- 
oedqnt miscelianea critica in glossas nomicas, Sutdamji 
Hesychium, et index auctorum ex Photii lexico inedito,'" 
Leyden^ 8vo, Ten years after, in 1746, the first volume* 
of his edition of Hesychiu»made its appearance^ and fofly 
gratiftedthe expectations of the learned world. He bail 
surrivod at the letter K in the second volume, when he waor 
attacked by the cholic of'Poitou, and although nestoiedhy' 
sdme measure by the waters of Aix-la-Chapelle, he waf 
cjbliged to desist from* km labours for about throe yesrsL* 
He* than resumed them, hnt the manuscript? was- (eft un^ 
ftnisbed at . kiis death, which waa occasietied* by the erysi^ 
pe)a0, Aug. 13, 1762. The i£esychius' was aftterwardar 
CDmptet^d b>]^ Rbunheni^s^ Leyden,. 1766. This is tfeeK 
bests edition, and ie. thought by some cmics to be one oT 
the b«ttt edited books the teamed world can boast. ^ 

▲LBERTL (4ban{>«»>) ^ dbininzcan and provinciafof Imi 
o^rder, was born at Bologna in 1479, and died in ld^0«' 

Dictionarjr*— 'S^ii Oaomasticon» 

820 Albert!. 

He wrote in Italian, 1. " Historic di Bologna, decipWma, 
e libro prio^o deca secunda sino all' aano 1253," Baiogna^ 
.1541, 4 to. The se^^ond and third books were not published 
.until long after his death, by F, Lucio Caccianemici, who 
added two supplements, 1590 and 1591, 4to. 2. "Cronica 
delle principaii FaroiglieBolognesi,. &c." Vincenaa, 1592, 
4to. 3. ** Descrizione di tutta I'ltalia,** printed at Bologna 
ia his life- time, fol. 1550, and reprinted, Venice, 1551 
and 1553, 1561, 1581, and 1588. This work, so often 
published, is replete with curious facts, but the author has 
shewn less judgment in adopting the fables of Annius of 
Viterbo. 4. In Latin, " De Viris illustribus ordinis prsBdi- 
catorum, libri sex in unum oongesti," Bologna, 1517, foL 
5. " Diatriba de incrementis Domini Venetae," and " De 
Claris viris reipublicsB Venetae," which are printed in Con- 
tarini's Venetian Republic, ed. 2, Leiden, 1628. * 

ALBERTI (Leon Baptista), an eminent Italian artist, 
and one of the earliest scholars that appeared in the. revival 
of letters, was of a noble and very ancient fatnily^at Flo- 
rence, but was born at Venice in tlie end of the fourteenth, 
or beginning of the fifteenth century. Various, authors 
Lave given 1398, 1400, and 1404, as the date of his birth. 
In his youth he was remarkable for his agility, strength, 
and skill in bodily exercises, and an unquenchable thirst of 
l^nowledge possessed him from his earliest years. In the 
learned languages he made a speedy and uncommon ,pre« 
ficiency. At the age of twenty, he first distinguished him- 
self by his Latin comedy entitled. -' Philodoxius," copies of 
which he distributed among his friends, as . the work of 
Lepidus, an ancient poet. The literati were completely 
deceived, and bestowed the highesjt applausies .on a piece 
which- they conceived to be a precious remnant of anti-^ 
quity. It was written by him during the confiueinent of 
sickness, occasijoned by tpo close an. application .to study,- 
i^nd appeared first about the year 1425, when the rage for 
i^ncient manuscripts was at its height, and Lepidus for a* 
while took his rank with. Plautus and Terence. . Even iti 
the following centui^y,. the younger Aldus Manutius having 
xaet manuscript, and alike ignorant of its former 
appearance, and the purpose it; was intended to serve, 
printed it at Luoca, 158^^ aa a precious remn; of anti- 
quity, : , 

X Moreri.«~Btpg. UaiverseUe.<^Vo9sras 4^ Hist* L«U<«-C|ia«£9picu— Haym, 
Bibl. Italian, yol. I. 

A. L B £ H T L 331 

Albert! toolt orders afterwards in order to have leisuie 
to prosecute his studies. In 1447 he was a canon of the 
metropolitan church of Florence, and abb£ of St. Savino, 
or of St. Ermete of Pisa. Although he became known to 
the world as a scholar, a painter, a sculptor, and an arch!'* 
tect, it is to his works of architecture that he owes his prin- 
cipal fame. He may be regarded as one of the restorers 
of that art, of which he understood both the theory and 
practice, and which he improved by his labours as well as 
bis writings. Succeeding to Brunelleschi, he introduced 
more graceful forms in the art; but Some consider him not« 
withstanding as inferior to that celebrated architect. AU 
berti studied very carefully the remains of ancient archi«» 
tecture, which he measured himself at Rome and otber 
parts of Italy, and has left many excellent specimens of his 
talents. At Florence, he completed the Pitti palace, and 
built that of Ruccellai, and the chapel of the same family 
in the church of St. Pancras ; the facade of the church of 
Santa Maria Novella, and the choir of the church of Nun* 
ziata. Being invited to Rome by Nicholas V. he' was em-* 
ployed on the aqueduct of TAqua Vergine, and to raise 
the fountain of Trevi ; but this having since been recon-» 
structed by Clement XII. from the designs of Nicholas 
Salvi, no traces of Alberti's work remain. At Mantua, he 
constructed several buildings, by order of Louis of Gon** 
zaga, of which the most distinguished are the churches of 
St. Sebastian, and that of St. Andrew : the latter, from the 
grandeur and beauty of its proportions, is esteemed a model 
for ecclesiastical structures. But his principal work is ge- 
nerally acknowledged to be the church of St. Francis at 

As a writer, Alberti was not less esteemed. He was well 
acquainted with philosophy, mathematics, antiquities, and 
poetry, and enjoyed the intimacy of Lorenzo de Medici. 
On one occasion this Maecenas of his age, with a view to 
pass the sultry season more agreeably, assembled some of 
the most eminent literary q^en in the grove of Camaldoli, 
amongst whom were Marsilio Ficino, Donato Acciajuoli, 
Alamanno Rinuccini, Christoforo Landino, and our Al- 
berti. The subjects of their conversations, in which 
Alberti took a distinguished part, were published by Lan* 
dino^ in his " Disputationes Camaldulenses,'' and a shqrt 
sketch has been given by Mr. Roscoe in his life of Lorenzo. 

Among the mond works of Alberti, written in Latin, are; 
Vol. L Y 

322 A L B E R T I. 

1. his dialogue) entitled, " Momus, de Principe," of which 
there were two editions at Rome in 1520. '2. "Trivia, 
sive de causis senatoriii^, &c." Basil, 1538, 4to. Cosimo 
Bartoli, who translated into Italian most of the works of 
Alberti, has made the fifth aiid sixth books of the Momus 
from his treatise " De Jure," or On the administration of 
justice. He composed an hundred " Fables," or Apolo* 
gues, and a poem, entitled " Hecatomphile," on the art of 
love, which was translated by Bartoli into Italian, 1568, 
and into French in 1534 and 1584. There are extant 
many other writings by Alberti on philosophy, mathematics^ 
perspective, and antiquities. He also wrote some Italian 
poems, in which he wished to introduce the Latin rythm, 
but in this he has not been successful. His writings, how- 
ever, on the arts, are in highest estimation. He wrote a 
treatise on sculpture, and another on painting " De Pic- 
tura, prestantissima et nunquam satis laudata arte, &c/' 
Basil, 1 540 ; printed likewise at Leyden by the Elzevirs, in 
1649. The work from which he derives most reputation is 
his treatise on architecture, " De re sedificatoria," in ten 
books, which was not published until after his deaths in 1485, 
by his brother Bernard. It was translated into Italian by 
Peter Lauro, Venice, 1549, and in 1550 by Bartoli, with 
wood-cuts. A beautiful edition was also published in 
London, 1726, 3 vols. fol. by James Leoni, in Italian and 
English, with fine copper-plates. The last edition, that of 
Bologna, 1782, fol. contains the treatise before mentioned. 
Alberti died probably in 1485, or as Tiraboschi thinks, in 
1472 ; and was buried in his family- vault in the church of 
St. Croix. He was indefatigable in study and business ; in 
his temper amiable and conciliating, and extremely liberal 
to the merits of other artists. Politian, in the dedication 
of his work on architecture to Lorenzo de Medici, bestows 
the highest encomiums on, him, and attributes to him the 
discovery of a great variety of curious mechanical inven- 
tions ; and Vasari gives him the invention of the camera 
obscura ; but it is more certain that we owe to him the 
optical machine for exhibiting drawings so as to imitate 
nature. * 

, ALBERTI (Michael), avery eminent German physician 
and one of the ablest scholars, and supporters of the opinions 

1 Life prefixed to Leoni's Architecture. — Life by Vasari.— Biog. Universelle» 
-«-R«8coe's Lorenzo de MedicK—^lresswell's Memoirs of Pelitianus, &c»«<* 
Haym 9ibL Itai 

ALBERT!. 823 

if Stahl, was bom at Nuremberg, Nov. 13) 16^2. He be- 
came professor of medicine at Hall, and, an author of great 
celebrity.' The object of the principal part of his works is 
to oppose the system of the mechanicians, and to establi^sh 
that of Stahl ; and although he may not be completely sue* 
cessful in this, it is generally agreed that his works contri- 
buted to throw great light on the sound practice of physic. 
Haller has given a copious list of his works, as well as of 
the disputations he maintained. Those which have con- 
tributed most to his fame, are, 1. " Introductio in univer- 
sam m^dicinam," 3 vols. 4to, Hall, 1718, 1719, 1721. In 
this he maintains the power of nature m the cure of dis- 
eases, and the danger of interfering with her operations. 
2. " Systema Jurisprudentiae Medicae,^' 1725 — 47, 6 vols, 
4to, a work which embraces every possible case in which 
the opinion of the physician may be necessary in the deci- 
sions of law. 3. " Specimen medicsB Theologicae," Hall, 
1726, 8vo. 4v " Tentamen lexici medici realis,'*' 2 vols* 
4to, 1727 — 1731, ibid. 5. " De Sectarum in medicina 
noxia instauratione,'' 1730, 4to. , 6. ^^ Commentatio ad 
constitutionem criminalem Caroli V." 1739, 4to. In most 
' of these works the subjects are treated in a philosophical 
as well as practical manner. — Albert! died at Hallj 1757, 
aged seventy-four. » 

ALBERTI (Solomon), the pupil of Jerome Fabricius at 
Padua, was bom at Nuremberg, in 1540, and became pro-* 
fessor of medicine at Wittemberg. He may be joined with 
Vesalius, Eustachius, and others who founded the new 
school of anatomy, and himself made several important dis- 
coveries in the structure of the ear, the eye, &c. His ^' His- 
toria plerarumque humani corporis partium membratim 
scripta," Wittemberg, 1583, 8vo, and his "Tres Ora- 
tiones," Norimberg, 1585, Bvo, are still in considerable 
estimation, on account of the many excellent observations 
they contain on questions of physiology and the materia 
medica. He died at Dresden in 1 600. * 

ALBERTI (Valentine), prpfessor of divinity at Leip- 
sic, was born in 1635, at Lehna in Silesia, and died at 
Leipsic' in 1697. He wrote a great many controversial 
treatises against Puffendorf, Thomasius, the Cartesians, 
Cocceians, and the adversaries of the Augsburgh commu- 

1 Haller Bibl. Med. Pract^-Manget Bibl.— Biog. UaiTerselle. 
• Haller Bibl. Med. Pract.— -Maoget— Biographie UiUTerselle.— Diet His- 

Y 2 

Hi A L B £ R T L 

oioPy especially Bossuet and count Leopold de Collooitsdby 
bishop of Wienerisch-Neustadt. Albert! attacked also thd 
orthodoxy of the pious Spener, the Fenelon of the Lu- 
theran church, but who has been censured for his leaning 
too much to the pietiMs and mystics. Among his writings^ 
which have been most favourably received and frequently 
ireprinted, we may notice his " Compendium Juris naturae,** 
against Puffendorff, and his '^ Interess'e prsBcipuarum reU- 
gionum Christian.*' He also wrote two curious dissertar 
tions, ^^ De fide hasreticis servanda/* Ltipsic, 1662, 4to. - 
Adelung, who has given a list of his works, says tJiat hi« 
German poems are not bad, if we consider the imperfec* 
lions of that language, and the false taste which prevailed 
in his time. ' 

ALBERTI Di VILLANOVA (Francis d*), author of 
the best French and Italian, and Italian and French Dic- 
tionary we have, was born at Nice, 1737. The success of 
the first three editions of this work encouraged him to pub- 
lish a fourth, enlarged and corrected, Marseilles, 1796, 2 
vols. 4to. His ^* Dizionario universale critico enciclope- 
dico della lineua Italiana,*' printed at Lucca, 1797, is 
much esteemea, and tb foreigners may supply the place of 
the dictionary de la Crusca. Alberti was employed on a 
new edition, when he died at Lucca in 1 800. The abb6 
Francis Federighi, his* assistant in the work, was requested 
to complete it, and it was accordingly published in 1803, 
Lucca, 6 vols. 4to.' 

ALBERTINI (Francis), an ecclesiastic of Florence, 
and an able antiquary, flourished in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. He published, 1. << De mirabilibus no- 
vae etveterisurbisRomsB,*' a work divided into three books, 
and dedicated to pope Julius II. Rome, 1 505, 4to ; re- 
printed 1510, 1515, 1519, and 1520; and although more 
able works have been published on the same subject since, 
this of Albertini still enjoys its reputation. 2. " Tractatus 
brevis de laudibus Florentise et Saonae,'* written in 1 509j 
and added to the third edition of the preceding. 3. In 
Italian, << Memoriale di molte Statue, e Picture sono melP 
indita Cipta di Florentia per mano di Sculptori, et Pictorl 
excellenti moderni, ed antiqui." Florence, 1510, 4to.' 

J Bioi^niphie Uoirewelle. t Ibid,-.Dict Historiwc. 

> fiiographic Unimselle.— faxii OuoHiuticoa. 

A L B E R T I N I. i28 

* ALBERTINI (Paul), a celebrated divine and politic 
ciao of Venice^ was born there in 1430, and at the age of 
ten, entered into the religious order of the Servites, where 
he made profession for six years. He afterwards taught 
philosophy, and became a popular preacher, and his zeal 
and talents pointed him out as the proper person to sue-* 
eeed to the vacant bishopric of Torcello, which, however, 
was given to another. The republic of Venice employed 
him in many affaii s of state, and even sent him as ambassa 
dor to Turkey, '^^fle died in the pyime of life in 1475, 
when hisn'eputation was such, that a medal was struck in 
honour of his memory, ile left, according to Sansovino, 
several works in Latin, on the knowledge of God, the his* 
tory of the Servites, and other theological subjects, and an 
explanation of some passages in Dante. Possevin, iii his 
^' Sacred Apparatus," improperly attributes the two first* 
mentioned works to Paul Nicoletti. ' 

ALBERTUS MAGNUS, called also Albertus Teuto- 
Mcus, Frater Albertus de Colonia, Albertus Ratis- 
lONENSis, and Albertus Grotus, of the hmily of the 
counts of Bollsta^dt, was born, according to some, in 1 1 9S, 
and according to others, in 1205, at Lavingen in Suabia. 
It'bas been supposed that the epithet of Great, which was 
certainly conferred upon him by his contemporaries, in whose 
eyes he appeared a prodigy of learning and genius^ was 
the family name Groot, but none of the counts of Bollstsedt 
ever bore such a name. He received his early education 
at Pavia, where be surpassed all his schoolfellows, and that 
every circumstance belonging to him might have an air of 
miracle, it is said that he owed his rapid progress to. a vi« 
sion in which the holy Virgin appeared to him, and pro^ 
mised that he should be one of the greatest luminaries of 
the church. By the advice of one of his masters, the cele* 
brated dominican Jordanus, he resolved to enter into that 
order in 1221. After having for some time taught the 
scholars of the society, he went to Paris, and gave lecturey 
on Aristotle with great applause. As the Aristotelian ^i- 
losophy had been just before forbidden by a papal buU^ 
some of the biographers of Albertus have questioned faic 
lecturing on the subject at Paris; but the fact is reccMrded 
by all the ancient writers on his history, and it is even pro- 
bable that he was the means of having the bull rescitid4d|^ 

^ liographid UniTertelle.— Diet. Hi«toriqme. 

326 A L B E R T U S. 


as he was permitted publicly t6 comment on Aristotle^s 
physics. In 1254, his reputation was such among the Do* 
minicans, that he was raised to the dignity of provincial in 
Germany. In this character he took up his residence at 
Cologn, a city at that time preferable to most others for a 
man so addicted to study, and for which he entertained so 
strong a predilection, that neither the . invitation of pope 
Alexander IV. to come to Rome, nor his promotion to the 
bishopric of Ratisbon, in 1260, were inducements suffi- 
cient to draw him from Cologn for any considerable time. 
It was at Cologn probably, that he is said to have con- 
structed an automaton, capable of moving and speaking, 
which his disciple, the celebrated Thomas Aquinas, broke 
in pieces, from a notion that it was an agent of the devil. 
This city is likewise said to have been the site of another 
of his miracles, that of raising flowers in winter to please 
William, count of Holland. Such tricks, or such reports 
of his ingenuity, procured him the reputation of a magi- 
cian, in an age in which he probably had attained only a 
superior knowledge of mechanics. What he really did, or 
how far he was indebted to the arts of deception, in these 
and other performances, it is difficult to determine ; but 
we know that the most common tricks, which now would 
only make a company of illiterate villagers stare, were then 
sufficient to astonish a whole nation. 

In 1274, after he had preached the crusades in Germany 
and Bohemia, by order of the pope, he assisted at a gene-^ 
ral council held at Lyons, and returned thence to his fa- 
vourite residence at Cologn, where he died in 1280, leav-. 
ing a greater number of works than any philosopher before 
»is time had ever written. Peter Jammi, a dominican, coU 
lected as many as he could procure, and published them 
in 1651, Lyons, 21 vols. fol. We have nowhere a com- 
plete catalogue of his works. The largest is in the first 
volume of the ^* Scriptores urdinis Praedicatorum,*' by 
Quetif and Echard, and extends to twelve folio pages. 
Many pieces which have been erroneously attributed to 
bim, have no doubt swelled this catalogue, but when these 
are deducted, enough remains to prove the vast fertility of 
his pen. In the greater part of bis works he is merely a 
c6mmentator on Aristotle, and a compiler from the Arabian 
writers, yet he every where introduces original discussions 
and observations, some of which may yet be thought judi- 
i:ious« He treats on philosophy in all its branches, and a}^ 

A L B E R T U S. 327 

t)ioughhe does not erect a system of hfs owif, a very com- 
plete body of the Aristotelian doctrines may be found in hi? 
writings, which of late have been studied and analysed by 
Brucker, in his ** History of Philosophy ;" by Buhie in his 
*' Lehrbuch der Gesch. der Philosophie," vol. V. ; and 
especially by Tiedman, who gives a very luminous and com- 
plete analysis of Albert's system, in his " History of Spe- 
culative Philosophy," vol. V. Albert was a very bad Greek 
scholar, and read Aristotle, &c. only in the Latin transla- 
tions, but he was better acquainted with the Arabian writers 
and rabbis. In divinity, Peter Lombard was his guide and 
model. His wish was to reconcile the Nominalists with the 
Realists, but he had not the good fortune to please either. 
His treatises on speculative science are written in the ab- 
stract and subtle manner of the age, but thosq on natural 
subjects contain some gems, which would perhaps, even in 
the present age, repay the trouble of searching for them. 
It is remarked by Brucker, that the second age of the 
scholastic phildl^ophy, in which Aristotelian metaphysics, 
obscured by passing through the Arabian channel, were 
applied with wonderful subtlety to the elucidation of Ghris-. 
tian doctrine, began with Albert and ended with Durand. * 
ALBI (Henry), a native of Boleiie in the comtat Ve- 
naissin, was born in 1590, and entered the Order of the 
Jesuits at the age of sixteen. After having taught the 
languages for seven yea^s, he studied divinity, which he 
afterwards taught, with philosophy, for twelve years, and 
was successively rector of the colleges of Avignon, Aries, 
Grenoble, and Lyons. I^e died at Aries, -October 6, 1659. 
He wrote, 1. " EJoges historiques des Cardinaux Francais 
et etrangers, miis en parallele," Paris, 1644, 4to, a super- 
ficial work, of which father Le Long mentions an edition in 
1653, with the additional lives of the cardinals de Berulle^ 
Richelieu, and Rochefoucault. 2. <* L'Anti-Theophile pa- 
loissial," Lyons, 1649, 12mo. Bonaventure Bassee, a ca** 
puchin, had published at Antwerp, in 1635, his " Theophi- 
lus Paro<?hiaHs," and Benoit Puys, the curate of St. Nizier 
at Lyons, gave a translation of it in 1649, in which he pro- 
fessed to have undertaken this labour as an answer to those 
who declaimed against performing and attending mass in' 
parishes ; and when Albi's Anti-Theophile appeared, an- 

' Gen. Diet. Bayle. — ^Biographic Universelle,— Moreri.—- Brucker^-^Tbe mMi 
valuable references are in Saxii Onooiasticoo, 

929 ALB L 

swered him in a work entitled *^ Reponse C%retienne/* 
On this Albi wrote, 3. '^ Apologia pour PAnti-Tbeopbile 
paroissi^y' Lyons, 1649, under the feigned name of Paul 
de Cabiao. Tbe following year tbese two adversaries be- 
came reconciled. 4. A translation from tbe Latin of father 
Alexander of Rhodes, of tbe ^^ History of Tunquin, and the 
progress of tbe Gospel there from 1627 to 1646,'^ Lyons^ 
1651, 4to, a very ci^ious work, but heavy in peint of style, 
Hn The Lives of various pious persons, and. some religious 
pieces, of which Niceron has given a catalogue in voU 

ALBICUS, archbishop of Prague, slightly mentioned in 
pur former edition, deserves ^me farther notice on account 
of his character having been much nusrepreseqted by Po^ 
pish writers, from design, and by one or two late Protesi;* 
ant writers, from ignorance of his real hi^ory. He was 
born at Mahrisch-NeiVitadt in Moravia, apd probably thero 
first educated. When a young man, he entered the uni- 
versiity of Prague, and studied medicine, in which faculty 
b^ took his degree in 1387. To the study of medicine he 
joined that of the civil and canon laav, and in order to pro* 
secute tj)es.e sciences with more success, went to Italy, 
where ^ti that time the ablest lawyers were ; and at Padua, 
^ 1404,. received his doctor's degree. On his return, ha 
taught medicine in the university of Prague for nearly thirty 
yei^r$, and. attained such reputation, that Wenceslaus 1V« 
king of Bohemia, appointed him his first physician. la 
1409,. on the death of the archbishop of Prague, Wences* 
laus iiegompaended him to be bis successor, and tbe canons 
fleeted him, although npt very willingly. For some time 
thej had no rep^son to coQipIain of his neglecting to sup- 
press the doctrines of Wi<ckliffe and Huss, which were then 
«)readii|g in.Sohemia; but afterwards, when Huss came to 
frague, and bad formed a strong party in favour of the re-* 
formation, bq relaxed in his efforts, either from timidity oc 
principle, and determined to resign his archbishopric^ 
which he accordingly did in 1413, when Conrade was 
chosen in his room, a man more zealous against the re^ 
(ormers, and more likely to gratify bis clergy by the perse<* 
QUtion c^f the Hussites. Albicus lived afterwards in privacy, 
and died in Hungary, 1427, and so little was hi^ character 
ui\d(srstood, that the Hussites demolished a toiub which bQ 

' Morerl— Biegrapfaie UoiTenelle, 


▲ L B I C U S« 329 

had caused to be built in bis life-time, while the Popish 
iirriters were equally hostile to him for the encouragement 
he had given to that party. They reproached him in parti- 
cular for his extreme parsimony and meanness white arch-> • 
bishop.' Balbinus, however, the historian of Prague, 
asserts, that in his household establishment he was magni- 
ficent and bountiful. His last biographer allows, that in 
his old age he was more desirous of accumulating than be* 
came his character. During the time he held the archbi- 
shopric, he had the care of the schooU and students, and 
bestowed every attention on the progress of literature. 
The only works he left are ou medical subjects ; ^^ Pracuca. 
medendi,'^ '* Regimen PestileutiiE," ** Begimen Sanita- 
tis^'* all which were published at Leipsic in 1484, 4to. ^ 

ALBINO VANUS (C. Pedo), a Latin poet, who lived 
under Augustus and Tiberius, about thirty-five years be- 
fore the Christian sera. He wrote elegies, epigrams, and a 
poem an Germanicus^s voyage to the north. There are, 
uowever, only extant, an elegy addressed to Livia on the 
death of her son Drusus ; another on the death of MBecenas^ 
but so inferior in elegance to the former, that some critics 
have thought it did not come from the same pen ; and a 
third, entitled ^^ The last words of Maecenas/' which was 
usually found joined to the elegy on his death, until Scaliger 
discovered they were distinct pieces. Le Clerc, under the 
asstUmed name of Theodore Goralle, published an edition 
' of these fragments of Albiaovanus, with the notes of Scali- 
ger, Heinsius^ &c. Amsterdam, 1703, 8vo, and has adopted 
6calig,er's opinion respecting the Last mentioned poem, that 
it consisted of the actual' last words of Msecenas versified* 
There is another edition of these fragments, with critical notes 
and a philological index, by J. C. Bremer, Helmstadt, 8vo. 
The only fragment that remd^ins of the voyage of Germanic 
cus has been preserved by Seneca. It represents the dan- 
gers which threatened the prince and his soldiers on a sea 
fio little known to the Romans. Seneca prefers it to ail 
other poems .on the same subject, nor is Martial less warm 
in his praises of Albinovanus. Ovid, who was very inti- 
mate with him, congratulates himself, that in all his dis^ 
grace (by banishment, . Ei Ponto. lib. iv. ep. x.) he pre-* 
served the friendship of Albinovanus. We must not, how«.» 

^ Balbinui^'s Hist, of Prague.— ^Effigies Virorum eruditoram, atque arttfican 
Bohemix et Mdravie> a Jgnat cle Bom, vol. II. 1115, p. 87.— fDict Historique.^-^ 

330 A L B I N O V A N U S. 

ever, confound himi as Dacier has done, with another 
Albinovanus, mentioned by Horace in the Art gf Poetry, 
as a plagiarist. ^ 

ALBINUS (Bernard), an eminent physician, whose 
proper name was Weiss, was born at Dessau, in the pro- 
vince of Anhalt, in 165S, and was the son of a burgomaster 
of that town. He studied first at Bremen, and afterwards 
at Ley den. In 1676, after taking his doctor's degree in 
medicine, he travelled in Flanders, France, and Lorraine, 
and returned, in 1681, to the possession of a professor'$ 
chair at Francfort on the Oder. In his mode of teaching 
he discovered those talents and that penetration, of which 
he exhibited some proofs while a student, and soon rose to 
wealth and distinction. He was appointed physician to the 
successive electors of Brandenburgh, who bestowed many 
honours upon him, and among other marks of their fiivour, 
gave him a prebend of Magdeburgh, exempting him, at 
the same time, from the duties of tl^ place ; but this he re- 
signed, as the possession of so rich a preferment, under 
such circumstances, might give offence to his brethren-. 
For a long time the obligations which these princes con- 
ferred prevented Albinus from accepting the many offers 
made to him by the universities of Europe ; but at length, 
in 1702, he went to Leyden, where he was professor until 
his death in J 721. Carrere, in his " Bibl. de Medicine," 
gives a list of twenty-two medical works by Albinus, among 
which are, 1. " De corpusculis in sanguine contentis.'* 
2. " De Tarantula mira." 3. " De Sacro Freyenwalden-. 
siunvfonte," &c. The illustrious Boerhaave pronounced 
his eloge, which was afterwards printed, • and contains an 
account of his life, to which this article is indebted.* 

ALBINUS (Bernard Siegfried), son of the preceding, 
and one of the most celebrated anatomists of modern times, 
was born at Francfort in 1697. He received his first in- 
structions from his father, and from the celebrated profes- 
sors at Leyden, Rau, Bidloo, and Boerhaave; and in 17 IS 
visited France, where he formed an acquaintance with Win- 
slow and Senac, and afterwards corresponded with them on 
I;us favourite science, anatomy. But he had scarce spent a 
year there when he was invited by the curators of the uni- 
versity of Leyden, to be lecturer in anatomy and surgery, 

' Biog. Universelle. — Fabricius Bibl. Xat. — Moreri. — Saxii Onomasticon. 
- * Biog. UQiverseUe.-^^Moreri. 

A L B I N U S. 331 

in place of Rau. With this request, so flattering to a 
young man, he resolved to comply^ although contrary to 
his then \iews and inclination, and on his arrival was cre<^ 
ated doctor in medicine without any examination. Soon 
after, upon the death of his father, he was appointed to 
succeed hitn as professor of anatoiny, and on bis admis* 
5ion, Nov. 9, 1721, he read a paper, " De vera via ad fa- 
bricsB humani corporis cognitionem ducente,'' which was 
heard with universal approbation. 

In 1725, his first publication appeared under the modest 
title of *^ Index supeltectiiis anatomicse Ravianse," Leydeu^ 
4to, in which he pays a handsome tribute to the memory 
of his learned master and predecessor, Rau, whose labours 
only he pretends to give in this woifk, although it contains 
many observations the result of his own experience. In 
1726 he published a history of the bones, ^^ De Ossibus 
corporis humani," Leyden, 8vo ; but this he rieprinted in 
1762, in a more complete edition, and with plates of great 
beauty and accuracy. In 1734 appeared his ^' Historia 
musculorum hominis," ibid. 4to, die plates of which were 
prepared with uncommon care, as he employed his artists 
to multiply copies until they had attained a close resem- 
blance to the muscle in all its connexions and insertions. 
Haiier, whose testimony will not be suspected after the 
many angry disputes between him and Albinus, pronounces 
k the best executed work in anatomy; if it has any 
fault, it is that all the muscles are drawn upon the same 
scale, which creates some confusion in estimating the pro- 
portions of the smaller ones. He afterwards published 
treatises on the vascular system of the intestines, on the 
bones of the foetus,, seven plates of the natural position of 
the foetus in the womb, 4 vols, ^to of ^^ Annotationes Aca- 
demicae,'' all illustrated with plates of great beauty. While 
thus labouring on original works, he became not less dis- 
tinguished as an editor, and published very correct editions 
of the works of Harvey, the anatomy of Vesalius, and Fa- 
bricius of Aquapendente, and lastly, the fine anatomical 
plates of Eustachius. This very eminent anatomist died 
Sept 9, 1770, at Leyden, where he had filled the profes- 
sor's chair nearly fifty years. 

His brother, Christian Bernard, was professor of ana- 
tomy at Utrecht, and died therein 1752. He published, 
1. ^^ Specimen anatomicum exhibens novam teunium homi-' 
pis intestiaorum desgriptionem," Leyden, 1722, 4to ; 1724, 

332 A L ^B I N U S. 

8vo. 2. " De anatome errores detegente in medicina/* 
Utrecht, 1723, 4toJ 

ALBINUS (P£Ter), a historian and poet, whose name 
also was originally Weiss, or White^ was born at Schnee^ 
berg, in Misnia. After studying at Leipsic and Fnuicfort, 
he was appointed professor of poetry at Wittemberg, and 
soon after historiographer, and private secretary to the 
house of Saxony, a situation which he held under the 
electors Augustus and Christian I. He died at Dresden 
in 1598. The faults in the style and arrangement of his 
historical works are rather those of bis age, while bis learn<- 
ing and accuracy have justly entitled him to the praise he 
has received from his countrymen. Among his numerous 
works are : 1. A chronicle of Misnia, ^^ Meisnische Land- 
und Berg-Chronica,^' Wittemberg and Dresden, 1S80, 
1599, fol. 2. " Scriptores varii de Riissorum religione,** 
Spire, 1582. 3. ^^Genealogical tables of the heuse of 
Saxony," in German, Leipsic, 1602. 4. " Historiue Thu- 
ringorum novae specimen," which is printed in the *^ An- 
tiquit. regni Thuringici," by Sagittarius. His ^* Latin 
Poems" were printed at Francfort, 1612, 8vq,* 

ALBIS (ThoMas de). See WHITE. 

ALBIZZI (Barthelemy), also called Bartholomew^ 
of Pisa, was born in the fourteenth century at Rivano ia 
Tuscany, and was of the order of the Franciscans, or 
Friars minorites ; and derived much fame in the eyes of 
Ws brethren by a work in Latin, on the " Conformity of 
St. Francis with Jesus Christ," which he presented to the 
chapter of his order in 1399. (See Albert, £rasmvs.> 
The impiety of this work may be partly guessed from the 
title ; but as Tiraboschi has thought proper to blame tb^ 
Protestants who either answered it seriously, or turned it 
into ridicule, and according to him raised a clamour against 
the friars, who could not be supposed responsible for the 
act of an individual, it may be necessary to . remind the 
readers of that learned historian, that the friars did in fact 
take upon them a very high degree of responsibility. They 
not only bestowed the highest praise on Albizzi ; but after 
receiving his book in a full chapter, the representatives of 
the whole order, they presented him with a complete dres» 
whidh St Francis wore in his life-time. This foolish book, 
which not only raises St. Francis above all other saints, but 
ioipiously compares him with the Saviour, was first printed 

* Haller Bibl. Anatom. — ^Biog. Univcrsellc. 

* Moreri. — Bio^. UniTerselle. — ^Dict HisU — Sazii OnomasticMi. 

A L B I Z Z I. SS3 

at Venice, fol. without date, or printer's name. The se- 
cond edition, which Dr. Clarke calls the first, was printed 
at Milan, 1510, a folio of 256 leaves in the black letter, 
and sells on the continent at from sSlS, to .^20. Tk^ 
third was also printed at Milan, 1513, in the same fona 
^nd type, with a new preface by Mapelli, a Franciscan. 
All these are uncommonly scarce, and hardly ever to be 
found complete. Jeremy Bucchi, another Franciscan, 
published a new edition at Bologna in 1590, in which he 
omitted many passages^ and added the lives of the illus- 
trious men of the order of St. Francis ; but as this did not 
sell, the first two leaves were cancelled, and it was again 
published in 1620, as a new work. It contains the appro^i^ 
bation of the chapter-general, dated Aug. 2, 1399. This 
work, with more alterations and omissions, was again pub-^ 
lished at Cologn in 1632, under the title ^^ Antiquitates 
Franciscans, sive Speculum vitae B. Francisci et sociorum,** 
&c. The last we shall notice is that of father Valentine 
Maree, or Mareus, a recollet, or reformed Franciscan, 
entitled *^ Traite de conformites du disciple avec le maitre, 
c'est a dire, de S. Francois avec J. C. en tout le mysteres 
de sa naissance, vie, passion, mort, &c." Liege, 1658, 4to* 
Although in this many extravagances are retrenched, there 
is yet enough to demonstrate its folly. Some other works, 
sermons, &c. have been attributed to Albizzi, which are 
little known. ^ 

ALBO (Joseph), a learned Spanish rabbi, a native of 
JSoria, in Old Castille, assisted in 1412 at a famous dis- 
pute on religion between the Christians and Jews, - held in 
the presence of the anti-pope Benedict XIII. He wrote 
in 1425, under the title of " Sepher Hikkarim," the 
foundation of the faith, against the Christian religion, with 
a view to bring back those whom the above dispute had 
induced to doubt the Jewish persuasion. Of this work 
there have been several editions, the first published by 
Soncino in 1486 ; and according to Wolfius, it has been 
translated into Latin. In the more modern editions, the 
95th chap* of the 3d book, which is particularly directed 
against the Christians, has been omitted. * 

ALBON (James d'), marquis de Fronsac, seigneur de 
St. Andre, n^arechal of France, and one of the greatest 
captains of the sixteenth century, better known by the 

> Marchand Diet. Hist.— B log. Univcrselle.— Clarke's Bibl. Diet.— -Chaufcpif, 
— Mortri. « Biographitf UaireneUe.— Diet, Hist, in art. Joseph. 

S34 A L B O N. 


luune of marechal de St. Audre^ descended from an flliu- 
trious and ancient family in Lyonnois. He gained the 
esteem of the dauphin^ who, when he camef to the crown 
by the name of Henry IL loaded him with riches and 
honours, made him marechal of France, 1547, and after-* 
wards first gentleman of his bed-chamber* He had already 
displayed his courage at the siege of Boulogne, .and the 
battle of Cerisolles. He was then, it is said, chosen to carry 
the collar of his order to Henry VIII. king o/ England, 
who decorated him with that of the garter ; but we do not 
find his name among the knights of that order, and it is 
more likely that he was the bearer of the insignia of the 
garter to Henry II. of France, from our Edward VI. In 
1552, he had the command of the army of Champagne, 
arid contributed much to the taking of Marienberg in 1554* 
He destroyed Chateau-Cambresis, and acquired great re- 
putation at the retreat of Quesnoy ; was* at the battle of 
Kenti ; was taken prisoner at that of St. Quintin 1557; 
and bore an active part in the peace of Cambresis. He 
afterwardis joined the friends of the duke of Guise, and was 
killed by Babigny de Mezieres, with a pistol, at the bat* 
tie of Dreux, 1562. He was handsome, noble, brave^ 
active, insinuating, and much engaged in the important 
transactions of his time. Brantome asserts, that he had a 
presentiment of his death, before the battle of Dreux, 
He had only one daughter by his marriage with Margaret 
de Lustrac, who died very young in the monastery of Long* 
Champ, at the time when her marriage was agreed upon 
with Henry of Guise. * 

ALBON (Claude Camille Francois count d'), a 
descendant of the preceding, was born at Lyons in 1753^ 
and died z,% Paris, 1789. He passed the greater part of 
his life in travelling and writhig, and was a member of 
various academies. His works are: 1. ^^ Dialogue entre 
Alexandre et Titus," 8vo ; in which he pleads the cause 
of humanity against those who are called heroes and con« 
querors. 2. ^< Observations d'un citoyen sur le nduveau 
plan d'impositions,'' 1774, Svo. 3. " CEuvres diverses, 
lues le jour de sa reception a Tacademie de Lyon," 1774, 
Svo. 4. " Eloge de Quesnoy," 1775, Svo; since inserted 
in the "Necrologe des Hommes celebres." His attach- 
ment to the ceconomists induced him to pay this respect to 
one of the chief of those writers. 5. <^ Eloge de Chamous- 

\ Diet Hist— L' ATOoat's J>ict Hiit— Morw. 

A L B N. S35 

set/' 1776, Svxh 6. ** La Paresse," a poem; pretended 
to be translated from the Greek of Nicander, 1777, 8vo, 
7. " CEuvres diverses," 1778, 12mo; consisting of fables, 
verses, a memoir addressed to the oeconomical society o£ 
Berne, and a letter to a suflFragan, bishop. 8. " Discours,'* 
&c. on the question whether th$ Augustan age ought to 
be preferred to that of Louis XIV. as to learning and 
science, 1784, 8vo. This he determines in favour of the 
age of Louis ; but a severe criticism having appeared in 
the Journal de Paris, he published an answer, dated Neuf- 
chatel, but printed at Paris. 9. ^' Discours politiques, 
historiques, et critiques, sur quejques Gouvernments de 
FEurope," 1779, &c. 3 vols. 8vo. The governments are 
Holland, England, Germany, Italy, Spain; and his re- 
marks are chiefly valuable where ne treats of commerce, 
agriculture, and the other subjects which the French oeco- 
nomists studied. In matters of government, legislation, 
manners, &c. he is jejune, superficial, and confused ; 
sometimes through prejudice, and sometimes through wilful 
Ignorance. This is particularly striking in his accounts of 
the constitutions of England and Holland. His account 
of Spain is perhaps the best. 10. ^' Discours prononc6 a 
la seance d^ la society d'agriculture de Lyon," 1785, 8vo, 
11. "Eloge de Count de Gebelin," 1785, 8vo. This 
learned Protestant being denied Christian burial, accord- 
ing to the laws then established in France, Count d'Albon 
caused him to be buried in his garden, at Franconville, in 
the valley of Montmorency, and erected a handsome mo- 
nument to his memory. These gardens, which were laid 
out in the English fashion, are described in a set of nine- 
teen plates published in 1780 ; and they are also described 
by Dulaure in his " Curiosit6s des environs de Paris." His 
numerous writings, his attachment to Quesnoy, and his 
liberality to count de Gebelin, procured him a considera- 
ble share of celebrity during his life, although his charac- 
ter was tinged with some personal oddities, and peculiari- 
ties of opinion, which frequently excited the pleasantry of 
his contemporaries. It is given as an instance of his vanity, 
that when he had erected some buildings for the accom- 
modation of the frequenters of a fair, he inscribed on the 
front: " Gentium commodo, Camillus III." ' 

ALBORNOS (GiLLES Alvares Caril)lo), an eminent 
Spanish statesman and cardinal, of the fourteenth century, 

* Biog. Unirenelle,^— Diet Hist.— Month ► Revww. See Index. 

SSe A L BO ft NO S. 


descended from the royal families of Leon and Arragon, 
was born at Cuen^a, an<i educated at Toulouse* Alphon- 
sus XI. appointed him, in succession, almoner of his court,^ 
and archdeacon of Calatrava; and lastly, although he was 
then very young, promoted him to the archbishopric of 
Toledo. He accompanied the king of Castille in his ex- 
pedition against the Moors of Andalusia, in which his rank 
of archbishop did not prevent him from carrying arms ; and 
he first displayed his bravery in saving the king's life in 
the hottest onset of the battle of Tarifa* Alphonsus, in 
return, knighted him, and in 1343 gave him the command 
at the siege of Algesiras ; but pn the death of this prince, 
he lost his influence with his successor, Peter the Cruel, 
whom he reproved for his irregularities, and who would 
have sacrificed him to the resentment of his mistiness Maria 
de Padilla, if he had not made his escape to ^Avignon. 
Here the pope Clement VI. admitted him 'of his council, 
and made him a cardinal ; on which he resigned his arch- 
bishopric, saying, that he should be as much to blame in 
keeping a wife with whom he could not live, as Peter king 
of Castille, in forsaking his wife for a mistress. Innocent 
VI. the successor of Clement, sent him to Italy in 1358, 
both as pope's legate and as general, to reconquer the 
ecclesiastical states which had revolted from the popes- 
during the residence of the latter at Avignon. This com- 
mission Albornos executed in the most satisfactory manner^ 
either by force or intrigue ; but in the midst of his career, 
he was recalled in 1357, and another commander sent on 
the expedition. He, however, having been unfortunate, 
the pope saw his error, and again appointed Albornos, 
who completed the work by securing the temporal power 
of the popes over those parts of Italy which have been, 
down to the present times, known by the name of the 
Ecclesiastical States, Having thus achieved his conquest, 
Albornos, as a minister of state, rendered himself for 
many years very popular. To Bologna he gave a new 
constitution, and founded in that city the magnificent 
Spanish college ; and for the other parts of the ecclesiasti- 
cal dominions, he enacted laws which remained in force 
for four centuries after. At length he announced to pope 
Urban V. that he might now enter and reign at Kome 
without fear, and was receiving him in pomp at Viterbo, 
when the pope, forgetting for a moment the services Al- 
bornos had rendered to the holy see, demanded an ac« 

A L B O E N .0 S. tS7 

e(;>uht of his expenditure during his legatiob. Albo^nds 
immediately desired him to look into the iconrt-'yaxtd.of 
the palace> where was a carriage full of keys, telHng lum 
that with the money intrusted to him, he had made the 
pope master of all the cities and castles of which he now 
saw the keys. The pope ofi this embraced and thanked 
him. He then accompanied Urbian to Rome; but returned 
afterwards to Viterbo, where he died August 24, 1.367^ 
rejgpretted by the people, and by the pope; who, findhig 
himself embarrassed with new cares, more than ever. 
wanted his advice. Albornos^s body was removed to To« 
ledo, at his own request, and interred with great pompi 
He wrote a book on the constitutions of the Roman churchy 
which' was printed at Jesi, in 1475, and is very rare. Hia 
will also was printed^ with this injunction, characteristic 
of the man and the age he lived in, that the monks should 
say 60,000 masses for his souL His political life was writ- 
ten by Sepulveda, under the title *^ Historia de hello ad- 
ministrato in Italia' per annos 15, et confecto abiEg. Al<* 
bomotio,'' Bologna, 162S, fol.* 

ALBRICUS, or ALBRICIUS, a philosopher and phy-r 
sician, born in London in the eleventh century ; but of 
whom our accounts are very imperfect and doubtful. He 
is said to have studied both at Oxford and Cambridge, and, 
to have afterwards travelled for improvement. He bad the 
reputation of a great philosopher, an able physician, and 
well versed ii> all the branches of polite literature. Of his 
. works. Bale, in his third century, has enumerated only the 
following : " De origine Deorum ;'* " De Ratione Ve- 
neni j'* *^ Virtutes Antiquorum;" " Cauones Speculativi.'* 
He adds, that in his book concerning ^he virtues of the 
ancients, he gives us the character of several philosophers 
and governors of provinces. But the full title of this work^ 
which is extant in the library of Worcester cathedral, is : 
" Summa de virtutibus Antiquorum Principum^ et Philo* 
ftophorum." The same library contains a work by Albrip 
cius, entitled <^ Mythologia.'' None of these have been 
printed. In the ^^ Mythographi Latini,'' Amsterdam, 1681, 
2 vols. 12mo, is a small treatise ^^ De Deorum imagini* > 
bus,'* written by a person of the same name ^ but it is » 
doubtful whether this wsis not Albricus, bishop of Utrecht 
in the eighth century^ The abb£ de Boeuf attributes it to* 

1 Mor£ri.<«^iof. Univ«aeU«. 

Vofc,I, " Z 

Stt A L B R I C U.& 

the biib^p ; iMt 0. Rkel in his litenxy history thitiks It 
was of oUei^ date thitt eithet. ^ 

AltBUCASIS, a celebnrted Arabian swt|[[eoQ; oilied 
abd Ai.BUCASA> ALiBUCKasius, BcrcHASiSy Bu&caaR-OA^ 
lAF, Alsaharatios, and Azaeatius, but whose proper 
hame was ABpui^-CASBif^KHAi^F-BBN-A^BAS, was a na-* 
tive of Alsaknih, a city of Spain^ He is supposed to bs^re 
lived about tlie year 1085 ; but Dr. Fteiad thkiks he if 
aot so aucieat^ as i|i treating of woundsi he describes tbCI 
arrows of the Turks, a nation which scarcely made any 
figure until the middle at least of the twelfth ceutury. 
From what he says of surgery being in a manner extinct in 
bis Ume, the same historian supposes that he liired long 
after Aiicenna $ as in the time of the latter, surgery was 
m good repute. Albucasis, however, revived it, and is 
the only one among the ancients who has described tb« 
iostrumeuts in each operation, and explained the use of 
them ; and the figures of these instruments are in bot}i. the 
Arabic manuscripts now in the Bodleian library (Marsh, 
N' 54, and Huntington, N* 156.) The use of the cautery 
was very common with him, and he appears to have ven- 
tured upon incisions of the most hazardous kind. In Dr. 
Freind's history is a very elaborate analjasis of his works 
and pnU2tice> His works, collected under the title of 
^ AUTacrif,'' or the method of practice, have been trans* 
lilted and often printed in Latin, Venice, 1500, and 1530, 
folio; Augsburgh, 1519; Strasburgh, 1532 ; and BasU^ 

ALBUMAZAR, or ABOU-MACHAR, a tioted Ara- 
bian astrologer and pbildsopber, was born at Balkh itt the 
Khorasun, about the year 805 or 806. For a long time he 
was addicted to the Mahometan traditaons, and, a deter- 
ns^ined enemy to philosophy ; but in his forty-seventh year 
be began to study ihe sciences, and acquired ^le reputa- 
tion of an astroDomer atid astrologer ; and, although he is 
now principally known by his writings ofi astrology, he 
caufiot be refused a place amottg the most distkigmisbed 
•easterns^ wbb have inade astronomical observations. The 
lable tailed Zydj Abou-Maehar was calbubted from bis 
^serviitiond j hut the work from which he derives his |:»ria«f 
cipal reputation, is his treatise on astrology, entitled 
*^ Thousands of years j^* in whieb) ampng other singldar 

1 .LeUnd.~.Bale.— Tauier.— Btogr* trBifflneU^— Cat; libr, ^$3. Ass^. 
« Freiti4>s Hist of Pbyiic— >IiAUer Bibk-TMorw^ 

A L B U M A Z A HJ *W 

positions/ he maintain^ thdt tha vi^orld was icrcated When 
the seven planets tvere in conjunction in the first degree of 
Aries, and virill end when they shaU assemble in the last 
degree of Pisces; He died in 883. • His astrolo^cal work 
Vfzs published at Venice, 1506, 8 vb ; with the title <* De 
magnis conjunctionibus, annd^um revolutionibus, ac ^oruia 
perfectiottibus '," but hi^ ** Introduatio ad Astronotniam'* 
wlis printed before this in 4to, Aiigsburgh, 1489 ; and re- 
printed at Venice, 1490, 150B, and 1515, 4to. * 

ALBUQUERQUE (Alphonso d'), sumamed the Great, 
and one of the most illustrious characters of the Portuguese 
nation, was born at Lisbon in 1452J of a family who traced 
their origin to the kings of Portugalj and in an age remark- 
able for the heroism, the discoveries, and the conquests of 
J^ortugal. The Pbrtuguese navigators had already sub- 
dued the greater part of the west coa^ of Africa, and were 
bent on extending their conquests to India. lyAlbuquef- 
que was accordingly appointed viceroy of the new settle-* 
ments in Asia, and the commander of a squadron destined 
for that quarter, bf six ships, which set sail 1 50) ; and tha 
«ame year three more were sent under his brother, Franciii 
Albuquerque. The latter arrived in India some time be- 
fore the other, with two ships only, the third having 
(ierished by the way. Arriving at the islands of Anche- 
dive, he* found some Portuguese officers, from whom ht 
learned the distressed situation of their ally Trimumpkr, 
king of Cochin, and sailed to Vipian, where the king th^n 
was. The arrival of the Portuguese so alarmed the ga-r- 
rison who then had possession of Cochin, that they pre- 
cipitately left it. Here one of the ships that had sailed 
from Portugal with Alphonso, joined him. Francis re- 
stored Trimumpar to his capital, and subdued soine islands 
near it. Having rendered die king such essential service, 
he desired leave to build a fort as a mutual defence against 
their enemies : this was granted, and the fort immediately 
be^un. Four days after it began, Alphonso joined him, 
anct with the additional number of hands he brought with 
him it was soon completed. 

A consultation was then held Among the Portuguese of- 
ficer!^ when it was resolved to attack some towns belong^- 
ing to the prittcie of Repeisin, about twenty miles distant 
from Cochin. The Portuguese set out' in boats, and sur- 

prii^dd the townsj but were soon after attacked by a iargei 

• • . k< . , '■•.'■ 

^ Biog. ynivtrtolie.— Pict. Hislorigue. 


Bimjj and obliged to retreat They returned to Cochin^ 
and the same night made an attack on some other villages, 
when Alphonso being advanced with a fresh party, was 
attacked by some of: (be enemy who lay in ambush, and iu. 
this dangereus situation signalized himself by his cou« 
lage, having fought w;ith great intrepidity till break of 
day, when bis brother Francis came to his assistance. 
The Portuguese then put the enemy to flight, pur*' 
sued, and ^lew a great number of them. The fame of 
the Portuguese being spread everywhere, Alphonso Albu-^' 
querque sailed to Coulon to load three ships, which 
he completed without opposition, made an alliance with 
the people, and returned to Cochin. On his return, 
he found the Zamorin ready to enter into a treaty of peace 
with him, which was concluded. The two brothers soon 
after sailed to Cananor, and thence proceeded for Portugal. 
Alphonso arrived safe at Lisbon ; but it is most probable 
Francis perished at sea, as he was never more heard of. 

In 1508, Alphonso was appointed to succeed to the go- 
vernment of India, and dispatched with five ships; he 
sailed in company with Cugna, another Portuguese officer. 
Having plundered and taken some towns on the coast of 
Arabia, they sailed to Zocatora, and made themselves mas- 
ters of the fort there. After which Cugna returned to 
Portugal, and Albuquerque, who now acted alone, imme- 
diately formed the design of attacking Ormuz island, si- 
tuated at the mouth of the Persian Gulph, and subject to 
a king of its own, who had extended his dominions over 
several cities in Arabia. With a small ariny of 470 men, 
he proceeded along the Arabian coast, took many towns, 
and proceeded to the island itself. He found several ships 
fitted for war in the harbour ; these it was determined to 
burn. However, he first offered peace to the king, who 
entered into a treaty, with a view to gain time until a re- 
inforcement arrived* The expected force cajne, and an 
engagement ensued, in which the Portuguese were victo- 
rious. Albuquerque then pressed the city, and the king, 
finding no resoiurce, soticited peace, on condition of be- 
coming tributary to the king of Portugal, which viras agreed 
to. Albuquerque went on shore, had an interview with the 
king ; and, knowing the perfidy of the Arabians, began to 
build a fortress. While this, was carrying on, some de- 
puties arrived from the king of Persia to demand tribute> 
of the king of Ormuz. The latter consulted Albuquerque ' 



wbo with great spirit told the deputies that his master paid 
no tribute, but arms. Albuquerque was^ however, forced 
to desist by the perfidy of his officers, and to repair oa 
'board his fleet. He then renewed the war j but receiving 
a letter from the governor (Almeed) blaming his conduct, 
he proceeded for India; when, after some hesitation^ 
Almeed resigned the government to him, and sailed to 
Europe. . . r 

Being now Invested with the supreme command, h^ 
prepared a fleet, and sailed against Calicut ; where, in ^ 
desperate and imprudent attack^ he was dangerously 
wounded and forced to retreat. 

Albuquetque, being recovered, went to sea with.twentyi 
three ships, two thousand Portuguese, and several Indian 
auxiliaries, designed for Ormuz; but, by the persuasion 
of Timoia, a piratical prince, changed his intention, and 
proceeded to attack Goa. The forts near it dn.tlie cbnti^ 
nent were taken and destroyed : and learning tliat the city 
was in the greatest consternation, he sent deputies to offer 
the people his protection, and the enjoyment of their religion! 
The cit;izens accepted the conditions, and Albuquerque 
entered Goa the following day, being the 16tli of Feb,l'5lO, 
This city has long been the head of the Portuguese do- 
minions in India. Here Albuquerque fixed his winter 
quarters, and behaved himself in such a manner as to 
merit universal esteem. But, while he was tlius em- 
ployed, some of the chief Portuguese began to murmui; 
against him. However, by seizing and imprisoning the 
leaders, he quieted the disturbance. The enemy, being 
informed of the dissentions among the Portuguesje, made 
an attack upop the. island ; and landing men, laid siege to 
the city, pre?^,^ it hard. ' The situation of Albuquerque 
biecame now trmy distressing ; an enemy vastly superior 
Without, discontent ^mong his officers within, aiid his troops 
greatly diminished. These circumstances determined him 
to embairk on board his ships, and evacuate the city ; which 
he" effected '^ft^t a fierce conibat, having first set fire to 
the magazine^. 

He then "steered to a place called Rapander to winter; 
but the eriAriy i^pon obliged him to remove, and take shel- 
ter between tfie continent and the island of Divar, where 
be was inform^ his enemies were also preparing to make 
an attack upon him. In this extremity, being very 
scarce of provisions, he determined to majce a desperate 


.effort on a strong castle, called Pd^giu. Acoordiaj^yy 
'having statioiied a force to prevent succours being sent to 
'it, he J)roceeded' under cover of the night, and succeeded 
in surprising both the fort and camp of the enemy, 
^both which were taken without much resistance. Such. 
"^n unexpected turn of good fortune determined him not 
only to object to offers of peace, but also to niake a)a at- 
tack on Goa. ^In this he succeeded, 'having in the attack 
killed 3000 of the enemy, and began to aijn at greater en- 
terprizes. riaving .collected his forces, he sailed from 
^oa'for the island of Sumatra, ajnd in every, voyage mad0 
fiiahy captures ; there liaving concluded a treaty with the 
princes of this island^ he proceeded to t^e city of Malacca, 
and madishimseli' master Having settled affairs thera, 
he returned, to Goa,' laid sieg^ to the city of Benastar, aa4 
having been urisuccessfi;!, consented to a peace with th^ 
Zamoriii. He then buQt a fort at Calicut, and sailed t9 
Aden, in hopes of making himself master of it, but wa$ 
disappointed, and obliged, tQ return./ Soon after he fell 
^ick and died, Dec. 16, 1515, having first had the morti* 
fication to hear of his being r<ecalled by the king.. 

To this great man the Portuguese owe the foundation of 
the immense power they once possessed in India; and, 
had they pursued th^ ma:?:ims he laid down, .might pc^r 
sibly have eio qyeci to thi^, day. He was a man of gr^at 
humanity^ dreaded for bis bravery, and beloved ifor his 
beneypleht. di^spoisitipn. His djeaftb was most sincerely felt 
by all thjD people of Goa^ where lie was l|urie4 with great 
funeral bdnqurs, « 

ALBUQUJ^RCIUE (JBlaise). son of tbe preceding, was 
borii in 16.00, and on his father s. death, ^mmanuel^g of 
Portugal , made him take tfee name of A|j*|ionso, thatlmi 
might be the more frequently remind^d^f his illustripUA 
vicero^y, and in time, promoted him tQ the highest office^ 
in the kingdom. He published, in the Portuguese lan-^ 
guage, memoirs of his father, Lisbon, 1576, foL und^tbq 
title ^* Commentaries , de grando Alfonso de Alb.oquerqu% 
cap! tan general da India.'* * 

ALBUTflUS (CAitfs S|LUS), a celebrated Roipan orator 
in the time of Augustus, was a native of Noyanff}, and s^dn 
vanced to the office of sedile* but he left it on , account o| 
an insult offered to him by spme persqns. wbp. b9>d Ipst tlieir^ 

,} Morerl— Biogtaphie UniverseHe,— O^iio's Histof y elf \lti6 "PortngiiH^* 

A L B U T I U S. »f 9 

■pit He ibeQ went to Romr, wh«re be a(»ociate4 bi8W|0|f 
Mfith MuDKiiis^ Piancosy tbe orator, but rivalsbip soon psMr^4 
UKm^ee^he f<Hniied a 9ep9rateai|ditQiy,aDd at leiigtb ven^ 
tiupp^ U> plead cviaes. In ibis o^ce, 1)^ met yntj^ a 44^ 
0R^. wbieb obl^d him to renov^e it. In tb^ ifarm^^ 
of pleading he one daj made use of an ejqpression .wbi<4^ Ufl 
lae^t wly aft A floniish : ^^ ^wear,'* said he to hi» adye^• 
saiy, ** by t^ie asbea and by tbe memory ^ your fatbec% 
ai)d y6|^ sbaU gain yoiur cause." After he had apapUQed 
this tbovgbt, liie advocate on th^ oj^posite side Qooliy re* 
pKedy ^* We afiirept the Qonditioo >'^ pmd tb^ judges sidmit-r 
Uag, tbe oatby Albetius lost his cause, and Ipos tc^mper, nt 
iofu^ if npt his^ credit. We bear no more of him* until f^ 
rftun^ to Novarre, cid and afflicted with an abscess^ called the people together, and eicpl^ped to 4>eal 
in a* Ipng speech the reasons that hindered him from ^^ 
ttriog to iive, and so starred himself to deaths Seneeft t^e 
4Mh»r give^ hm tbe singular cb«(^ter of w^ who coold 
neither bear Her olfer an injury. A passage in Q.uip4aU<H| 
seems to intimate that be composed a ^^ Tre^t^se pn Rh^<« 
torick."* ' 

ALCAPINUSs the son of Garsi^, a celebrated pbyppt^iaa 
of tbe twelfth century, became one of the professors, of 
Salerno^ where be studied* His repf^tatiofn soon exteiid- 
ed tbroqghoot the whole k:ipgdpm of Naples, .^4 even u$ 
Sicily^ te which he was invited by tbe emperor ^^lary VL 
theii j^^ed with a dangerous coi^plaint. Alcadinus eiired 
him, and wa^ appointed bis physician in ordinaryy an office 
whi?h be <;ontinTied to bc4d under his son. Frederic II. For 
thJ^ princr^ when yoqog, he composed a series of Latin epi- 
gD^% i^ ekM^ yerse, entitled **^ De Balneis Puteolanis,** 
wli^h were first printed in a ocdlection under the tiiie of 
*f De SeJoeis oiaEioibus qi^» extant apud Grecos e^ Arabes,*' 
Yeeicf^ 15 j»3, fol. with a small work *^ De Balneif Puteo« 
loriAm> Pitbecusarum>^' which was printed in 8vo, 
Na|4ei|, 1591, and often reprinted in similar collections^ 
Alcadin^s left alfto two odier treatises. 1. *^ De triumpbis 
Henrici unperatoris." 2. *^ Pe his qu<s a F^ede^rico 11. 
imperatore, prsclare et fortiter gesta sunt.'' The time of 
his death is not ascertained. * 

, ALQMXJSp an ancient lyric goet, was bom at MytUene^ 
the cs^ital of Le$bos, according to Eusebius, in the 44tb 

^ 6eit. I>Sct.«^Moreri.— Suetonius in fira^. dt s|arit oimtoribiis. 



olympiad, or in the year 604 B. C. ; and was confleqoently 
the countryBoan and ^contemporary of Sappho, with whom 
he is said to have been violently enamoured. A verse in 
which be insinuated his passion, with her answer, is pre** 
served in Aristotle, Rhet. lib. 1. cap. 0. He was bom with 
a restless and turbulent disposition, and seemed at first in- 
clined to adopt the profession of arms, which be preferred 
to eveiy other pursuit. His house was filled with swords, 
helmets, shields, and cuirasses ; but on his first essay in the 
field he shamefully fled, and the Athenians, after their vic- 
tory, branded him with disgrace, by suspending his arms ia 
the temple of Minerva at Sigaeum. He made great pre*' 
tensions to the love of liberty, but was suspected of har- 
bouring a secret wish for its destruction. With his brothers, 
he first joined Pittacus, to. expel Melanchrus, tyrant of 
Mytilene, and then took part with the malcontents to sub^ 
vert the government of Pittacus^ on whom he lavished the 
grbss€|St epithets of personal abuse. At length he attacked 
PHtacus in a pitched battle,, and his party being defeated,' 
he became the prisoner of Pittacus, who generously gave 
him bis life and liberty. After the failure of his political 
enterprises he travelled into Egypt, but when he died is 

He is generally allowed to have been one of the greatest 
lyric poets of atntiquity, and as he lived before the sepa«f 
ration of the twin-sisters, poetry and music, he was pro- 
bably the friend and favourite of both. His numerous 
poemsi OR diflerent subjects, were written IntheiEolian 
dialect, and chiefly in a measure of his own invention, which 
has ever since been distinguished by the. name of Alcaic, 
He composed hymns, odes, and epigrams, upon very dif-f 
lerent subjects; sometimes railing at tyrants, and singing 
their downfall n sometimes his own. military exploits ; bis 
misfortunes ; his sufferings at sea \ his exile ; and all, ac-* 
cording to Quintilian, in a manner so chaste, concise, mag- 
nificent, aod sententious, and so nearly approaching to that 
of Homer, that be well merited the golden plectrum be^ 
stowed ap6h hiin by Horace s 

'f £t te sonantem plenius aureo^ 
Alpeee^ plectro." 

Sometimes lie descended to less serious subjects, as the 
praises of Bacchus, Venus, &c. ; but these were thought in- 
ferior to his other pqems. Hi^ genius, it is also said, re- 
•quired to be stimulated by intemperance, and it was in % 

A L C iE U S.' 341 


' r 

kind of itttoitication that be composed his best pieees.A^f 
all his works, however, there are only a few fragments pre*; 
served by AthensBus and Suidas, and prihted by Heniry 
Stephens at the end of his Pindar, among the ^^ roet Ly-^ 
ric^iveisarum editionum,^' Gieneva, 1623^ fol. and i2iiio^ 
and in the " Corpus Poetarnm" of Maituire, fol. 1714. • 

ALCALA Y HENARES (Alphonso D£>, a Spanish 
poet of the seventeenth century, who was born at Lisbon' 
in 15999 and carried on the business of a merchant. De- 
voting his leisure hours to- literature, he wrote a work en- 
titled "» Viridarium anagrammaticum,'* and five ** Novels/' 
which procured him, it is said, much reputation, not from 
their merit, but from their originality. In each of thesis * 
Hovelsr^ tbe author has contrived to get rid of one ori^tber 
of the vowels : a is not to be found in the first, nor € inlftie: 
second, &c. But this idle whim was not original, the saiHe 
having been practised by Tryphiodorus, whom Addison ^66' 
pleasantly> ridicules as one of the lipogrammatists, or lelter--' 
droppers of antiquity. Moreri gives us the title of another' 
work by- this author, printed at Lisbon, 1664. ^^ Psaltgrium 
quadruplex anagrammalicum, angelicum, immaculatuin, 
Marianum, Deipars dicatum, sexaginta anagrammata La- 
tina complecteus.^' Alcala died Nov. 21, 16S2.* ' . ■ 
. ALCAZAR, AL9AZAR,'or ALCASAR5 (Louis d^}, aSpi»- 
nish Jesuit, was born ^ at Seville in 15*54, and = entered 
among the- Jesuits in 1569, against the will of his family, 
who-were in possession of a large estate. After be had 
been a teacher of philosophy, he taught divinity at Cor- 
dova and at Seville, for above twenty years. Mueh of his- 
life was spent in endeavouring to explain the book of tbe 
Revelations, and his first volume on the -subject, <' Ves- 
tigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi," is toid to have been 
the result of twenty years* study and investigation. This 
work was printed at Antwerp, fol. 1604 and 1619, and at 
Lyons, 1616, fol. ; and is accounted one of the best com-^ 
mentaries which had been produced by any writer of the 
Romish church. It is said that Grotius was considerably- 
indebted to it ;' but neither Grotius, nor any other writer 
has followed him in supposing that the prophecies of the 
Apocalypse have been accomplished to the twentieth chap- 
ter. Pursuing this investigation, however, his next work 

1 Vossius de Poet. Gr.-^Fabric. Bibl.Graec— Travels of Anaehareis, vol. II.— 
|3arney*8 Hist 0f Music, voL I.-^Geii, Diet ^ Moreri.*^Biog. UBiv^rselHi 


i|^a eommemivfy od sHch p^ru .of the OH TestMicultm 
hMfr 9ny <;opQf :jiioii with. tbii^. Apocalypse ; ibis. w«^ pqb« 
Esbed in IG?!, Ly^n^, fol. uiider tb^ tki^, ^^ Iq epi^ vet^ri» 
T^stamenti psurtesy qua& respidt Apocalyp»is, o«i9(ipe Cm}^ 
lica CaBtieormn^ Ps9.1ipos eoQipiiire$ir aiulta Oi^wieli^ ilUq^ 
rmnque Ubrorvw capits^ libii V." Tt^e is^ a »qppie^ 
ment lo tbe first, on weights and measores, ,and to the «e- 
cjQod,. Da bad pby»iciaas. U^ died at &fi»rille» June |j$» 
16 IS.* 


AL€£lABlTiy3» or AiW^M^yz, ai) Arabian aailrologer^ 
Kved'^o tbe reign of Seif-Eddaubib^ ponee of the ^na««y 
c| tbe Hamdanitefi, or ab^t tbe middle of tbe t^nta cen^ 
t^Hjf.fOf ^hK^.CbriSitiaiiL ^ra* Hi$ rpputatioo ex|:to4e^ tqi 
KwKtpe^ Yfbei:^. Jk>bn lii$paleuj|i»tramlaiied into h^Jtim, i^botit 
tbf^: twelfth <ur tbirte^iuh centi^y, hi» ia?efkti»e ^^ JOnfudi* 
qialAstrolcigy/' This was pj-inted at V^^aice in 1303^ 4t<v 
uifdi^r tbe tHW ^' Alchabitina cum ocwntenH)^** and under 
tbe title a figitre representing tbe cirde and tbe s^iniUary 
spbeire^ Thcr^ i$, bowerer, ^n. edition jo^entioned by Pan- 
a^eir 9f the d^e 1473, 4to, wbieb ia tbe mofM: acarQe and 
Yidnable^ Bayle ^yii. that be wroit^ aW a tcesKti$e on op-* 
tics, which wa^ found in a Grennan eonvent. * 
. ALCI ATJ, or ALCIATO (ANjmjBV), a ^rirtN-ated and 
]f0i^afd lawyers was itbe son of a. rich merchant. of Mibo^ 
aeeording to Pmeirql^s^ dnd bom in that city in 1492. 
AiMt having studied the hber^j 9oienoes under jlan«ia Par-i* 
rbasins at Mikm^ be attended tbe law-lectiirea <^ Jason at 
Pavii^. aad those of Charles Ilni>tHis at Boiogua* Then lak^ 
ing ia degreel in Ism in bi^ twentynieoond year, be fuUowed 
bia profesiami at tbe bar, in tb«. city of Mib>n> . till he was 
c^lhd M> the law-cbair by the uniyensity of Avignon. He 
diacbarged bia oifice with so much Vivacity, |h|^ Franeis L 
tbonght bewould be a very proper person to. pnnnote tbe 
Imowledge of the law in the university, of Bourges^ and ac- 
ecktdingly pinevaiied on him to ren^ve tbitbef in 1523 ; and 
tbe neact yeaf be doubled buicaalnry, which befom waa six 
kundf^.erojwna. Alciati ac($uired bene gireat fame and ce** 
pnlation>; be inter^pei^ed mu4^b polite l^naing in Jtds ex-. 
plica«ion<)f tbe law» and aboUsbed that baijbavous language,' 
whdicb had hitherto prevailed ia tbe le^ures and writings of 
tbe lawyeii. Francis Sforza, duke of Milan, thought him- 

•• ©€B. Bict;»«MDreri.-- HJog. XJiiiT«rsdTe. 
s Gen. Diet.— Biog. Universelle. 

A I^ O J AT I. J« 

uA(' obliged to bring back to his native cotliHrjr a mtn wixi 
ceuld do it so much honour ; and this he' compatsed at bat» 
}fy giving him a large salary and the dignity of a senator. 
Alciati accordingly went to teach the law at Pavia, but soon 
after i^^moved to Uie nniversity of Bolpgna> -where he cpn- 
tinue<| four years, and then returned to Pavia; from whence 
he went to Ferrara, being solicited thither by* duke Hercu- 
les d'Este, who' was desirous to render his university .famous. 
It resumed its reputation under a professor so much fol- 
lowed ; but at the end of four years Alciati left it^ and ra- 
turned to Pavia. Paul III. gave him anhooourable recep- 
tion as he passed by F^rrara, and- offered him ecclesiastic 
eal preferment; but Alciati w^ conteiited with that of 
prothonotary, and would not give up his prcfesstoii of tha 
law. He seems to rejoice th^-t he had refused Paul's ofiers, 
in a lettier to Paulus Joviusi, whom the pope, had a long 
time amused with fallacious promises : ^^ I am very glad,'* 
says he, ^ that I did not suSer myself to be deceii^ by 
this pope's offers, who, under the promise of a great res* 
compense, wanted to draw me to Rome." The emperor 
created AJciati a count«-palatin and a senator ; and Philip, 
afterwards king of SpaiUi presented him with a golden chaia 
as he passed by Pavia. 

Alciati died at Pavia^ on the 12th of Jaaaary, I55(k, be- 
ing then in his 58th year. After the death of his mother, 
who died in a very advanced age, he intended to have ea^ 
ployed his wealth in the fpundatjloj^ of a college; but^ hav- 
mg received an a^ont from spoeie insolent seholass, he 
dropped that design, and chose for his heir Fcancisr Alciati, 
his nephew, a promising youth, whom lie had brought up 
at his house. Mr. Teissier says, that Andrew Aiciatl passed 
his life in celibacy; but this is a mistake^ as may he seen 
from a passage of a letter he wrote to his^ friend Francis 
Calvus^ after be had withdrawn from Milaa to Avignon. 
He was a man of unquestionable abilities and learning^ 
but tainted with avarice, which oftetx obscured the lustre 
of his reputation. He was very young when his talents 
began ,.to attract the admiration of his countxymen. His 
^ Paradoxes of Civil Law," or an explanation of the Greek 
terms which occur in the Digest, was written . in his fif«> 
teenth yeai*, and published in his twenty-second. Hia 
works have been collected and published at Lyons, 1560^ 
5 vols, folio; at Basil, 1571, 6 vols, folio; and there also 
1S82, 4vol8. folio; Strasburgh, 1616^ 4vols. fbko; Franc?t 

34S A L I AT' I. 

, ... ... 

f foftji 1617, 4 vols, folio. So many edition^ df a W6rk of this 

.magoitade afford a striking proof of the'ri^putacion of AI- 
ciali; ^me of tb^ contents of thes^ Tolnmes bare been 

:pri»ted $epaitiielyy 'a» bis ** notes Ort'Tacittis,** and a 
•* treatise owWeights and Measnres'f *'but besides' these he 

• wrote^ 1. *' Responsa nunquam antehac edita,** Lyony, 

-1561; Basil, 1582, folio; published by his heir Francis 
Alciati. 2. " De Formula Romani Imperii," Basil, 1559, 

-Svo. $. ^ Epigrammata selecta ex antbolagm Latine versa,** 
Basil, 1529, 8vo. ♦. •* Rerum patria, seu Histori^e Me- 

-^elanensis libri qubtuor," 1625,- ivo,' reprinted in Grae- 
vius? Thesaurus* 5'. <* De Plautindrum cai-riiiiium ra- 
tione," and ** De Pkatinis vocabulis LexicoriJ*' in an edi- 

ition of Piautn^, Batti), 15^8, 8vo. 6. ** Judicium de 

.legum interpretibuf^ parandis,*' prhited w?th Cortrad* Page'^s 
treatise " Methddica' juris traditio," K566, 8vol "7. " En* 
coniiumi Historian,*' 1530, 4to. 8. " Pal ma,''* inserted in 
the ** Aviphitbeatrum sapienti» ' Socraticae- l)ornavii.** 

-9^ *' Judiciarii processus compendium," ' !5€6, ' 8vo. 
JO. ** Contra vitam monasticam,*^ 1695, ^vo. ' 11. " Notae 

in Epistolas; familiares Ciceronis^" printed with Thierry*s 
edition of these epistles, Paris, 1»}57, folio.' 12, "Twenty- 
seven letters in * Gudii Epistolx,'" 1697, 4to. Perhaps 
<h^ #oifk for'wfai^ he is now most genferally known is his 
ff^ EtnbieiBS,"' highly praised by the elder Sckliger. Of 
tSieee there have )9een various editions and translations. 
Thd best is that of Padua, 1661, 4to. The piece* above 
noticed, " Contra vitam monasticain,** was addressed to 
Bernard Mattiut^ and shews that Alciati entertained the 
aacnci notions with his friend Erasmus concerning the reli- 
j^ioofr orders of tbe church. Mattius, to whom this treatise, 
or rather letter, is addressed, was a learned, nlddest, and 
ingenious man, who suddienly left his friends and his aged 
mother to embrace tbe monastic life ; but whether Alciati'a 
persuasions were* effectual is npt known. ' 

ALCIATI (Francis), biim at Milan 1522, the nepheW 
and heir of the preceding, was likewise a lawyer of con- 
siderable eminence, and a professor of law at Pavia, where 
cardinal Borromeo was bis pupil. Pius VI. employed biih 
as datary or chancellor of Rome, and afterwards thade him 
a cardinal. His contemporaries, particularly Vcittort and 
Muret, applaud him as a man of general learning',' and the 

^ Gen.' Dict-*-|tforeri.*-*Biog. UniTerMlIe.*-<-Jortiii'ft £iM|Biv,i*-£«ui Cm* 

A,LC!]I.A]T L 349 

oraameot of bts age. He ^i^d a^ Roose in IS^O, aod left 
several works which have, not been printed.* 

ALCIATI (John Pa(jiJ[, »a pative Qf Milan, was one of 
those Italians who forsook their country in the sixteenth 
century^ to join with the Protestant church ; but afters- 
wards explained away the mystery of the Trinity in such a 
manner as to form a n^^ P^^rcy, no less odious to the Pro- 
testants than to the Catholics. Alciati had borne arms^ He 
began His innovations at Geneva, in concert with a physi- 
cian naoied Blandrata, and Gribaud, a lawyer, with wboia 
Valentine Gentilis associated himself. The precs^utions, 
however, that were taken against them, and the severity oC 
the proceedings instituted against Gentilis, made the others 
glad to remove to Poland, where they professed their here^ 
sies with more safety and success, and where they were soon 
joined hy Gentilis. It was indeed at Alciati^s request that 
the bailiff of Gex had released him out of prison. Froon 
Poland these associates went to Moravia ; but Alciati retired 
to Dantzick, and died there in the sentiments of Spcinus^ 
although some report be died a Mahometan, which Bayle 
takes pains to refute. Of his Socinianism, however, there 
can be no doubt. He published *^ Letters to Gregorio 
Pauli,^^ iSSl, in defence of that heresy. Calvin and Beza 
speak of him as a raving madman. ' 

ALCIATI (Terence), a native of Rome, and a Jesuit 
of great reputation for learning. Urban VIII. who highly- 
esteemed him, thought him worthy of the rank of cardinal^. 
but he died before that honour was conferred upon him, in 
1651, leaving some curious materials for a history of the 
council of Trent, to which he gave the title of " Historiae 
concilii Tridentini a veritatis hostibus evulgatse elenchus***- 
His object, which was countenanced by the pope, was to 
refute or answer father Paul Sarpi's history of that cele- 
brated council ; and his collections were made use of, after 
his death, in a new history of the same by cardinal Pallavi- 
cino. » 

ALCIBIADES, a celebrated Athenian, of whom Bar- 
thelemi has justly remarked, that some historians have stig- 
matized his memory with every reproach, and others have 
honoured it with every eulogium, without its being possible 
for us to charge the former with injustice, or the latter with 
partiality. He was born in the eighty-second olympiad, 

» Oeo. J>lct.— Morcrl— Biog. Unirersdle.— Jdftm»« Erasmw.— Swui Oam* 
3 Osn, Dict»<-*fiio|r* Uni?ersell0. 

S«0 A L C I^'l A 1) E S. 

about d)6 jn^nr 4S0 B. C. Clinias, his father, was de* 
scend^d from Ajax of Salamis, and his mother, the daugh- 
ter of Megacles, was of the family of the Alcmseouides^ 
In his person, while a youth, he was beautiful, and when a 
man, remarkable for his comeliness ; his fortune w^ large 
beyond most of the nobility of Athens. His abilities were 
so great, that an ancient author (C. Nepos) has asserted 
that nature in him had exerted her utmost force, since^ 
whether we consider his yirtues or his vices, he was distin^ 
guished from all his feilow^citizens ; he was learned, elo^ 
quent, indefatigable, liberal, magnificent, affable, and knew 
exactly bow to comply with the times ; that is, he could 
assume all those yittues when he thought proper ; for, when 
he gave a loose to his passions, he was indolent, luxurious, 
dissolute, addicted to women, intemperate, and impious, 
Socrates had a great friendship for him, corrected in some 
diegree his manners, and brought him to the knowledge of 
many things of which he would otherwise have remained 
ignorant : he also prevented the Athenians from resenting 
many of those wanton acts of pride and vanity which he 
committed when a lad. His family had always been on good 
terms with the Lacedemonians; Clinias, his father, indeed, 
disclaimed their friendship, but Alcibiades renewed it, ana 
affected to shew great respect to people of that country,' 
until he observed the ambassadors of Lacedemon applied 
themselves wholly to Nicias, his rival, and his dependants ; 
he then resented it very much, and used every influence 
on the minds pf the Athenians to the prejudice of that 

The first public affair of any material' consequence in 
which he embarked, was soon aft^r the peace for fifty years 
was concluded between the Athenians and Lacedemoniahs. 
Some discontents still prevailed : the people of Athens had 
complied with the terms of the peace, but the Lacedemo- 
nians having taken and demolished the town of Panactus^ 
made them very uneasy ; these discontents were heightened 
by Alcibiades, now beginning to rival Niciais, who, with his^ 
pitrty, a;t that time ruled in Athens. Alcibiades declaiimed, 
that the Spartans were taking measures for humbliilg Argos, 
that they might afterwards attack the Athenians ; h& art-^ 
folly put them in mind of Nicias having declined marking a 
descent on Spacteria, and drew eoncluslons firoiti thence, 
veiy much against him. When the ambassadors firom Sjpar)^ 
^arrived^ and were iatroduoed into tlw leiMM hy NiotM^ 


^n Aeir vetiflng, Aletbiaies, »$ the old friend of tbek 
Bttti^i iavtiei ftem to hit boute^ aisared them of Im 
{neasUh^ and persuaded them to declare that they were 
tnt've8led.wtth ftiU powers (although they had in the senate 
declared dMy were), to avoid making unreasonable conces^ 
aionn. When, therefiMre^ they first appeared in the fontm^ 
AlcilMades addressed htmsetf to the people, sayings ** Y&ik 
see, my countryasen, what eredit ought to be given to these 
Lacedemonians, who deny to you to-day what they affirmed 
j^esterday.^* The people then refused to hear tfaem« 

cAlcibiades next promoted a league with the Argives, i(» 
order to keep the war at a distance, in case the feuds be«-' 
tween Sparu and Athens were revived. This happened in 
tlie twelfth yedur of the , Peloponnesian war. The next 
aummer he was invested with the command of a consider- 
able army, passed inlio the territory of Argos and to Patrse, 
and lu bodi places laboured to persuade them to build walls 
towatds the sea^ to enable them to receive succours from 
Athens; biM; jealousy of the Athenian power prevented 
them* No aetion took plaee this year. 

Two j^arsaftet) sottw dissentions taking {dace at Argos, 
Alcibtades bailed with a fleet of twenty ships into their ter<- 
ritories^ - to assist his friends, and put an end to their dts«- 
putesi. Td effect this, he caused three hundred of the in«- 
habitants, who were suspe!C«ed of £aLVouring the Lacedemo^ 
nians, to be seized atid oartied away. After this, he sailed 
to the island of Melos, whidh, although small and of incon- 
sideraMe force, had always acted with inflexible obstinacy 
ag^rifMt the Athenians. Afeibiades laid siege to it; but 
finding the siege attended with difficulties, he turned it into 
a bloGkade^ and leaving a eonsiderable body of forces there, 
returned to Athens; the place afterwards smrrendered at 

The Atl»entam> in ifce sixteenth year of the war, deter- 
mined to send a fleet into Sicily, to the assistance of tlic 
Egisiiiie^; Nicieis was appointed to coiofrtfiand, and Alcibia-» 
des aft*d Lattiacbos were his coUeag nes. During the prepa- 
rMwns ft)r this expedition, an accident hiappened which put 
the whole city of Athene ifffto confusion : the Hefrmse, or 
statues of Metcuryj of wbicfe there were a iwtillatwde in tVk^ 
city and neighbourhood, were all defaoed'in one ^ight, not 
could the authors of this fact be discovered, liOtwith»t»»d- 
in^ # proclamatioii was issued, offering imputiity and a re^ 
Mtrd fcr ihe infermor ; yet^ in ccMOfsequence o* * clawa^^a 

y$9 A L C I B I A D E 9. 

tbereiu,, inviting any person of what condition soev^ i0 
dkcoyer any former sacrileges, some servants aiid slaves 
deposed, that a long time before, certain young men, heated 
with wine, had ridicaled some religious mystery, and that 
Alcibiades was among them. His enemies immediately 
conmienced a prosecution against him, to which Alcibiades 
offered to answer, asserting his innocence, and protesting 
against accusations brought against him while 'he should be 
absent* His enemies, determined to attempt his destruc- 
tion, procured others to move that he should have liberty 
to depart on his command, and that, after his return, a day 
of trial should be assigned him; to this proposition he waa 
unwillingly obliged to consent. 

The fleet sailed ; but they had not been long in Sicily 
before orders from Athens arrived, directing Alcibiades to 
return and take his trial ; the whdle city being in a confu-^ 
sion on the affair of defacing the Hermae. This was pro* 
bably a scheme of the enemies of Alcibiades^ to ruin the 
mighty interest, which his birth, fortune, and accomplish- ' 
meats had gained him in Athens : to effect their purpose, 
they also reported that he had entered into a conspii*acy 
to betray the city to the Lacedemonians, and that be had 
persuaded the Argives to undertake something to their 
prejudice. It was therefore determined to put him to 
death on his return ; but it being apprehended, that the 
attempt to arrest him in sight of the army might produce 
commotions, those who were sent to bring him home^ were 
ordered to treat him with great decency, and not t6 dis- 
cover by any means the severe resolution taken against 
him. They executed their commissiou very exactly, so 
that neither he nor his army> who were likewise accused, 
bad any suspicion: but, in the course of the voyage, ga- 
thering from the seamen something of what was intended, 
and being informed that a person, out of fbar of death, had 
acknowledged himself guilty, and impeached them, they 
wisely determined not to trust an enraged and superstij^ous 
multitude, but to provide for their own safety by withdraw- 
ing as soon as they had an opportunity : this offered quickly 
after; ^hey escaped from their convoy, and retired to such 
parts of Greece as, out of hatred to Athens, were most 
likely to give them shelter. 

Alcibiades went to Sparta, where he was well reoeived. 
In the spring, when Agis king of Sparta invaded Attica^ be 
gave him advice to seize and fortify Dicelea, This- was a^ 

A L C I B I A D E S. 353 

$6vere stroke on tlie Athenians; but their misfortunes fell 
much heavier on them in Sicily, and their allies began to 
waver. They afterwards had some slight successes at sea, 
which discouraged the Peloponnesians ; but Alcibiades 
exerted his eloquence to persuade them to continue the 
war; he advised them to send a small fleet to lonia^ pro- 
mising to engage the cities to revolt from the Atheliians, 
and to negociate a league between Sparta and the king of 
Persia, the advantages of which he pointed out to them. 
The Lacedemonians entering into his measures, he passed 
over into Ionia, and there actually effected what he had 
promised. He also found means to draw Tissaphernes, the 
king of Persia's lieutenant, into a league with them. The 
Spartans, however, were displeased with the terms of it, 
and seeking tu have them altered, the Persians likewise 
grew displeased. Alcibiades did not long continue in fa- 
vour with the Spartans ; and having debauched the wife of 
Agis, that prince conceived the most inveterate hatred 
against him, and persuaded the Lacedemonians to send or- 
ders to their general in Ionia to put the Athenian t6 death. 
Alcibiades gained some intelligence of this, retired to Tis- 
saphernes, and laying aside the Lacedemonian, as he had 
before done the Athenian, became a perfect Persian. By 
the politeness of his address, he gained so much on Tis- 
saphernes, although a professed enemy to alt Greeks, that 
lie gave his name to his gardens of pleasure, after he 'had 
spent immense sums in adorning them ; they were after- 
wards called Alcibiades. When the Athenian saw that Tis- 
saphernes placed a confidence in him, he gave him much 
information respecting the affairs of Greece ; told him that 
it was not the interest of the Persian monarch that Athens 
should be destroyed, but that she and Sparta should be 
supported as rivals to each other, and that then the Greeks 
would never have an opportunity to turn their united arms 
against his master; but added, that if it should become 
necessary to rejy oti one of them, he advised him to trust 
to Athens, because she would be content with the dominion 
of the sea; but that the pride of the Spartans would always 
stimulate them to new conquests, and excite in them a de- 
sire of setting the Greek cities in Asia at liberty. 

Tissaphernes approving of these counsels, Alcibiades 
wrote privately to some officers of the Athenian army at 
Samos, intimating that he was treating with the Persian on 
their behalf; but would not return to his native country 

Vol, L A a 

354 A L C I B I A D E ft 

until the democratical form of government was abolishecf. 
The reasons he advanced for this measure were, that the 
Persian king hated a democracy, but would immediately 
assist Athens, if the government was put into the hands of 
a few. These fickle people, the Athenians, prone to no- 
velty, dissolved the democracy, and sent deputies to treat 
with Alcibiades and Tissaphernes ; and, in case the terms 
offered by the Persian were reasonable, they were to de- 
clare that the Athenians would vest the sovereignty in the 
hands of a few. Before the deputies arrived, Alcibiades 
had discovered that Tissaphernes did not incline to keep 
the Athenians on any terras ; therefore, he set up such high, 
conditions in the name of the Persians, that the Athenians 
themselves broke off the treaty. The democracy of Athens 
was, however, destroyed, and a new form of government 
was set up. This did not give general satisfaction : the 
army at Samos declared for the democracy : and, at the 
request of their general Thrasybulus, recalled Alcibiades. 

On his return, he made a most eloquent speech to the 
army, shewing them the true source of bis misfortunes, the 
injustice of his countrymen, and the danger attending the 
fttate. The soldiers, pleased with his harangue, created 
him general, with full power, and proposed sailing imme- 
diately to Athens to restore the ancient form of government. 
Alcibiades opposed this extravagant measure; and told 
them, that since . they had chosen him general, he must 
return to Tissaphernes to prepare things to make a speedy 
end of the war : accordingly, with the consent of the army, 
he departed. When he came to Tissaphernes, he extolled 
the great power of the Athenians '; and, by this means, 
made himself formidable to the one party, and necessary 
to the other. 

On his return to the army, the deputies from Athens 
were, by his request, received. The army declared to 
theni they would riot acknowledge the present government, 
but would sail to Athens and restore the democracy : tbi$ 
'he opposed, and persuaded them to remain where they 
were ; and told the deputies to return and demand of the 
tyrants to resign their authority. On their return, every 
thing was in confusion at Athens ; a new foim of govern- 
ment was proposed, and Alcibiades recalled, and the 
favourers of an oligarchy withdrew to the enemy. Alci- 
biades meantime sailed with thirteen gallies to Arpendus^ 
where he had frequent conferences with the Persian lieu* 

A L C I B I A. D E S. tSi 


teoa&t In bis return, he took nine gallies belonging 
to the Peloponnesian fleet : and with this addition to 
his own squadron, he constrained the Halicarnassians 
to pay a large sum of money, and fortified Cos. An en- 
gagement soon after took place between the Athenian 
and Peloponnesian fleets ; and, while the event was doubt-- 
ful, Alcibiades came in sight with twenty gallies, and se-» 
cured the victory. 

The Athenians, aft^r this, dividing their fleet into thre« 
parts, Alcibiades, with his squadron, fell in with the 
enemy's fleet under Mindarus, and fled from them, till he 
came in sight of the other divisions, and then pursued 
them m his turn towards Claros, sinking and taking their 
ships. When the enemy approached the shore, they were 
joined by thcs Persians ; a second battle ensued, and a se* 
cond victory was obtained. Thus, Alcibiades gained two 
victories in one day ; and his fame now rose so high among 
his countrymen that they sent one thousand foot, three 
hundred horse, and thirty gallies, to reinforce him. He 
sailed, and did good service in the Hellespont, and after*^ 
wards sat down before Byzantium, then well fortified and 
defeiided by a Lacedemonian garrison. Some of the in-> 
habitants betrayed the city, and let in Alcibiades and his 
army ; while the garrison made so brave a defence, that 
he was on the point of being driven out; but, making 
a proclamation that the Byzantines should be safe in their 
persons and effects, they joined him, and the garrison was 
almost all put to the sword. 

Alcibiades, and his colleague Theramenes, returned in 
triumph to Athens ; they brought with them such immense 
spoils as had not been seen at Athens since the Persian 
war. The people almost deserted the city to behold Alci- 
biades when he landed. After he had made his harangue 
in the assembly, they directed the record of his banish* 
tnent to be thrown into the sea, ordered him to be absolved 
from the curses he lay under, created him general, and 
conferred many other favours^ upon him. The sweetness 
bf his temper, his complacence, and his applying the 
riches he brought home to the discharge of taxes, made 
the most virtuous of the citizens confess he deserved the 
honours that were paid him. He did not long remain in a 
iMate of inactivity., but put to sea again with a fleet of one 
hundred ships for the Hellespont, to assist some cities 
* ^ich stiU kept firm to the Athenians ; he l^ft part of his 

A A 2 


iBi A L C I B I A D E S* 

fleet unfler Antiochus, witli strict orders not to engagi^ i 
but the latter disregarded his instructions, ,and was de- 
feated. On this news, Alcibiades returned ; but met wjth 
another stroke of ill fortune ; for his enemies bad found 
means to persuade the Athenians that the defeat was owing 
to his inattention, and that he held a correspondence with 
the Lacedemonians : they instantly deprived him of his 
' command, and appointed ten new generals« To Conon^ 
one of the ten, he delivered the fleet ; but refused to re- 
turn to Athens, and in his own ship passed into Thrace, 
built a castle there for his own securitv, and founded ^ 
little principality in the sight of his many and powerful 

Alcibiades, though an exile, endeavoured to restore the 
power of bis country. He was in a small towa of Phrygia, 
Under the government of Pharnabazus, when he was iur 
formed of the levies the younger Cyrus was making in 
Asia Minor, and concluding thslt this prince meditated an 
expedition against his brother Artaxerxes, be determined 
to repair to the court of the king of Persia, to apprise him 
of the danger, and to obtain succours for the deliverance 
of his country. But assassins sent by the satrap suddenly 
surrounded his house, and wanting the courage to attack 
him, set fire to it Alcibiades rushed forth sword in hand 
through the flames, repulsed, the barbarians^ and fell be- 
neath a shower of darts. This happened when be W€k8 
only foity years old, in the ninety-fourth ciympiadf 
or 404 B.C. 

That elevation of sentiment, says the abb6 Barthelemi, 
which is produced by virtue, was not to be sought in the 
heart of Alcibiades ; but in it was found that intrepidity 
which is inspired by the consciousness of superiority. No 
obstacle, no danger/ could either surprize or. di^om^ge 
him ; he seemed persuaded that when minds of a certain 
order do not perform all they wish, it is because they hare 
not c6urage to attempt all. tbey can. Compelled by cirr 
cumstances^a serve the enetnies of his country, it was as 
easy for him to acquire their confidence by the ascendancy 
he had over them, as to gx>vem them by the wisdom of hLi 
counsels : he possessed this pre-eminence peculiar to.himr 
self, that he uniformly procured a triumph, for the party 
that he favoured, and that his numerous actions were 
never tarnished by a single reverse of fortune* 

In negociations^ he sometimes employed . the light of 

A L C I B I A D E S. 357 

his understanding, which was as vigorous as profound ; 
scmetimes he had recourse to stratagems and perfidy, which 
uo reasons of state can ever justify ; on other occasions he 
availed himself of the plijstbihty of a character which the 
thirst of power^ or the desire of pleasing accommodated 
without difficulty to every conjuncture and change of si- 
tuation. In every nation he commanded respect, and 
swayed^the public opinion. The Spartans admired 4iis fru- 
gality ; the Thracians his intemperance ; the Boeotians his 
love of ti^e most violent exercises ; the lonians his taste for 
indolence and voluptuousness ; the satraps of Asia a luxury 
they could not equal. He would have shown himself the 
most virtuous of men had he never known the exatnple of 
vice ; but vice hurried him on without making him its 
slave. It should seem. as if Uhe profanation of laws and 
the corruption of manners were considered by him only as 
so many victories gained ovei tnanners and the laws ; -it 
might be said too, that his feults were no more than the 
errors of his vanity. Those excesses of levity, frivolity, 
and imprudence which escaped his youth or idle hours, 
were no longer seen on occasions that demanded firm* 
ness and reflection. He then united prudence with acti- 
vity, and pleasure never stole from him any of those mo- 
pients which were necessary to the advancement of his 
glory, or the promotion of his interest. ^ 

ALCIDAMAS, a rhetorician, born at Elaea, about the 
^^ear 420 B* C. was contemporary with Isocrates, and the 
disciple of Gorgias. He composed a work on rhetoric, 
quoted by Plutarch ; another in praise of death, mentioned 
by Cicero, and Menander, and other works, noticed by 
Athenceus and Diogenes Laertius. There are only now 
extant two orations, one of Ulysses against Palamedes; 
the other, a declamation against the rhetoricians of 
bis time, Ihfi ^.ofurraf. They are both in Reiske*s collec« 
tion,' vol. VIII. The abbS Auger translated them along 
^ith his Isocrates. ^ 

ALCIMUS (Latinus Alethius), historian, orator, and 
poet, native of Agen, in the fourth century, wrote the history 
of Julian surnamed the apostate, and that of Sallust, consul 
f|[nd prefect of ^he Gauls under that emperor, which no 
^nger exists ; for yre have nothing of him but an epigram 

I An elegant memoir in Barihelemi's Anachariis.— :Plutftrch,-p>Conieliat 
Kepos.— ^Moreri, . 

9 Fabric. BibL Grsc.rrBiog. UniyerseUe.<?:Mdr«ri. 

558 A L C I M U S, 

on Homer and Virgil, in the Corpus PoStarum of Mait-i> 
taire, London, 1714, 2 vols, folio. ^ 

ALCINOUS, a Platonic philosopher, is supposed to 
have lived about the beginning of the second century. 
We have no account of his life, nor is he known but by 
bis ^^ Introduction to the doctrine of Plato," with which 
he appears to have been very well acquainted. Marsilius 
Ficinus translated it into Latin, and it was published, for 
the first time, with various pieces by Jamblicus, Proclus, 
Porphyry, Synesius, and 'Other Platonists, Venice, by 
Aldus, 1497, fol. It has often been reprinted, and Char- 
pentier wrote a commentary on it, which was published at 
Paris, 1575, 4to. Dennis Lambin gave an edition in Gr. 
and Lat. with scholia, Paris, 1567, 4to ; and Michael 
Vascosan another^ ibid. 1552, 8vo. Daniel Heinsius has 
inserted it in his editions of Maximus Tyrius, Leyden, 
1608, 1617, and Oxford, 1667, 8vo. It is also, in Latin, 
in the first editions of Apuleius, Rome, 1469, and 1472 ; 
Venice, 1521, &c. ; and our countryman, Stanley, printed 
it in his " History of Philosophy." It was very recently 
translated into French, and published by M. Combes Dou* 
nous, Paris, 1800, 12mo. There is another Alcinous, men- 
tioned by Philostratus in his lives of the Greek sophists. ^ 

ALCIPHRON, a Greek author, of whom little is knOwn, 
unless by his ^^ Epistles," which afford much amusing inn 
formation respecting the domestic manners of the Greek 
courtesans, fishermen, and parasites. Dr. Jortin is of 
opinion that he drew them up for the use of his scholars, 
to teach them to speak and write Greek with purity and 
fidelity ; but this opinion the English translators have very 
amply refuted. ' The best edition of these letters is that of 
Bergler, Gr. and Lat with learned notes, Leipsic, 1709, 
1715, 12mo, the latter a very rare edition. There is 
anbther, Utrecht, 1791, Svo, and reprinted, with some 
additions by M. Wagner, Leipsic, 1798, 2 vols. Svo. 
M. Bast, a French scholar, has lately found some unpuhr 
lished letters, and very important variations, among the 
manuscripts in the imperial library of Paris, and has some 
intention of publishing them in a new edition of Alcipbron. 
An excellent translation of the Epistles was published, 
London, 1791, 8vo. The first and second books, and the 

; Y Moreri. in Aleihiu8.->-Chaufepie. 
* Ibid.-— Biog. Universellc^Vossias de Philos. Sectis. — fabric. Bib). GraecL 


A L C I P H R O N. S5§t^ 

eloquent prefacei by Mr. Monro, now rector of Easton, in 
Essex ; and the third, with the notes, by the rev. William 
Beloe, the able translator of Herodotus. » 

ALCMiEON, a philosopher of Crotona, the son of Pe- 
rithus, was one of the disciples of Pythagoras, and flou^ 
rished probably about 500 B.C. He acquired a high 
degree of reputation in the Italian school by, his knowledge 
of nature, and his skill in medicine. He is said to have 
been' the first person who attempted the dissection of a 
dead body; and in the course of his operations, he 
made some discoveries in the structure of the eye. The 
sum of his philosophical tenets, as far as they can be coU 
lected from scattered fragments, is this : Natural objects, 
which appear multiform to men, are in reality two-fold : 
intelligent natures, which are immutable; and material 
fprms, which are infinitely variable. ' The sun, moon, and 
stars are eternal, and are inhabited by portions of that di- 
vine fire, which is the first principle in nature. The moon 
is in the form of a boat, and when the bottom of the boat 
is turned towards the earth, it is invisible. The brain is 
the chief seat of the soul. Health consists in preserving a^ 
due mean between the extremes of beat and cold, dryness 
and moisture. ' 

ALCMAN, art ancieat musician, and one of the early, 
cultivators of lyric poetry, was a native of Sardis, and 
flourished about 670 B. C. Heraclides of Pontus assures 
us that he was a slave in his youth at Sparta, but that by 
his good qualities and genius, he acquired his freedom, 
and a considerable reputation in lyric poetry. He wag 
consequently an excellent performer on the cithara, and, if 
he was not a flute player, he at least sung verses to that 
instrument ; Clemens Alexandrinus makes him author of 
music for choral dances*; and, according to Archytas Har- 
moniacus, quoted by Athenaeus, Alcman was one of the 
first and most eminent composers of songs on love and gal- 
lantry. ' If we may credit Suidas, he was the first who ex- 
cluded hexameters from verses that were to be sung to the 
lyre, wliich afterwards obtained the title of lyric poems. 
And JE]\2Ln tells us, that he was one of the great musicians 
vsrho were called to Lacedaemon, by the exigencies of the 
state, and that he sung his airs to the sound of the flute. 

1 Biog. UniversellA. — Fabric. Bibl. Graac. — Preface to the Enir^ish Tr&nfU*' 
tiati. — ^idi Oaomaaticoa. * B nicker.— Gm. ]>tot.--«]lloreri. 

360 A L C M A N. 

All the evolutions in the Spartan army wefe made to the 
sound of that instrument ; and as patriotic songs accomT 

{)anied by it were found to be excellent incentives to pub- 
ic virtue, Alcman seems to have been invited' to Sparta, 
in order to furnish the troops with such compositions, 
Alcman was not more remarkable for a musical genius, 
than for a voracious appetite, and ^iian numbers him 
among the greatest gluttons of antiquity. This probably 
brought on the morbus pediculosuSf of which he died. His 
tomb was still to be seen at Lacedsemon, in the time of 
Pausanias. But nothing, except a few fragments, are 
now remaining of the many poems attributed to him by 
antiquity. These have been published by Stephens, 
among other lyric fragments, at' the end of his edition of 
Pindar, 1560; and have been often reprinted. — ^There is 
said to have been another Alcman of Messina, also a lyric 
poet. * 

ALCOCK (John), successively bishop of Rochester, 
Worcester, and Ely, in the latter end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, was born at Beverley in Yorkshire, and educated at 
the University of Cambridge, where he took the degree of 
(doctor of laws. In 1461, he was collated to the church of St. 
Margaret's, New Fish-street, London, by Thomas Kemp, 
bishop of that diocese, and in the same year was advanced 
to the deanry of St. Stephen's college, Westniinster. h\ 
1462 he was appointed master of the rolls. Six years 
after, he obtained two prebends; one in the church of 
Sarum, and the other in that of St. Paul's, London. Ii| 
1470, he was made a privy counsellor, and one of the am-: 
^assadors to the king of Castille ; and next year, he 
was, together with others, a commissioner to treat with 
the commissioners of the king of Scotland. About 
the same time, he was appointed by Edward IV. to be of 
the privy coimcil to his son Edward, prince of Wales, 
He was also in 1471 prompted to the bishopric of Roches-* 
ter; and in 1472, constituted lord high chancellor of Eng- 
land, in which office he does not appear to have continued 
longer than ten months. In 1476, he was translated tq 
the see of Worcester, and appointed lord president of 
Wales. During his being bishop of Worcester, he very 
elegantly enlarged the church of Westbury. He was ii^ 

I Fabr. Bibl. Gr.-^Vossiui de Poet. 6r»c,«— Burney's Hist* of Miuuc, toI. {• 
•-Gen. Diet Morcri. * * ...... 

A L C O C K. 361 

disgrace with the Protector Richard duke of York, and was 
irempved from his office of preceptor to Edward V. on ac- 
count of his attachment to that young prince. Soon after 
the accession of Henry VI L he had again, for a short time, 
the custody of the great seal. At length, in 1486, he was 
raised to the bishopric of Ely, and according to A. Wood, 
he was made president of the council of king Edward IV. 
in the same year, which is a palpable mistake, as Henry 
VII. came to th6 crown in 1485. Bishop Alcock, in 1488, 
preached a sermon at St. Mary's church at Cambridge, 
which lasted from one o'clock in the afternoon till past 
three. • 

He was a prelate of singular learning and piety, and not 
only a considerable writer, but an excellent architect, 
which occasioned his being made comptroller of the royal 
works and buildings, under Henry VII. He founded a 
school at Kingston upon Hull (Fuller says, at Beverley) ; 
and a chapel on the south side of the church in which his 
parents were buried. He built the beautiful and spacious 
hall belonging to the episcopal palacQ^at Ely, and made great 
improvements in all his other palaces. Lastly, he founded 
Jesus college^ Cambridge, for a master, six fellows, and 
as many scholars ; which, under the patronage of his sue* 
fessors, the bishops of Ely, has greatly increased in 
buildings and revenues ; and now consists of a master, 
sixteen fellows, and thirty scholars. He wrote several 
pieces, particularly '* Mons perfectionis ad Carthusianos,'* 
Lond. 1501, 4to ; ^^ Galli Cantus ad Confratres suos cu-? 
ratps in Synodoapud Barnwell, 25 Sept. 1498," Lond. per 
Pynson, 1498, 4^o. At the beginning is a print of the 
bishop preaching to the clergy, with a cock (his crest) at 
each side, and there is another in the first page. " Ab- 
batia Spiritns sancti in pura conscientia, fundata,'' Lond. 
1531, 4to. " In Psalmos penitentiales," in English verse. 
^* Homiliae vulgares." " Meditationes piae." " Spous&ge 
of a virgin to Christ,'* 1486, 4to. Bishop Alcock died 
Oct. 1, 1500, at his castle at Wisbech, and was buried in 
fhe middle of a sumptuous chapel, which he had built for 
himself, at the east end of the north aile of the presbytery 
pf Ely cathedral, and which is a noble specimen of his 
^kill in architecture. * 

I MS Life by rev. W. Ck)1e, of Milton, abridged in Bentham^s lEIy.— BioS* 
Brit.-^Bale.— Tanner — FuUer'i Vyprthietw— Waurt»n'tf Hist, of Poetry, vol. h 

». 307 ; 11. p. 249, 419, 

362 A L C O C K. 

ALCOCK (Nathan), an English physician of consider*^ 
able celebrity as a practitioner, was the second son of* 
David Alcock of Runcorn in Cheshire, by his wife Mary 
Breck, and was bom in that place, Sept. 1707. He was 
initiated in reading and grammar by his parents, and after- 
wards placed at a neighbouring school, which he soon left 
upon some disgust. After however passing some time 
in idle rustic amusements, he was roused to a sense of 
duty, and resolved to return to school, and to qualify 
himself for the study of medicine, if his father would give 
up to him a small estate, about 50/. a year, with which he 
engaged to maintain himself. His father complying, he 
put himself under the care of his brother-in-law, Mr. 
Cowley, master of a public grammar-school in Lancashire, 
and after applying with enthusiasm to the Greek and Latin 
languages, mathematics, &c. he removed to Edinburgh, 
and went through the usual couj-seof lectures in that medi- 
cal school. Here the fame of Bo^rhaave was> so often 
echoed by the professors, wbp had been his pupils, that; 
Mr. Alcock felt an irresistible desire to complete his medi- 
cal studies under l^im, and accordingly went to Leyden, 
where he benefited by the instructions, not only of that 
eminent teacher, but by those of his very learned contem- 
poraries, Gaubius, Albinus, and Gravesand. E(e concluded 
his studies there by taking the degree of M. D. in 1737; 
and the following year returned to England with a view to 
settle iri some part of his native country. 

His first design was to lecture on anatomy and chemistry 
at Oxford, where these sciences were at that time super- 
ficially taught ; but had many difficulties plaged in his way 
by the regular lecturers, and was permitted only to read 
privately in a room furnished him by the indulgence of 
the principal and fellows of Jesus college. Yet parser 
Vering, and exhibiting uncommon talents and ze^l, he be- 
came popular, and in Nov. 17, 1741, was incorporated 
M. A. of Jesus college, by decree of convocation; and 
about 1749 read his lectures in themiiseum, although with- 
out the appointment of the Regius professor. He pro- 
ceeded B. M. in 1744, and D. M. in 1749. In 1744 he 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1754 was 
made fellow of the college of physicians, London, to which 
city he had many urgent invitations, as the most proper 
place for. one whose medical fame was now completely 
established. But his health had been for some tim^ ar- 

A L C O C K. 3«» 

fected by a gouty disorder, which debilitated both body 
and mind in such a degree, as to oblige him even to leave 
his favourite Oxford. Accordingly in 1759, he retired to 
his native place, Runcorn, where it was hoped that freedom 
from lecturing- and extensive practice, with change of air 
and exercise, might enable him to resume his profession* 
On his arrival, however, at Runcorn, he insensibly fell into 
practice, which he did not think proper to decline, as . it 
obliged him to frequent and short journies, and change' of 
air ; and this restored, in some measure, his usual vigour 
and spirits. But after some years, his old disorder began 
to return at shorter intervals, and with more violence,^ ac« 
^^ompanied with hyppcondriacal affections and giddiness, 
which terminated in a paralytic stroke, of which he died 
Dec. 8, 1779, and was buried in Runcorn church. He waa 
a man of great knowledge in his art, and had a familiar ac- 
quaintance with natural philosophy, mathematics, and 
^tronomy. In practice, he was uncommonly successful. 

As an author, we know not of any thing he published ; 
but he had sketched some treatises on physical and philo- 
sophical subjects, with a view to publication ; and in 1759, 
just before leaving Oxford, he began to print a treatise 
^^ On the Effects of Climate on the constitutions and man* 
Hers of men," some sheets of which remained for many 
years in the possession of his printer, Mr. Jackson, but 
were probably removed by him before his death. He had 
also begun to prepare a work *^ on Air," as a sequel to the 
former; and a few weeks before his death, he informed his 
biographer of his intention to publish a collection of ^^ For-« 
mulae," with notes and cases. > 

ALCUINUS, or ALBINUS (Flaccus), one of the few 
learned Englishmen of the eighth century, was born in the 
north of England, and educated at York, under the direc- 
tion of archbishop Egbert, as we learn from his own letters, 
in which be frequently calls that great prelate his beloved 
master, and the clergy of York the companions of his 
youthful studies. As he survived the venerable Bede about 
seventy years, it is hardly possible that he could have re- 
ceived any part of his education under him, as some writers 
Jiave ai^serted; nor does he ever cs^U that great nlan his 
master, though he speaks of hiiin with the highest venera* 

1 Some Me^ioin of tlie I4fe of Dr. N. ^cock, Lradooj l*tZ6, Svo.— Wood'l 

ae-f A L c u 1 N u s. 

tion. It is not well known to what preferments he hs(d at^ 
tained in the church before he left England, although some 
say he was deacon of the church of York, and abbot of 
Canterbury. The occasion of his leaving his native coun-r 
try was, his being sent on an embassy by OfFa, king of 
Mercia, to the emperor Charlemagne, who contracted sq 
great an esteem and friendship for him, that be earnestly 
solicited, and at length prevailed upon him, to settle in his 
court, and become his preceptor in the sciences. Alcuinus 
accordingly instructed that great prince in rhetoric, logic, 
mathematics, and divinity ; which rendered him one of hisi 
greatest favourites. He was treated with so much kindness 
and f£^miliarity by the emperor, that the courtiers called 
him, by way of eminence, " the emperor's delight," 

Charlemagne employed Alcuinus to write against the 
opinions of Felix, bishop of Urgel, who had revived some- 
thing like the Nestorian heresy, by separating the hur 
manity from the divinity of the Son of God ; and Alcuinus 
^ewed himself a master of his subject, and wrote in a very 
candid and moderate spirit. He also defended the orthor 
dox faith against Felix, in the council of Francfort, in 794. 
This likewise he performed to the entire satisfaction a( the 
emperor and council, and even to the conviction of Felisc 
and his followers, who abandoned their errors. The em- 
peror consulted chiefly with Alcuinus on all things relating 
to religion and learning, and, principally by his advice, 
founded an academy in the imperial palace, over which Al- 
cuinus presided ; and other academies were established in 
the chief towns of Italy and France, at his instigation. In 
France he may be reckoned a principal instrument in 
founding the universities of Paris, Tours, Fulden, Sqissonj^ 
and many others. 

After Alcuinus had spent many years in the most intimate 
famili9rity with Charlemagne, he at length, with great dif-. 
ficulty, obtained leave to retire to his abbey of St. Martin^ 
at Tours. Here he kept up a constant correspondence 
with the emperor, and the contents of their letters show 
their mutual love of religion and learning, and their anxiety 
to promote th^m in the most munificent manner. In one 
of these letters, which Dr. Henry has translated, there is a 
passage which throws some light oh the learning of the 
tifaies — " The employments of your Alcuinus in his retreat- 
are suited to his humble sphere ; but they are neither in- 
glorious nor unprofitable, I spend my time in the halls of 


St Martin j in teaching some of the noble youlhs Under my 
care the intricacies of grammar, and inspiring them with a 
taste for the learning of the ancients; in describing tp 
others the order and revolutions of those shining orbs which 
adorn the azure vault of heaven; and in explaining to 
others the mysteries of divine wisdom, which are contained 
in the holy scriptures : suiting my instructions to the views 
and capacities of my scholars, that I may train up many to 
be ornaments to the church of God, and to the court of 
your imperial •majesty. In doing this, I find a great want 
ofseveral things, particularly of those excellent books in all 
arts and sciences, which I enjoyed in my native country, 
through the expence and care of my great master Egbert 
May it therefore please your majesty, animated with the 
most ardent lovie of learning, to permit me to send some of 
our young gentlemen into England, to procure for us those 
books which we want, and transplant the flowers of Britaii| 
into France, that their fragrance may no longer be confined 
to York, but may perfume the palaces of Tours." Mr, 
Wartori, who in his History of Poetry gives some account 
of the learned labours of Alcuinus, endeavours to under* 
value^is acquirements. This, in an enlightened age lik^ 
the present, ia easy, but is scarcely candid or considerate^ 
Alcuinus was one of the few who went beyond, the learning 
of his age, and it is surely impossible to contemplate his 
superiority without veneration. Mr. Warton has likewise 
asserted, what is a mistake, that 'Alcuinus advised Bede t^ 
write his Ecclesiastical History. He probably copied this 
from Leland, without examining the dates. Alcuinus must 
have been a mere child, if born at all, when Bede wrote 
his history. But there was another Alcuinus, an abbot of 
Canterbury, who was strictly contemporary with Bede, and 
may have.been.his adviser. 

Charlemagne often solicited him to return to court, but 
he excused himself, and remained at Tours ubtil his deathj. 
May 19, 804, He was buried in the church of St. Mar- 
tin, where a Latin epit^h of twentv-four verses, of his owi\ 
composition, was inscribed upon his tomb. This epitapU i^ 
preserved by father Labbe, in his Thesaurus EpitapKioraix^ 
printed at Paris 1686. He understood the Latin, Greek^ 
and Hebrew languages extremely well ; was an exceUetit 
orator, philosopher, mathematician, and, according to ^^"^^ 
Uam of Malmeebury, the best English divine after ^^r^ 
and Adbelme. How greatly France was indebted to hxxxx 

t66 A L C U I N U S. 

for her flourishing state of learning in that and the follow'-* 
ing ages, we learn from a German poet, cited by Camden 
in his Britannia : 

Quid non Alcuino^ facunda Lutetia^ debes 7 
Instaurare bonas ibi qui feliciter artes^ 
Barbariemque procul solus depellere coepit 

His works, which consist of fifty-three treatises, homilies, 
commentaries, letters, poems, &c. were first collected and 
published at Paris, by Andrew Duchesne, fol. with a life of 
the author; but a more complete edition was published in 
1777, at Ratisbon, 2 vols. fol. by M. Froben, prince-abb6 
of St. Emmeraude. Father Chifflet published also in 1656^ 
4to, " The Confession of Alcuinus," which Mabillon prove* 
to have been genuine. The last mentioned edition of 1777^ 
contains most of the pieces written by Alcuinus, which 
were pointed out by Du Pin; and the editor having pro- 
cured a great number of manuscripts from Italy, France, 
Germany, England, and Spain, was enabled not only to re- 
vise and correct what had been already published, but to 
make very considerable additions; the whole arranged in a 
methodical order, carefully collated, and illustrated with 
historical and critical introductions, disquisitions, and notes.* 
ALCYONIUS, (Peter), a learned Italian, was bom at Ve- 
nice, of poor parents of the lowest class, about the end of 
the fifteenth century. Alcyonius, or Alcyonio, was not hiti 
family name, but he is supposed to have adopted it, ac- 
cording to the custom of his age, to give himself an air of 
antiquity or classical origin. Whatever the meanness of his 
' birth, he had the merit of applying in his youth to the 
learned languages with such success, as to become a very 
accomplished scholar. He was corrector of the press a 
considerable time for Aldus Manutius, and is entitled to a. 
share in the praises given to . the editions of that learned 
printer. He translated into Latin several treatises of Aris- 
totle; but Sepulveda wrote against these versions, and 
pointed out so many errors in them, that Alcyonius had no 
other remedy than buying up as many copies as he could 
get of Sepulveda's work, and burning them. The treatise 
which Alcyonius published concerning Banishment con- 
tained so many fine passages, with others quite the reverse^ 

'^ Henry'9 Histoiy of England, vol. IV. the best account in English of Alcui- 
Aus. — Blog. Brtt^Qen. Diet— WartOD*s Hist. ▼el. I. Dissert. 2, p. 101-103.—* 
Archsologia, toI. IV. — Cave, toI. I. — ^Drake's Eboracum.^-Leland.-— Bale.^<i» 
T«w»qr im Albiaui •— <:rit. Bev. vol XLVI. p. 90i«— Saxti OnfinuttioOB. 

A L C Y O N I U «. Ur 

ibat it was thought he had intervroven with somewhat of his 
own J several fragments of Cicero's treatise De Gloria; and 
that afterwards, in order to save himself from being de- 
tected in this theft, he burnt the manuscript of Cicero, the 
only one extant Paulus Manutius, in his commentary 
upon these words of Cicero, " Librum tibi celeriter mittam 
de gloria,** has the following passage relating to this affair: 
** He means (says he) his two books on Glory, which were 
handed down to the age of our fathers; for Bernard Justi- 
nian, in the index of his books, mentions Cicero de Gloria. 
This treatise, however, when Bernard had left his whole 
library to a nunnery, could not be found, though sought 
after with great care, and nobody doubted but Peter Alcy o- 
nius, who, being physician to the nuiinery, was intrusted 
with the library, had basely stolen it. And truly, in hit 
treatise of Banishment, some things are found interspersed 
here and there, which seem not to savour of Alcyonius, but 
of some higher author," Paul Jovius repeated this accusa- 
tion, and it was adopted as a fact by other writers. Alcyo* 
nius, however, has been amply vindicated by some late bio- 
graphers, particularly Tiraboschi, who has proved that the 
xrharge was not only destitute of truth, but of probability. 

In 1517, he aspired to the professor's chair, which hi« 
master Marcus Musurus held, but was rejected on account 
of his youth. In 1521, however, he went from Venice to 
Florence, where he obtained, by the interest of the cardinal 
Julius de Medicis, the Greek professorship of that univer- 
sity, and, besides his salary, had ten ducats a month from 
the cardinal de Medicis, to trajislate Galen ^* De partibus 
animalium." As soon as he understood that this cardinal 
was created pope, he asked leave of the Morentines to de- 
part; and though he wa^ refused, he went nevertheless to 
Rome, in great hopes oiP raising himself there. He lost all 
his fortune during the troubles the Columnas raised iu 
Rome; ^nd some time after, when the emperor's troops 
took the city; in 1527, he received a wound when flying for 
shelter to the castle of St. Angelo : but got thither, 
notwithstanding he was pursued by the soldiers, and joined 
Clement VII. He was afterwards guilty of base ingratitude 
towards this pope ; for, as soon as the siege was raised, he 
deserted him, and went over to cardinal Pompeius Colum- 
nar at whose house he fell sick, and died a few months after, 
in his fortieth year. Alcyonius might have made greater 
advances in learning, had he not been too much influenced 

368 A L C Y O N I U S. 

by Tanity and self-conceit,, which hindered him from taking 
the advice of his friends. He was likewise too much ad-» 
dieted to detraction and abuse, which raised him many 
enemies. Menckenius reprinted his treatise " De Exiiio,'* 
in 1707, 12mo, Leipsic, with those of Valerianus and Tol-f 
Kus on the misfortunes of men of letters, and other pieces 
on the same subject, under the title of " Analecta de ca- 
lamitate Literatorum." The treatise " De Exilio" yas first 
printed at the Aldipe press, 1622, 4to. The only other 
original works which he left are, his orations on the taking 
of Rome, and on the knights who died at the siege of 
Rhodes; which we cannot find to have been published, but 
which had merit enough to prove him- capable of writing 
the treatise on exile. ' '" 

ALDEGRAEF, or ALDEGREVER (Henry),, a cele,- 
brated artist, was born at Zoust in Westphalia, in 1502; but 
we have no accgunt of his family, nor are we quite certain 
of his Christian name, some calling him Henry, and some 
Albert. It is said, that he went to Nuremberg, and studied 
under Albert Durer, as he copied his style. As a painter^ 
he attained considerable fame : the principal part of his 
works are in the churches and convents of Germany. De^ 
Piles mentions a " Nativity" by him, which he accpunts 
worthy of the admiration of the curious. He is, however, 
chiefly known by his engravings ; and as, like many of the 
ancient engravers, particularly of Germany, he applied 
himself chiefly to the engraving of small plates, he has been 
classed by French authors among those they call little mas^ 
ters^ iand in this class he claims the first rank. The. me-- 
chanical part of his engraving is extremely neat, and exe- 
cuted entirely with the graver. The light parts upon hi3 
flesh he has often rendered very soft and clear, by the ad- 
dition of small long dots, which he has judiciously inter- 
spersed. His drawing of the naked figure, which he seems 
very fond of introducing, is much correcter than is usually 
found among the old German masters ) and much less of 
that stiff taste, so common to them^ appears in his best 
works. Biit Florent le Comte*s observation is certainly 
veryj\;ist, that his men figures are far more correct than 
his women. His heads^are very expressive in general, and 
his other extremities well marked, but sometimes rather 

* 6eii. Diet.— Moreti.— J*. Jov. Elog.— *Saxii OnomasticoQ.— Biog. Vni^e?" 
1|«tt9«wrifabOfcbi.-»'Maxzaehelli Scritton Italiam. 



heavy, Bi|t as his prints are v^ry numerous^ amounting^ 
according to abb^ de MaroUes, to no less than 350, they 
cannot be supposed all equal ; it is, tberefore> neces* 
sary to see many of his prints, before any adequate judg« 
ment can be formed. The first collection of them wag 
formed by the burgomaster Six, but to this many additions 
were made by Mariette^ to thenmbunfe of 390 pieces, com* 
prising many duplicates with differences* This collection 
was sold in France^ in 1805, for 660 francs. He died at 
Soest, in 1558, in very poor circumstances. * 

ALDERETE (Diego Gratun d^, the son of Diego* 
Garcia, one of the great officers of the houseof Ferdinand 
and Isabella, was born about the end of the fifteenth cen->, 
tury, and died at the age of ninety, in the reign of Philip IL 
His father sent him, when very young, to study at Louvain^ 
under the care of John Louis Vives^ and he made extraor- 
dinary proficiency in Greek, Latin, and philosophy. Charles 
V. made him his priTate secretary, and he was retained in 
the same station by Philip IL and eiyoyed great favour at 
court. He is extolled by his couutrymen, as a mau of piety^^ 
wisdom, and Christian philosophy. His works ar^. prin-% 
cipally translations. 1. A translation of Xenophon, in ele- 
gant Spanish, Salamanca, 1552, fol. 2. Translations of 
the greater part of the works of Plutarch, Isocrates, Dio 
Chrysostom, Agapetus the deacon: 3. A Translation of 
Thucydides, Salamanca, 1554, fol. He also wrote a " Hia^ 
tory of the taking of Africa,*' a sea-port on the coast of 
Barbary ; and left behind him a collection of the military 
treatises which had appeared in Greek, Latin^ and Fren^n> 
translated into S|>anish for the use of his countryman. .^^ 
taste, and his rank in society, gave him a considerable ip- 
fiuehce in the progress of- Spanish literato^e, dutmg .. 

long life.* i. *' wr} 

ALDEREl E (JosfiPH and BElwiARP), two b<qthers,^naj 
tives of Malaga, whose history has not ;been separate!^ Jf 
their biographers. They studied the belles lettres, aBuq^v- 
ties, and civiilaw, with equal ardour aM equ»l;reptttatioTi. 
They both became ecclesiaatics, and even in. trh^u^.p^J^'so ^ 
Ihere was a very close resemblance* Joseph obt^injea 
prebend of Cordova, which he resigned in !*^^^ V*' f.^1 
nard, that he might enter among tlie Jesuits. H^e ^x\^^ 

I Strutt and Pilkington'i Dicliai»H«fc— Morori.— I>« Pites,~Bio». UmvernU** 
s BJographie Uaivcneiiti* 

VqCL B» 


wards biecame rector of the college of Granada. While 
aimong the Jesuits^ he published a \Vork on the ^^ Exemp- 
tion of the regular Orders," Seville, 1605, 4to; and ano- 
ther entitled ** De religiosa disciplina tuenda,'^ ibid. 4to, 
1615. Bernard, his brother, was appointed grand vicar by 
the archbishop of Seville, don Pedro de Castro, but ch^ 
tained permission to reside at Cordova. He was one of the 
inost leai^ned and high esteemed of the Spanish literati of 
his time, and eminent for his knowledge of the Greek, 
Hebrew, and Oriental languages and antiquities. H^ ha& 
left two works, in Spanish : 1. *^ Origetx de la lengua Cas- 
tellana," Rome, 1606, 4to ; 1682, fol.; to which be acknow^ 
ledges his brother Joseph contributed liberally* 2. " Va- 
rias antiguedades de Espana Africa y otras provincias,** 
Antwerp, 1614, 4to. He aho wrote a letter to pope Urban 
VIII. on the relics of certain martyrs, Cordova, 163Q, fol. ; 
and a collection of letters on the sacrament. He had com- 
posed a ** Boetia illustrata,'* the loss of which is regretted 
by the Spanish antiquaries. Joseph was born in la60, and 
died in 1616 ; but the dates of the birth and death of Ber« 
nard are not known. * 

ALDERETE (Bernakd), a native of Zamora, in th^ 
kingdom of Leon, towards the end of the reign of Philip IL 
deserves some mention, to^ distinguish him from the pre- 
ceding. He entered when very young into the society of 
the Jesuits, and attained so much character on account of his 
learning, as to be appointed first professor at Salamanca, 
and was the first Jesuit on whom the university, jealous of 
the power and ambition of that order, conferred the de« 
gree of doctor. He died at Salamanca in 1657. He wrote, 
1. '* Commentaria et disputationes in tertiam partem S, 
Thomas, de incarnatt verbi my&teriis et perfectionibus,^* 
Lyons, 2 vols. foL* 2. Separate treatises, " De visione €| 
scientia Dei— De voluntate Dei — De reprobatione . et 
praedestinatione,*' afterwards printed together at Lyon^^ 

ALBINI (Tobias), an Italian physician and botanist of 
Cesena, in tlie seventeenth century, was phj'sician to car- 
dinal Oddatd Farnese, inrho appdnted himsuperintendanl 
of his botahic garden. He is mentioned, in the last edition 
. idf this dictionary, ad the auth'oT of ^^ Descriptio plaQtairuiB 

'^ A ./bitonio BiM,-ffi8p»4«-'Biograpl(ie Univenellc. «. 

« IbM].«»-Morark . ....... » 

* •' .i 'i '.' 

A L B I N t Jl7t 

(lorti Farnesiani," Rome, 1625, fol. But it is necessary td 
mention that Albini's name,, for whatever reason, was bor- 
rowed on this occasion, and that the work, as appears by 
ihe preface, was written by Peter Castelli, a physician at 

^ ALDHELM, or ADELM (St.), an English divine, wag 
oishop of Shireburn in the time of , the Saxon heptarchy, 
and in the eighth century. William of Malmesbury saya 
that he was the son of Kenred, or Kenter^ brother of Ina 
king of the West- Saxons. He was born afcCaer Bladon, 
now Malmesbury, in Wiltshire. . He had part of his educa^ 
tion abroad in France and Italy, and part at home under 
Maildulphus, an Irish Scot, who had built a little mQnasterj 
where ij^almesbury now stands. Upon the death of Mail-* 
dulphus, Aldhelm, by the help of Eleutherius bishop of 
Winchester, built a stately monastery there, and was him- 
self the first abbot. When Hedda, bishop of the West- 
Saxons, died, the kingdom was divided into two dioceses -, 
viz. Winchester and Shire;b.urn, and king Ina promoted 
Aldhelm to the latter, comprehending Dorsetshire, Wilt^ 
shire,' Devonshire, and Cornwall : he was consecrated at 
Rome by pope Sergius I. and Godwin tells us that he had 
the courage to reprove his holiness for having a bastard* 
Aldhelm, by the directions of a diocesan synod, wrote a 
book against the mistake of the Britons concerning the 
celebration of Easter, which brought over many of them tp 
the catholic usage in that point. He likewise wrote a 
piece, partly in prose and partly in hexameter verse, in 
praise of virginity, dedicated to Ethelburga abbess of Bark? 
ing, and published amongst Bedels Opuscula, besides seve-r 
ral other treatises, which are mentioned by Bale and Wil-* 
liam of Malmesbury, the latter of whom gives him the fol- 
lowing character as a writer: '^The language of th^ 
Greeks,'^ says he, " is close and concise, that of the Ro- 
mans splendid, and that of the English pompous and swell-* 
ing : as for Aldhelm, he is moderate in his style ; seldom 
makes use of foreign terms, and never without necessity ; 
his catholic meaning is clothed with eloquence,, and his 
most vehement assertions adorned with the colours of rhe* 
toric : if you read him ¥rith attention, you would take him 
for a Cjrecian by his acuteness, a Roman by his elegance> 
and an £ngU»h(nan by the pomp of his language." Ha if 

1 Bio|^aplueUniverB«U«. 
B B 2 

372 A L D H E L M. 

said to have been the first Englishman who ever wrote in 
Latin ; and, as he himself tells us in one of his treatises on 
metre, the first who introduced poetry into England : 
'** These things,'* says he, " have I written concerning thd 
linds and measures of verse, collected with much labour, 
but whethe^r useful I know not ; though I am conscious tQ 
myself I have a right to boast as Virgil did : 

I first, returning to my native plains^ 
Will.bring the Aoniaa choir^ if life remains." 

Williiam of Malmesbury tells us, that the people in AW- 
helm's time were half-barbarians, and little attentive to re* 
ligiotts discourses : wherefore the holy man, placing him- 
self upon a bridge, used often to stop them, and sing baU 
lads of his own composition : he thereby gained the favour 
and attention of the populace, and insensibly mixing grave 
and religious things with those of a jocular kind, he by this 
means succeeded better than he could have done by aus- 
tere gravity. Aldhelm lived in great esteem till his deaths 
which happened May the 25th, in the year 709. 

Such is the account that has been commonly given of 
ihis extraordinary mart. We shall now advert to somd 
circumstances upon which modern research has thrown a 
new light. All the accounts represent Aldhelm as having 
been a very considerable man for the time in wbi^h4ie 
lived. It is evident, says Dr. Henry, from his works, #hicl| 
are still extant, that he had read tiie most celebrated au« 
thors of Gr«ece and Rome, and that he was no contemptibly 
critic in the languages in which these authors wrote. In 
the different seminaries in which he was educated, he ac<^ 
quired such a stock bf knowledge, and became so eminent 
for his literature, not only in England but in foreign coun- 
tries, that he was resorted to by many persons from Scot- 
land, Ireland, and France. Artville, a prince of Seotn 
iand, sent his works to Aldhelm to be examined by hiitt, 
und entreated him to give them their last polish, by rub* 
bing off their Scotch rust. Besides the instructions whieb 
Aldhelm received from Maildulphus, in France and Italy, 
he had part of his education, and as it would seem the most 
considerable part, at Canterbury, under Theodore, arch- 
bishop of that city, and Adrian, the most learned profes- 
f|or of the sciences who had ever been in England! The 
f^rdour with which he prosecuted his studies at that place^ 
iK well, represented in a letter writtea b^ ham to 

A L D H E L M. $7# 

bishop of Winchester ; which letter also gives a good ac« 
count of the different branches of knowledge in the'cuitif- 
vation of which he was then engaged. These were, the 
Roman jurisprudence^ the rules of verses and the musical 
modulation of words and syllables, the doctripe of the seveii 
divisions of poetry, arithmetic, astronomy, and astrology. 
It is observable, that Aldhelm speaks in very pompous 
terms of arithmetic, as a high and difEcult attainment : 
though it is now so generally taught, as not to be reckoned 
a part of a learned education* In opposition to what has 
been commonly understood, that Aldhelm was the first of 
the Saxons who taught his countrymen the art of Latin 
versification, Mr. Warton, in his History of Poetry, in- 
forms us, that Conringius, a very intelligent antiquary in 
this sort of literature, mentions an anonymous Latin poet, 
who wrote the life of Charlemagne in verse, and adds that 
he was the first of the Saxons that attempted to write Latin 
verse. But it ought to have been recollected, that Aldhelm 
died above thirty years before Charlemagne was borri. Ald- 
helni^s Latin compositions, whether in prose or verse, as 
novelties, were deemed extraordinary performances, and 
excited the attention and admiration of scholars in other 
countries. His skill in music has obtained for hini a con- 
siderable place in sir John Hawkins's History of Music. 

His works are, 1. " De octo vitiis principalibus,'* ex« 
tant in Canisius's Bibliotheca , Patrum. ^. " ^Enigma- 
turn versus mille," published with other of his poems by 
Martin Delrio at Mentz, 1601, 8vo. 3. *' A book ad- 
dressed to a certain king of Northumberland, named AI- 
frid, on various subjects. 4. ** De vita Monachorum." 
6. " De laude Sanctorum." 6. " De Arithmetica.'* 7. " D^ 
Astrologia." 8. " On the mistake of the Britons concern- 
ing the celebration of Easter, printed by Sonius,** 1576. 
9. ^^ De laude Virginitatis,'' published among Bedels Opus- 
cula : besides many epistles, homilies, and sonnets, in the 
Saxon language. ' 

ALDHUN, the first bishop of Durham, was promoted 
to that see in the year 990, being the twelfth of the reign 
of king Ethehred. He was of a noble family 5 but, accord- 
ing to Simeon of Durham, more ennobled by his virtues 
and religious deportment. He sat about six years in the 

> Biog. Brit— .Pox'f Act«, vol. I. p. 139. — Cave, vol. I.— Taimer.— AVutoa^ 
Ilisfe. of Poetry, vol. h Ditstrt. p. &6.—- Brucker.— Saxii OnomaftUcoo. 

iU A L D H U N. 

iee of Liddisfarne^ or Holy Island in Northumberland^ 
during which time that island was frequently exposed to th^ 
incursions of the Danish pirates. This made him think of 
removing from thence ; though Simeon of Durham says> he 
was persuaded by an admonition from heaven. However, 
taking with him the body of St. Cuthbert, which had been 
buried there about 1 1 3 years, and accompanied by alt the 
monks and the rest of the people, he went away from Holy 
Island ; and after wandering about some time, at last set* 
tied with his followers at Dunelm, now called Durham, 
where he gave rise both to the city and cathedral church. 
Before his arrival, Dunelm consisted only of a few scat* 
tered huts or cottages. The spot of ground was covered 
with a very thick wood, which the bishop, with the assist- 
ance of the people that followed him, made a 'shift to cut 
down, and clear away. After he had assigned the people 
jtheir respective habitations by lot, he began to build a 
church of stone ; which he finished in three years time, 
and dedicated to St. Cuthbert, placing in it the body of 
that saint. From that time the episcopal see, which had 
been placed at Lindisfarne by bishop Aidan (see AIDA^'), re- 
mained fixed at Durham ; and the cathedral church was soon 
endowed with considerable benefactions by king Ethel- 
red, and o